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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 25 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    PHOTOPIC BRIGHTNESS SENSITIVITY Of LOW FREQUENCY INTERMITTENT LIGHTS
    Jiao Shulan,Jing Qicheng,Piao Dazhi,Chen Xiaju Institute of Paychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences Chinese Academy of Metrologica Sinica
    . 1993, 25 (02): 3-7.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    Brightness match of a white light and a low frequency monochromatic light, one of which was time modulated and presented intermittently, wasade by observers on a two-channel optical system. In order to match a con-stant white light, when the light/dark ratio of the monochromatic lightwas 16/4, its average brightness was lower than a constant monochromaticlight, independent of wavelength. This shows that the Talbort-Plateau lawdoes not hold for low frequency high light/dark ratio intermittent monochro-matic lights. The Talbort-Plateau law is effective for intermittent monochr-omatic lights of 650 nm. at low light/dark ratio(4/16 and 8/12).
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    THE EFFECT OF STIMULUS STRUCTURE ON VISUAL LOCALIZATION
    Wang Su,Wang Xiaofei Department of Psychology, Peking University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 8-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    This experiment has been aimed to examine the effect of pattern of dots on visual localization. The stimuli randomly consist of one, two, three orfour dots of different colors, and the stimulus of two, three, four dots arespatially arranged so that they form a pattern of a line, an equilateral tri-angle and a square respectively. A microcomputer is engaged to present sti-muli and record the Ss' response. The brief presentation of an array is foll-bwed by a masking, then the Ss are asked to move mouse cursor to localizejust one dot of the array no matter how many dots had been presented. Ithas been found that when exposure duration is relatively long (250 MS), theaverage errors of localization for one, two, three and four dots are all atthe same level, while the RT at one dot is much shorter than that of multi-ple dots. The result suggests a structure effect in visual localization of mul-tiple dots. However, the effect disappears when exposure duration is redu-ced to 100 MS. The major aspects of the fect are discussed in relation to global and local processing.
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    DIFFERENTIAL-FREQUENCY INTERPRETATION AND VISUAL SUPERIORITY EFFECT IN LONG-TERM MEMORY
    Zhu Ying,Zhou Aibao,Zhang Xiao jun Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 15-21.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    Three experiments which involve the visual superiority effect in longterm memory are reported here. The studied materials in Experiment 1 areChinese Characters, the subjects are Beijing natives and Cantonese. The stu-died materials in Experiment 2 is English, American and Chinese arethe subjects; Experiment 3 has Japanese as the studied materials and Japan-ese as subjects. All of the three experiments include visual vs. auditory in-put mode. The results of these three experiments support the differential-frequency interpretation of the visual superiority effect, i. e. if a set ofwords is encountered more frequently in readings than in speech, then a memo-rial superiority of visually presented words over auditorily presented ones willbe obtained.
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    SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN CHINESE SENTENCE COMPREHENSION
    Peng Danling,Liu Songlin Beijing Normal University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 22-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 133 )
    Two experiments inverstigated the relationship between syntactic and semantic analysis in Chinese sentence comprehension. In experiment I, the sub-ject's self-paced reading paradigm was used and the subjects were asked tomake grammar-decision of each sentence, either plausible or implausible.Theresults showed that the ER difference between plausible and implausible sen-tences both for ambiguous words(AW)and disambiguous words (DAW) weresignificant. But only the RT difference was significant for DAW. In experi-ment 2, the effect of context on sentence comprehersion was studied. Theresults showed that the RT difference between two kinds of sentences underthe conditions with or without context both for AW and DAW were signifi-cant. These results support the weak interaction model of syntactic and se-mantic processing in sentence comprehension.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RETRIEVAL OF FEATURE MEANING OF CHINESE WORDS
    Zhang Jijia,Peng Danling Yantai Teachers College Beijing Normal University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 30-37.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 154 )
    Using the method of semantic judgement, we explored the retrieval of the feature meaning of Chinese words. The subjects were 40 college under-graduates. The results showed that the Yi Fu of Chinese characters playedan important part in the retrieval of defining feature meaning of Chinesewords, but it has no effect on the tetrieval of characteristic feature meaning.The retrieval time of characteristic feature meaning depends on the strengthof the characteristic feature. Word familiarity and semantic distance alsoaffected the retrieval time of the feature meaning of words. The study showsthat Yi Fu has widespread role in semantic retrieval of Chinese words.
