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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1992, Volume 24 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    A STUDY ON THE ACQUISITION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS BY CHINESE-SPEAKING CHILDREN
    Xu Zhengyuan,Min Ruifang Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    1992, 24 (04):  3-11. 
    Abstract ( 818 )  
    Two series of studies were undertaken. Study I, using longitudinal method,the speeches of five 0.5-3(1/2) yrs old children were recorded. The resultsindicated: Chinese-speaking children master personal pronouns step by step inthe period of 1(1/2)-3(1/2) yrs old. The order of mastering is from "I" "You" to "He".Study 2 investigated twenty eight 3-4 yrs old children's acquisition of per-sonal pronouns (singular number) by experimental method. The results showed:In the process of acquisition of personal pronouns,the fourth year is a rapidlydeveloping period. In this age children have a good command of personalpronouns. On the basis of the above research, the characterisitics and laws ofchild's acquisition of personal pronouns and language universalitywere exploredand generalized.
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    STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE READING ABILITY STRUCTURE OF MIDDLE AND PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Mo Lei Bouth China Normal University, Beijing Laboratory of Cognitive Science
    1992, 24 (04):  12-20. 
    Abstract ( 885 )  
    This research analyzed the ability structure of reading Chinese by studentsfrom three age levels: sixth grade primary school, third grade junior highschool and third grade senior high school, revealing the characteristics of thedevelopment of this ability structure. The results showed that the ability str-ucture of Chinese reading varied with age. On the one hand, the number offactors increased progressively, on the other hand, the relative status of morecomplicated and more advanced factors strengthened continuously. From theresult it is pointed out that this differs from the decomposing pattern whichWestern psychologists have put forward, the factors of the ability structure in-crease displays a "replacing pattern" in style, that is, the course is accompli-shed by new factors replacing original basic ability factors to influence theactivity.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATION STRATEGY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS
    Pang Hong Hangzhou University
    1992, 24 (04):  21-28. 
    Abstract ( 758 )  
    The organization strategy of first, third and fifth grade pupils was stu-died. The results showed: 1.There were two major periods in the development of organization stra-tegy in primary school pupils. The first was production deficiency period.Thesecond was mature strategy application period. The first period could be devi-ded into two subperiods. One was coupled with mediational deficiency. Theother was not. 2.There were three reasons for the subject's production deficiency: (1)Lack of awareness of the functional relationship between memory means andgoals; (2) Lack of clear understanding of the importance of strategy and pre-ference for familiar and simple strategies that proved to be less effective; (3)Relatively poor knowledge base of the memory materials.
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    RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARM AND LEG MQVING RESPONSE OF CHINESE YOUNGSTERS AND YOUTH
    Li Ning South China Normal University
    1992, 24 (04):  29-37. 
    Abstract ( 781 )  
    Research was made on the developmental characteristics of the harmoniousresponse of arm and leg movement of 1004 Chinese youngsters by cross-sectio-nal method. The result shows that the speed of the moving response improvedfrom 7 years old till 15, fluctuating from 15 years old till 22. The accuracyof the response improving,obviously from 7 years old till 11, fluctuating from12 to 22. Under the effect of gymnastic training, the development of theresponse speede up from 9 years old till 12, while the fluctuation of the de-velopment from 12 years old till 22 decreased.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CHARACTERS OF DIFFERENT COGNITIVE PERFORMANCES IN AGING
    Sun Fuli,Yan Yiai,Lei Shuping,Jiao Yan,Li Deming Xiyuan Hospital, Academg of Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1992, 24 (04):  38-44. 
    Abstract ( 872 )  
    A comparative study on the characters of six cognitive performances inaging was accomplished by using the method of man-computer interaction in 506subjects of 46 to 75 years old. The results indicated: 1) The performancespeeds in arithmetic and symble-digit tasks slowed rapidly with increased age,but the test records inl both the tasks declined slowly in aging. Thus, thechanges of performance speed was the major character in arithmetic and symble-digit tasks in aging. 2) The performance speeds in digit discrimination andcount tasks slowed slowly with age. 3) The test records in sequence re-membering of two digit and recognition of meaningless figure tasks declinedrapidly with age, but the former was more obvious than the latter. 4) Theindividul differences in performance speed and test record tended to increasein aging.
