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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 24 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    VIEWPOINTS FROM PRACTICING EARLY INTERVENTION IN CHINA
    Mao Yuyan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1992, 24 (03): 3-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 130 )
    Early intervention of preschool-aged mentally retarded childrenin present China is in its infancy. So, it is a great challenge to edu-cators, psychologists and social workers as well. In this paper the author provided her 9 persenal viewpoints onpracticing early intervention in present China.Discussions focus on:the necessity of early intervention in present China; the purpose,rationale, content, style, target, qualified teacher's conditions ofthe intervention;the evaluation of the effectiveness of early inter-vention and the steps of expanding early intervention in presentChina, etc.
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    COMPREHENSION OF AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES WITH QUANTIFIERS
    Miao Xiaochun,Sang Biao Institute of Psychology, East China Normal University Department of Psychology, East China Normal University
    . 1992, 24 (03): 10-17.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 139 )
    This study attempts to explore comprehending of affirmative,negative and double negative sentences with the quantifiers such as"all", "every" and "some". 20 adult subjects were asked to judge asquickly as possible which picture matched the meaning of the sen-tence presented to them. The results showed that the factors influ-encing the subjects' reaction time were: (1)the discrepancy betweenthe surface structure of the sentence and its underlying meaning;(2)the discrepancy between the underlying meaning of the sen-tence and the proposition drawn from the picture; (3)the quanti-fiers used in the sentence. In addition, the results indicated thatverification time for negative sentences is not necessarily longerthan that for affirmative sentences.
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    THE VISUAL PERCEPTION OF MOTION IN DEPTH AND ITS MECHANISMS IN HUMAN VISION
    Zhang Haijun,Xie Lanchang,Dong Taihe,Shi Qingyun,Li Lin Optical Instrument Department, Zhejiang University Centre of Information Science, Beijing University
    . 1992, 24 (03): 18-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 172 )
    The human visual perception of motion in depth is based on thespecific sensitivities to two-dimensional relative motion on the fron-tal plane. Several psychophysical experiments were carried out todisclose the mathematical and physiological aspects of these sensitivi-ties. It was concluded that the human visual system contains neu-rons tuned to relative motion on the frontal plane, which formedthe mechanisms of recovering motion in depth. The psychophysicaland physiological evidences were shown for the monocular and bino-cular perceptions of motion in depth. The difference between visualperceptions of motion in depth of humans and those of insects werealso discussed.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PERCEPTUAL CENTER OF TONES IN STANDARD CHINESE
    Yang Shunan Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    . 1992, 24 (03): 25-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    A Fo-contour of syllibIes in Standard Chinese is generally divi-ded into the onset-curving segment, tone segment and offset-cur-ving segment. It is beneficial for teaching speech and developingspeech recognition and speech synthesis systems to investigate theconcrete location and relative length of the tone segment. The lo-cations of the tone segment on Fo-contour is determined on thewhole through a sequence of identification tests using two typesof the continua of synthetic stimuli. The perceptual center oftones(PCT)of a monosyllable, whether its initial is unvoiced or voicedand no matter which type of tone and the pitch range it has, islocated in the middle part of its final. So long as the length of thetone segment is about a half of that of the voiced part, the corres-ponding tones may be perceived.
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    A RE-INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEFT AND RIGHT HANDEDNESS IN THE JINUO NATIONALITY
    Han Zhongtai,Fu Jinzhi Communist Party School of Qujing Prefectural Party Committee Yunan Institute of Educational Sciences
    . 1992, 24 (03): 32-38.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    In 1981 the National Cooperative Research Team for Handednesshad for the first time investigatied the Jinuo distribution of leftand right handedness. Results showed that the Jinuos were all ex-treme right-handed which is a very special conclusion. To verifythis conclusion, in 1989 we once more investigatied the Jinuo'sdistribution of left and right handedness, it was found that the Jinu-os were not all extreme right-handed, consisting of ordinary righthandedness, mixed handedness, and left. handedness, and even1.79% extreme left handedness among them. The Jinuo's left han-dedness rate is highor than the Han's, but the rate is close to other minorities. This might have connection to their traditionalculture. The left handedness rate of Jinou leans on the high side.Therefore the investigation results by the National CooperativeResearch Team for Handedness in 1981 must be corrected.