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    RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS AND ATTENTION ALLOCATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN SELECTIONS
    Huang Changxin,Zhang Qiji Institute of Space Medico-engineering, Beijing
    . 1993, 25 (02): 38-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 150 )
    In this research, 2100male college students were tested, whose personality dimensions were defined with Eysenck Personality Questionaire, attentionallocations were measured with the computer. Orthogonal design combinedwith group test was taken to study the relationship between personality di-mensions and the attention allocation. The results were summarized as follows: E, E×N, P×E, N had signi-ficant effects on the attention allocation, but P×N, N did not have significanteffects. The order of importance was: E×N→P×E/E→N→P→P×N/error.The figures on the relationship were made. The best combinating state (bestattention allocation) was P1N2E1, the next one was P3N2E1 and the worstone was P2N3E1. The average of the allocation were 0.702,0.680 and 0.309respectively. Moreover, the meaning of the results in selection was also discussed.The individual attention allocation could be estimated through. measuring andanalysing one's personality dimensions, which is of importance in psycholo-gical screening.
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    AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE SOCIAL JUDGEMENTS OF CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS-FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF ATTRIBUTIONAL THEORY
    Lin Zhongmin Psychology Section, Institute of Higher Educational Sciences, Xiamen University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 45-53.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    We tested the responsibility of 5 physical defects and 5 mental or behaviorals disorders in two experiments, concerning the perceived controllabilityand stability, in order to examine the relations between the judgement ofresponsibility, affective response, and helping behaviors. The experimentalfindings revealed that much of the ascriptions and judgements of our collegestudents are similar to American students, but some of the attributionsdiffer. This is a kind of method which can be used in approaching socialjudgements of students in different areas.
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    TARGET-BASED INTERPERSONAL TRUST: CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON AND ITS COGNITIVE MODEL
    Zhang Jianxin,Michael Harris Bond Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica Chinese University of Hong Kong
    . 1993, 25 (02): 54-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 274 )
    This research is aimed at exploring cross-culturally target-specific interpersonal trust and its cognitive processes. Trust was defined in the studyas one's behavioral intention to commit his or her own resources to a targetperson without any immediate reciprocation in order to get what he or sheneeds. It was measured by the Interpersonal Trusting Behavior Scale (ITBS)among subjects from mainland China, Hong Kong, and the United States.20specified target persons, such as Father, Mother, Boy/Girl Friend, Class-mate,Colleague,and Stranger were included as targets of various trusting be-haviors in the study, and these 20 persons were classified in terms of theirITBS scores into three categories: Intimates, Acquaintances and Strangers,by the method of cluster analysis. The three groups of subjects did not differ in their trust toward the in-timate targets, but the mainland Chinese gave more trust toward their acq-uaintances and strangers than did either Hong Kong or American subjects(ps<.05), while the atter two showed no difference between each other.It seems that the variable of industrialization rather than culture has a moresignificant influence on one's level of interpersonal trust. A cognitive model of trust was developed by using multiple regressionbetween the likelihood of trusting behavior and six relevant predictor varia-bles: one's expectancy for positive rewards and negative outcomes,one's eva-luation of the positive and negative outcomes,trustworthiness of a target pers-on, and one's control over the target person. Of these variables two werefound to have most predictive contributions to trust behaviors, regardless ofculture: 1) one's expectancy for outcomes and 2) one's estimation of nega-tive outcomes in enacting trusting behavior toward a specific target person.
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    MIRROR WRITING AT STROKE LEVEL
    Fan Xiaoduo,Xu Zhenlei,Li Xintian Department of Medical Psychology, Beijing Medical University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 63-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    60 right-handed undergraduate students were selected as subjects (30 males and 30 females), the aim of this study was to search their autonomousmirror writing at stroke level in fourteen different writing patterns whenwriting rapidly. All subjects were randomly divided into two groups: Expe-riment group and contrast group (15 males and 15 females in each group).attention disturbance was given to the experiment group. The contents of wri-ting are: Arabic numeral 0-9 and one sentence consisting of thirteen Chinesecharacters. On the basis of the results in this study, a hypothesis of "homeo-stasis system" was proposed. The authors considered that the presentation ofmirror writing was caused by many factors. The important factors include:attention disturbance, feedback regulation of sense, the features of the con-tents of writing etc.
