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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 March 1993, Volume 25 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    SOCIAL COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF FRIENDSHIP IN PRIMARY SCHOOL JUNIOR CLASS CHILDREN
    Fang Fuxi,Fang Ge,Wang Wenzhong Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1993, 25 (01):  3-10. 
    Abstract ( 1008 )  
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the social cognitive development on understanding friendship by interviewing primary school junior classchildren (7 and 9-yr-olds) with a dilemma story of promise keeping. Theresults showed: The development of social-moral thinking of children followeda regular pattern: The levels increased continually with age and characterizedwith qualitative hierarchical structures. The findings differred from R. L.Selman's and L. Kohlberg's conclusion that the dominant motivations ofchildren's behaviors in the lower levels of social moral reasonihg were not sel-fish individualism but developed more and more responsibilities and concern forothers. Those divergence may be rooted in the properties of Chinese educa-tion and the effects of traditional culture on the development of children.
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    STUDY ON THE COMPARISON OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY IN NORMAL HEARING AND DEAF PEOPLE
    Wang Naiyi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1993, 25 (01):  11-18. 
    Abstract ( 936 )  
    Using visually serial presentation and the method of immediate free recall,the acquisition of short-term memory in normal hearing and deaf peoplefor seven types of similar Chinese lists intensified respectively were compared.In general, the total average scores of the seven lists showed no significantdifferences in the two groups, but in terms of the effects of every coded di-mensions in short-term memory processing, both groups showed that the ef-fects of the formal and sementic code were most intense and the effects of thephonetic code was relatively weaker. The two groups also showed similarlyserialposition effect, but the capacity of the secondary memory in deaf pe-ople was obviously less than that of the normal hearing group, however, thecapacity of primary memory showed nonsignificant differences in both groups.The possible mechanisms were also discussed.
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    THE EFFECTS OF THE SPEAKER AND CONTEXTUAL VARIATION ON TONE PERCEPTION
    Yang Yufang,Liang Xiaoguang Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1993, 25 (01):  19-25. 
    Abstract ( 932 )  
    Three experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of normalization of the speaker and contextual compensation on tone perception, usingthe paradigm of Garner speed classification. It was shown that the speakerand contextual variation produced significant Garner Interference (GI) withtone perception,and tone variation produced the same degree of GI with voicediscrimination, when the speaker and context variated in an experimentbolck, GI indexed by reaction time was approximately equal to the sum ofGI produced soparately by the speaker and contextual variation, GI indexedby percentage of correct responses was greater than the sum of GI by the twovariations.
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    THE COMPARISON OF RECOGNIZING PICTURES, CHINESE CHARACTERS AND ENGLISH WORDS
    Li Wen1ing,Zhang Houcan Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University
    1993, 25 (01):  26-32. 
    Abstract ( 934 )  
    Exploring recognitive processing mechanism with different kinds of materials is one of the main approaches used in the study of cognitive psycho-logy. The paper presents two experiments. In the first one the differences ofpictures, Chinese characters and English words in naming and category veri-fication task was compared. The results show that naming speed of Englishwords turns to be the fastest, that of pictures the slowest, and Chinese cha-racters come in between, but the order of processing inverts in category ver-ification. The second experiment concentrates on representational structureand processing characteristics of verbal and fionverbal information. Four kindsof combinational materials are used in naming agreement and semantic catego-ry verification tasks. The combinational forms of materials are picture-pictu-re, picture-word, word-picture and word-word. The results show that responseof word-featured pairs(w-w, w-p) is quicker than that of picture-featuredpairs (p-p, p-w) in naming agreement task, but the results of semantic verification tasks show that response of picture featured pairs is quicker. Suchresults are difficult to be explained by the dual-code theory and common codetheory. The verbal symbols gain access to their phonetic codes directly, butindirectly to their semantic codes. The nonverbal information i. e. pictures,has access opposite to that of the verbal ones. The difference between pictu-re-featured pairs and wordfeatured pairs results from some kind of strategyused by the subjects.
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    SOCIETAL NORMS ABOUT WORKING OF BEIJING WORKERS: A CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
    Wang Erping,Xu Liancang Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1993, 25 (01):  33-40. 
    Abstract ( 868 )  
    Data on societal norms about working (SNW) were collected from 905 respondents in Beijing area through a stratified sampling by using the Mean-ing of Working Questionnaire and then compared with the data from other 8nations. Results reveal the obligation orientation charateristic of Chinese wor-kers. A hypothesis of SNW continuity is pointed out to query the validityof the methodology used by MOW international Research Team.