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    THE INTERACTION AETWEEN LOCUS OF CONTROL AND SELFMONITORING IN PREDICTING RESPONSES TO SITUATIONAL PRESSURES
    Li Feng,Zhang De,Zhang Yulian Department of Education, Northeast Normal University
    . 1992, 24 (03): 39-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 191 )
    According to Rotter's social learning theory, which infers thatbehavior is a function of expectancy and reinforcement value in aspecific situation, self-monitoring, which we considered a measureof reinforcement value, was hypothesized in the present study tointeract with locus of control in predicting responses to situationalpressures. Results indicated that the LOC×SM interaction is func-tioning in four situations described in the questionnaire (statisti-cally significant in one situation) .Specifically,the responses of lowself-monitors are more effectively predicted from LOC scores thanthose of high self-monitors.
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    ON THE CONFORMITY OF MORAL JUDGEMENT AMONG CHILDREN AGED FROM 8 TO 12
    Cen Guozhen,Liu Jinghai,Sheng Yimin,Xu Shaoqiu Shanghai Teacher's University Zhabei Education Institute, Shanghai
    . 1992, 24 (03): 45-53.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 516 )
    Up to now, the content of research on conformity is limited inthe respect of cognition of sensa-Lions and perceptions. Subjects inthis research on children's moral cognitive development were requ-ested to make their judgements individually and respectively. Sothere is necessity to explore the influence of conformity on children'smoral judgement under group situations. In our research, four group situations were set up, three moralstories after the pattern of "result vs. intention" were used as ex-perimental materials, and 353 subjects aged 8, 10 and 12 took part. The results show: the conformity of children's moral judgementoccurred obviously under the influence in all the four group situa-tions. Among them, the situation of adult-authoritativeness groupis the most powerful, next the small group and peer-leader group,and the mini group the least.
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    INITIAL STUDY OF YAN YUAN'S EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEAS
    Zou Dayan Educational Department, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang
    . 1992, 24 (03): 54-59.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 102 )
    This article is a prelinlinary study of Yan Yuan's educationalpsychological ideas. (1)Yan Yuan's basic concepts of educational psyc-hological ideas. (2)Yan Yuan's psychological ideas of moral educa-tion. (3)Yan Yuan's ideas on psychology of learning.
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    THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SENSITIVITY OF McCOLLOUGH EFFECT ON BOTH CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
    Zhao Li Dalian Normal College
    . 1992, 24 (03): 60-65.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 88 )
    Through the comparative experiment of the sensitivity of McCol-lough effect on both cerebral hemispheres, this study explored oneof the latest developments of psychology——a new way of asy-mmetry of brain function. The experiment used normal right-handed people to serve as sub-jects. The technology used in this experiment was one sided fieldof vision by which the director could control the subjects' eyemovement and find out the difference between both cerebal hemis-pheres in the process of forming McCollough effect and other conn-ected problems. Some reliable materials were obtained. The reaults show that:1. The sesitivity of both cerebral hemispheres to McCollough effect is different. The sensitivity of the right hemisphere is higher than that of the left one(P<0.05).2. The different values of McCollough effect hue of two-side field of vision of the subjects is remarkably different in conditions of two-eye adaptation and one-eye adaptation(p 0.05).3. The different values between left and right visual fields of the male subjects is higher than that of the female subjects with no remarkable difference (0.05 P 0.10).4. Under same conditions, female subjects produce stronger McColl- ?ugh effect more easily than male subjects
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    A REPERTORY GRID METHOD STUDY ON COGNITIVE TACTICS OF SENIOR TECHNICIANS
    Shi Kan,Xu Liancang,Xue Tao Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing Watch Factory
    . 1992, 24 (03): 66-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 103 )
    In this study the cognitive tactics of senior technicians in man-machine system was proposed using repertory grid method. It wasfound that: 1) In the cognitive structures of sinior technicians thereare cognitive maps which can diagnose the complex factors, andthe cognitive maps made up of breakdowns and cause characteristicswith specially designated patterns. They are crucial effects inthe training of complex skill. 2) The repertory grid, method is aneffective method in functional simulation of experts' cognitivestructures. This method not only gives new information on theexperts'heuristic tactics with its objective projection, exploring theunknown cognitive structures, but also has impressive applied pros-pects in the training and assessment of complex skill.