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    A STUDY ON THE UNIT OF PROCESSING IN RECOGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Zhang Wutian,Feng Ling Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    1992, 24 (04):  45-51. 
    Abstract ( 1085 )  
    The study on eye movement indicated that recognition time for Chinesecharacters is mediated by the number of strokes. The unitization model statedthat identification of familiar words was unrelated to the processing of com-ponent letter of a word. Using different characters which involved differentnumber of strokes and parts in contrast with simple characters and few strokecharacters, the present research studied the problem of processing unit forChinese characters of high and low frequency in three experiments. The resultsindicated that the number of strokes or the number of parts in characters havea significant effect on the recognition time for high frequency characters. Butthe significant effect of low frequency characters on the naming time only ap-peared under the condition when the number of strokes and the number ofparts both have some distinction. The result does not support the Models men-tioned above. A synthetical model of multiple component involving strokes andparts would be reasonable in explaining the results.
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    A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR COGNITIVE EXPERIMENTS: CHINESE NORM FOR A SET OF PICTURES AND A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR EXPERIMENTS
    Shu Hua,Zhang Houcan,Li Wenling,Wang Aiping,Chu Qiren Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University
    1992, 24 (04):  52-58. 
    Abstract ( 903 )  
    This work includes two parts: 1, To set up a Chinese norm for a set ofpictures. 2. To make a computer program for picture-word experiments whichcan run recognition,priming,matching and Stroop tasks. In order to get highprecisiou in experiments, several techniques were used to solve problemssuch as immediate exposure and immediate disappearance of stimuli, random-ized presentation of stimuli and precision of reaction time.
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    PROSODIC CUES FOR LEXICAL PARSING
    Yang Yufang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    1992, 24 (04):  59-65. 
    Abstract ( 802 )  
    This is an experiment report on lexical parsing of Chinese utterances, Us-ing as stimuli reiterant and synthesized sentences'of six-syllable Chinese shortutterances, the roles in lexical parsing were investigated of such prosodic cuesas distribution patterns of syllable durations, fundamental frequency and inten-sity curves of utterances, and forment transitions of syllables. It was found thatlisteners could identify with high accuracy sentence structures and parse wordsin short utterances without any segment and semantic information, and thatamong the prosodic cues possibly usefull for lexical parsing the most importantwere distribution patterns of syllable durations and fundamental frequencycurves of utterances.
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    MONKEY'S ERPs DURING IDENTIFICATION OF FAMILIAR VOICES
    Shen Zheng,Lin Shuzhi,Wu Pengfei Department of Psychology, Research Center for Information Science, Peking University
    1992, 24 (04):  66-71. 
    Abstract ( 854 )  
    Event-related potentials making discrimination between familiar and unfa-miliar voices of persons or monkeys were studied in four male monkeys(Maca-ca Mulatta). The familiar monkey's voice "er" evoked ERPs in four monkeyshigher N_(100) amplitude, in the left parietal area, longer Iatency of P_(200) wavein the left temporal area, shorter latency of P_(300) wave in the temporal areas.Familiar person's voice "pa" evoked shorter latency of P_(200) wave in the pari-etal areas. In comparing ERPs evoked by familiar voices between monkey andperson, familiar monkey's voice elicited higher amplitudes of P_(300) in the righttemporal and N_(100) in parietal areas, shorter latency of P_(200), P_(300) in the rightparietal area.No differences were noticed among ERPs by the voices displayedwith different probabilities nor any differences in ERPs evoked by voices ofunfamiliar monkey "er" and person's "pa".
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    EVOKED BRAIN POTENTIAL STUDIES OF EMOTIONAL AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES: EMOTIONAL ADAPTATION HYPOTHESIS
    Wang Xiaotian,Victor S. Johnston,Juan C. Oliver Departmett of Psychology New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003 U. S. A.
    1992, 24 (04):  72-80. 