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    AGE DIFFERENCES ON THE INFLUENCE OF DIVIDED ATTENTION ON MEMORY PERFORMANCE
    Xu Shulian,Wu Zhiping Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1993, 25 (01):  41-46. 
    Abstract ( 885 )  
    The purpose of this study was to explore the age differences of young adults and the elderly on the effects of the divided attention of memory task.The divided attention performance was remembering directed memory andlogical story while making judgement of simple arithmatic items simultane-ously. The results indicated that: (1) under the above situations, the oldergroup's performances were more penalized than that of their younger coun-terparts, age differences of memory were amplified by the divided attentioncondition; (2) the relative divided attention costs (DA costs) were signific-antly affected by the stimulus conditions: the segmental score of story belong-ing to the episodic memory got the biggest DA cost, the meaningful scoreof story similar to the semantic memory got the least DA cost, and directedmemory, in the midst of them, got the middle DA cost; (3) the effects ofdivided attention on memory had adaptive phenomena, the effect during thesecond time was smaller than that of the first time
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    A CASE-CONTROL STUDY ON PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK FACTORS OF PSORIASIS-NON-CONDITIONAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS AND PATH ANALYSIS
    Miao Danmin,Wang Huifang, et al. Psychology Section, the Fourth Military Medical University
    1993, 25 (01):  47-50. 
    Abstract ( 966 )  
    A case-control study has been carried out on 97 vulgaris psoriasis patients as experimental group compared with 71 dermatological patients withoutpsoriasis as the control group, they were matched for age, sex, occupation,educational level, economic status and residental conditions. 36 variables, con-sisting of 26 psychosocial ratings (MMPI, EPQ, SCL-90 and LES), 7 bio-logical indices and 3 environmental factors, had (Relative Risk), and then14 variables were confirmed as the risk factors on developing psoriasis, TheNon-conditional Logistic Regression Analysis showed that 8 of the 14 varia-bles were associated with developing psoriasis significantly. According topsychology and dermatology knowledge, the causal structure recursive modelof Path Analysis with 8 risk factors for psoriasis was set up. The resultsindicated that 5 psychosocial factors had direct or indirect influence on theoccurence of psoriasis respectively. The path diagram drew the relation ofcoopetation effects among 8 risk factors.
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    EXPERIMENT ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CONCEPTS IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES IN SEMANTIC NETWORK
    Zhang Yu,Peng Danling National Institute of Education Beijing Normal University
    1993, 25 (01):  51-59. 
    Abstract ( 886 )  
    The present study included three experiments. In the first experiment,the semantic processing time of metaphor was compared with that of catego-ry sentences in the condition of mixed presentation. The result indicatedthat the RT of high comprehensible metaphor was not longer than that of ca-tegory sentences. In the second experiment, they were again compared under the condition of grouping presentation with similar results. These two expe-riments also indicated that there was no inevitable relationship between theconnection level of category concepts and the semantic processing time.In thethird experiment, the priming effect of metaphor on the three kinds of con-cepts was compared, the result indicated that metaphor had obvious primingeffect on its semantic feature concept. Based on the results of the three ex-periments, a new semantic network model named feature connection modelwas suggested.
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    METHOD OF POLE-SHAPED FIGURE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRIVERS (DIGEST)
    Han Yuchang,Chen Tuyan Liaoning Normal University
    1993, 25 (01):  60-66. 
    Abstract ( 904 )  
    In the assessment of psychological characteristics of drivers, we adopted scheme analysis method in mathematics and took advantage of sketch to repre-sent 17 qualities data acquired in the tests with 19 variables of figure. Inthis way,the psychological qualities of each individual are brought into a con-crete and vivid picture leading to systematic analysis.
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    THE DIFFERENCES IN ESTIMATION OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF INTELLECTUALS AMONG THREE KINDS OF PEOPLE IN ENTERPRISES
    Chen Ziguang Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University
    1993, 25 (01):  67-71. 
    Abstract ( 886 )  
    The differences in estimation of interpersonal relations, the importance of intellectuals, and the level of role playing in intellectuals between techni-cians and the leaders of their enterprises were studied in this paper. The results showed that there were significant differences in two areas: (1) the estimation of interpersonal relations; and (2) the estimation of the importance of intellectuals Some suggestions are given for further research.