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    A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES
    Cheng Zaohuo,Gong Yaoxian,Xie Yaning Hunan Medical University
    . 1992, 24 (03): 75-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 226 )
    This paper deals with a comparative study of the neuropsycholo-gical characteristics between two groups of primary school studentsaged 9 to 14 years, the difficulty group (DG) consists of fifty pu-pils with lower achievement, the control group(CG) consists of fif-ty peers with higher achievement. Each of them was examined bythe Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery for MiddleChildren-Revised in China (HRB(m)-RC), the Wechsler MemoryScale-Revised in China(WMS-RC), the Wechsler Intelligence Scalefor Children-Chinese Revision (WISC-CR), and the Sorting Testmeasured abstract thinking and conceptual formation. The performa-nces of the two groups were compared on thirty-six subtests. Theresults were presented as follows: (1) the performances of all testsin DG were inferior to those in CG, (2) the subtest scores relatedto verbal comprehesion, problem solving-reasoning, and long-termmemory in DG children were obviously lower than those in CGchildren, (3) DG children had dull intelligence,with PIQ higher thanVIQ, (4) Pearson's product moment correlation analysis showed asignificant positive correlation between neuropsychological perfor-mances and academic achievement. The neuropsychological charact-eristics of DG children and relationship between pupils' learningabilities and test scores were discussed.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENT'S ABILITY TO DIFFERENTIATE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ADULTS
    Xu Xiangdong,Yang Jingquan,Lu Shuyun Oasis Hospital, Shihezi, Xinjiang
    . 1992, 24 (03): 83-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 419 )
    In this study the ability to differentiate facial expressions ofadults was compared between schizophrenics and normal subjects. Theresults suggested that schizophrenic patients failed to differentiatefacial expressiens. Patients with negative symptoms and long ill-ness course were likely to present such disability.The disability is akind of affective disorder and it is a negative symptom in nature.
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    THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF PERSONAL DESIGN: STUDY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERSONAL LEVEL
    Wang Dengfeng,Chen Zhonggene Department of Psychology, Peking University
    . 1992, 24 (03): 92-99.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    This article,based on the relative empirical evidences,introducedthe theoretical bases and experimental designs of personal design.Onthis basis the importance of personal design in clinical research wasalso introduced, and a practical procedure was reviewed. Personaldesign allows further analysis of personal values for different vari-ables in personal level.It provides a solution to some difficulties inclinical research when dealing with individual differences. Limita-tions of correlational research were also discussed.
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    THE FORMATION OF LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN DIFFERENT HIPPOCAMPAL AREAS DURING LEARNING
    Yang Ming,Liu Wenxiao,Xu Shitong,Ou Yingqi Neurophysiology Research Laboratory, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631
    . 1992, 24 (03): 100-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    The changes and their interrelations of synaptic transmission inboth CA_3 and dentate gyrus(DG) of rat hippocampus during discri-mination learning were observed in order to investigate the charac-teristics and mutual relations of the changes of synaptic plasticityin different hippocampal areas with the processing of learning. (1)Population spike(PS) in the CA_3 and DG were simultaneously elici-ted by stimulating the perforant path (PP). The amplitude of PSincreased in response to a series of increases of the stimulation in-tensity, but the increase of amplitude of PS in the DG was lessthan in the CA_3 area. (2)The learning-dependent long-term potentia-tions(LDLTP) in the CA_3 and DG were induced simultaneously withthe acquisition of the behavioral response. There was a significantpositive relation during the developing of LDLTP in the two areas(R=0.9806, p<0.01). Both maximal level of amplitude of PS in CA_3and DG preceded those of the correct behavior response. Resultsshowed that LDLTP of the synaptic transmission of PP-CA_3 andPP-DG were simultaneously produced during the discrimination learn-ing, and provided a new way to record and analyse at the same time thechanges and their correlation of synaptic transmission between thetwo hippocampal areas under the situation of chronic recording.
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    IDEAS ON THE INTEGRAL REFORM OF TEACHING MATERIALS OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A COMMON COURSE IN NORMAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN CHINA
    Lu Jiamei Shoughai Normal University
    . 1992, 24 (03): 106-113.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    On the basis of practice, the author puts forward four ideas onthe reform of teaching materials of psychology as a common coursein normal colleges and universities in order that the teaching mate-rials will possess strong Chinese characteristics in the new historicalperiod: (1)in terms of the system of teaching materials, the basiccontents of psychology should center around the students' futurework on teaching and educating in order, to form an organic "double-mainline structure"; (2)in terms of the contents of teaching ma-terials, the "three features" should be stressed——the pragmaticalfeature which emphasizes the guidance of psychological contents inmiddle-school teaching and educational practice which brings aboutthe to-the-point feature of theoretical exposition and operationalfeature of practical application; (3) in terms of the organization ofteaching materials, the "three-stage formula" of phenomenon-law-application should be adopted to suit the students' pattern of cogni-tion; (4) in terms of the writing and compiling of teaching mate-rials, the "combination of three sides" (psychologists, teachers ofpsychology and outstanding middle-school teachers) should be advo-cated.
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