    Abstract ( 1341 )  
    The current study examined subjective ratings and evoked brain potentialsto the emotional value of picture stimuli collected from 30 female subjects indifferent hormonal phases of their menstrual cycles. The emotional value of thestimuli was manipulated by five slide categories, the content were ordinarypeople, babies, dermatological cases, male models and female models. It wasfound that only the P3 component of evoked brain potentials varied with theemotional value of the stimuli and hormonal phases. The picture categoriesthat were rated as pleasant and unpleasant (babies and dermatological cases)elicited significantly larger P3 amplitude than the neutral category (ordinarypeople). The P3 responses to babies and male models in high progesterone ph-ase were larger than those in low progesterone phase. High progesterone phase wasalso associated with a decrease in the rating scores on eroticism of all slidecategories. An increase in the pleasantness of all categories was evident whenestrogen levels were high. The above experimental results suggest that P3component is sensitive to the emotional value of a stimulus and reflects theadaptive changes in cognitive and emotional processes regulated by physiologi-cal status.
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    SPATIAL COGNITIVE ABILITY IN RATS: EFFECT OF LESIONS IN HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION AND PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND CAUDATE-PUTAMEN
    Sui Nan,Chen Shuangshuang,Kuang Peizi Institute of Psychology, Aoademia Sinica, Beijing
    1992, 24 (04):  81-87. 
    Abstract ( 813 )  
    The effects of hippocampal formation (HF) and prefrontal cortex(PFC)andcaudate-putamen (CP) lesions in rats were investigated in the Morris maze forthe aquisition and retention of spatial cognitive tasks. The results indicate thatboth subjects with HF and PFC lesions lead to spatial cognitive deficits. How-ever, the former usually used paratic strategeies of "no mapping"which weredifferent from the taxic strategies used by the latter. The different strategiessuggest that HF and PFC are in different levels of the spatial cognitive system,the role of HF is more important than that of PFC. The spatial cognitive abi-lity of rats was not affected by CP lesions, which indicates functional differ-entiational tendency. of homology in mammal and birds.
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    PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE ADVERTISEMENT COPY EVALUATION SYSTEM
    Ma Mouchao,Chen Yiwen,Zhang Yufeng,Jin Guiqi,Jia Yubin,He Qiyuan,Li Xin,Cheng Zhuangzhuang,Gong Qinggang,Zeng Xianshan,He Shuzhen Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science Chinese Advertisement Association Lutong Adertising Compang, Weifang, Sha
    1992, 24 (04):  88-94. 
    Abstract ( 1472 )  
    An investigation was made from 1990 to 1991 on the general evaluation ofnewspaper and TV advertisements in many cities in China. Basic evaluationfactors and the relative importance were obtained as follows: Credibility(.22), attractiveness (.21), Suitability (.17), Cognition (.16), fluency(.13),and Necessary information (.11), (the former five factors are common for bo-th mediums, the last one for the newspaper Ad.). A mathematical modelof the advertisement evaluation was also established through the experiment: B=∑a_k·r_(kj)
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    DO WE NEED TO MAKE K CORRECTIONS ONTO SCORES OF SCALE 8 AND SCALE 9 OF THE MMPI CHINESE NORMS?
    Zhang Jianxin Institute of Psychology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012
    1992, 24 (04):  95-101. 
    Abstract ( 857 )  
    This study is to provide an empirical criteria for Chinese MMPI users tomake decision on the problem of whether or not the MMPI Chinese normswith K correction should be used in their clinical practice. All data of K, Scand Ma scales were from 912 subjects, among whom 345 were schizoids, 111maniacs and 456 normal persons. The traditional methods of"half sum of squ-ares" and the freqnency analysis were used in this study. The results showed:a) Sc scale (Scale 8) raw score should be added with 1.0 K scale score; b)it is better to have 0.2K scale score added into Ma scale (Scale 9) than notin terms of the largest differential ratio value and the best hitting rate achie-ved. So this study suggests that we should use the K corrected MMPI Chinesenorms.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF LEARNING
    Wen Xialing,Xu Shitong,Ou Yingqi Neurophysiology Research Laboratory, South China Normal University, Guangzhou
    1992, 24 (04):  102-104. 
    Abstract ( 460 )  
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    OPINION AND TENTATIVE IDEA ON THE REFORMATION OF COMMON PSYCHOLOGY COURSE IN HIGHER NORMAL COLLEGE
    Feng Jiangping Education Department, Hebei Normal University
    1992, 24 (04):  105-108. 
    Abstract ( 509 )  
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