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    RESEARCH ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS FOR SPORT OF CHINESE ELITE ATHLETES
    Qiu Zhuoying,Qiu Yijun,Bei Enbo,Qiu Zhuojun,Craig A Wrisbery,Liu Zhan,Ke Ming Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, Wuhan, 430070 Department of Human Performance and Sport Studies, Univ
    1993, 25 (01):  72-78. 
    Abstract ( 1813 )  
    In order to study the psychological skills in sports of Chinese elite athletes, 151 Chinese elite athletes(98 males, 53 females) were tested by using theChinese version of the Psychological Skills Inventory For Sport Format-5(PSIS-C). The results indicated that: 1. Chinese elite athletes have initiallyacquired the six psychological skills for sports (i. e.: anxiety control (AX),concentration (CC), confidence (CF), mental preparation (MP), motivation(MV), team emphasis (TM). They are superior in CC and TM, but inade-quate in MP; 2. There are no significant differences in all six psychologicalskills except in MV among events and between both genders.This means thatall athletes have mastered the six skills; 3. There are significant differencesof psychological skills between elite and non-elite athletes in AX for maleand in AX, CF and CC for female. Elite athletes are superior to non-eliteathletes in these skills; 4. In light of the development and the structure ofthe psychological skills of Chinese elite athletes,they can be divided into four groups: (1) poor-skilled MP group, (2) poor-skilled CF group, (3) highly-skilled CF-TM group, and (4) highly-skilled CF-CC group.
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    LIMITS ON THE DISCRIMINATION FOR THE NUMBER OF SIDES OF POLYGONS IN RHESUS MONKEYS
    Lin Guobin,Liu Xuemei,Feng Du Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    1993, 25 (01):  79-83. 
    Abstract ( 966 )  
    Two monkeys were trained successfully to judge the numerousness of sides of polygons. In experiment 1, with the number of sides or angles of regularpolygons as numerousness discriminada,the best performance of the first mon-key was to meet the criterion (two successive sessions of 80% or more cor-rect) on the task 7 vs. 8 sides, the 2nd best was on the 6 vs. 7 task. Inexperiment 2, with the number of sides or angles of irregular polygons ascues, the best performance of the first monkey was on the 6 vs. 7 task, the2nd best was on the 5 vs 6 task
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    A TENTATIVE RESEARCH ON THOUGHTS OF CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN IDEALIST PHILOSOPHY OF SONG DYNASTY
    Zhu Yongxin,Ai Yongming Suzhou University
    1993, 25 (01):  84-88. 
    Abstract ( 926 )  
    Cheng-Zhu's idealist philosophy is a school of thought in the Song-Ming idealist philosophy and is the ruling thought in the latter half of Chinese feu-dal society. The thoughts of criminal psychology is a part of the whole sys-tem of thought,and it is representative and influential in criminal psychologyin ancient China. This article explores the thoughts of criminal psychologyof idealist philosophy in three respects: 1) humanity and crime; 2) desireand crime; and 3) punishment and instruction.
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    CORRELATION BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL TRAINING AND THE CEREBRAL SYNAPTIC PROTEINS IN DIFFERENT-AGED MICE
    Cao Jing,Wu Fumei,Xiao Xinsheng,Chen Weisheng,Wang Xinguang Neurobiology Laboratory, Biology Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 Modern Analysis Centre, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008
    1993, 25 (01):  89-93. 
    Abstract ( 1118 )  
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    STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING: A NEW KIND OF STATISTICAL AND RESEARCH METHOD
    Zhang Jianping Institute of Psychology, Academic Sinica
    1993, 25 (01):  94-102. 
    Abstract ( 850 )  
    Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a new kind of statistical technology and research method, which is applicated more and more in the fieldof psychology and social science in recent years. This article introduces theresources, development, basic concepts, analytic procedure, and correspondingcomputer statistical package LISREL based on nonmathematical language.Theauthor considers that SEM has four types of advantages: a. Introduction oflatent variables makes the research more profound; b. Confirmatory analysisfollowing common linear models makes the research more meaningful; c. Com-plex relationships within multivariates are treated appropriately; d. Structu-ral equation models are characterized by invariation in model parameters.Therefore Chinese psychologists should pay attention to SEM.
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    THE SECOND AFRO-ASIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL CONGRESS
    Lin Zongxian Chinese Psychological Society
    1993, 25 (01):  110-112. 
    Abstract ( 460 )  
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