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    COORDINATE ACTIVITIES OF THE TWO HEMISPHERES IN THE RECOGNIZING PROCESS: ANALYSES AND RE-ANALYSIS ON SOME EXPEREMENTAL RESULTS
    Guo Nianfeng,Li Shiqiang Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1993, 25 (02): 70-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 181 )
    Some results accquired in the past in experements on cases of Split-Brain, Right-Hemispherictomy and normal subjects were analysed and re-analysed in this paper. Simultaneously, the problem with the mechanism ofthe coordination activities between the two hemispheres was also discussed. On the basis of our experemental data, we also attempted to suggestthat there may be two possible models of the coordination activities in thebrain. (1) Two hemispheres work in coordination; (2) Two hemisphereswork in interference. After conscientionsly reading a large number of literature, we sensedthat it is inappropriate to take the arithmetic mean of the experemental dataas the indication of the lateral dominance of the brain. According to the ectorial nature of experemental data obtained throughunilateral visual field, we propose that: (1) To make the vector difference of the data from both left and rightvisual fields as the indication of the coordinate level between the two hemi-spheres. (2) To make the angular dfference between the vector value from LVF and RVF as the indication of the relative domination of the right or leftvisual field in a recognizing activity.
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    A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUANTITY AND SPEED OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCES IN AGING
    Li Deming,Sun Fuli,Jiao Yan,Yan Yiai,Li Guiyun Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    . 1993, 25 (02): 79-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    With the method of gradually limiting speed by using a computer, we studied the relationship between quantity and speed of four cognitive tasksin aging. The subjects were 350 healthy volunteers of 46 to 75 years ofage. The results indicated: 1.The shorter the performance time limited bythe computer, the less the quantity accomplished in the four tasks withincreased age. 2. The order in sensitivity of the performance quantity acco-mplished in conditions of speeds limited to age was symbol-digit, arithmetic,count and digit discrimination, which was consistent with the order insensitivity of the performance speed to age.
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    INITIAL WORD ACQUISITION IN CHILDREN AND ITS PROCESS
    Chen Ping,Xu Zhengyuan Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 85-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    We have traced and made research on the process of acquiring early words of two children. The results show that (1) In the development of the child's early pronunciation, syllables grew in quantity, uttered with increa- sing discriminability, producing continuous syllables, gradually developing voluntariness and meaning. (2) The process of acquiring early words is a process in which continuous syllables are gradually substituted by meaningful words. According to the changes of percentages and functions in communi- cation of both continuous syllables and meaningful words, the child's process of acquiring early words may be divided into three stages, each of which is characterized by distinctive properties. (3) The early words of two children have had great accordance in the composition of parts of speech and in 0heir functioning. Besides, on the basis of the above results, in combination of individual differences in children, we also discussed tentatively the factors affecting the child's acquisition of early words and the possible relationships between these factors in such a process.
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    A STUDY ON NATURAL LEARNING OF WORD MEANINGS FROM CONTEXT DURING READING
    Shu Hua,Zhang Houcan,Richard C. Anderson Beijing Normal University, China University of Illinois, U. S. A.
    . 1993, 25 (02): 93-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 152 )
    Natural learning of word meanings from context during reading and the factors which might affect it were investigated in this study. 301 stu-dents in the third- and fifth-grade were asked to read the texts first, thenreceive a test on the knowledge of unfamiliar words from the texts. Sig-nificant effect of learning from context were found in all grades and abilitylevels of the students. The conceptual difficulty of words,the morphologicaltransparency of words, the strength of contextual support, and the amountof children's reading outside of school were found to be significantly relatedto learning from context.
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    A STUDY OF ZINC ON LEARNING MEMORY IN RATS
    Chen Qisheng,Qiu Li,Tian Suping,Gu Luo,Zhang Guangsheng,Dai Yilong,Wang Fengyi Department of Psysiology, Nanjing Medical College Department of Medical Chemistry, Nanjing Traditional Chinese Medicine College
    . 1993, 25 (02): 101-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
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    EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE EDUCATIONAL REFORMATION OF COMM0N COURSE PSYCHOLOGY IN NORMAL COLLEGES
    Quan Chaolu Shandong Normal University
    . 1993, 25 (02): 106-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 70 )
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