Researches on deficits in emotion regulation of depression have mainly focused on the selection and application of emotion-regulation strategies; however, it remains unclear whether it is also related to emotion-regulation goals, i.e., the direction of emotion regulation. Situation selection is an antecedent-focused regulation strategy that is worked before the emotional reactions occur and it can be used as an index of emotional-regulation goals.
In our current study, the event-related potential (ERP) technique was used to investigate the emotion-regulation goals of young adults with depression inclination. Participants were asked to freely select the emotion-inducing scenes in which they want to put themselves and to report their emotional preferences。
ERP results revealed that the amplitudes of Late Positive Potential (LPP) were significantly decreased when viewing the sadness scene in young adults with depression inclination, and they selected to view sadness scene more frequently than healthy young adults. In addition, the ratings of sadness preferences were significantly higher among subjects with depression inclination, while the happiness preferences were lower.
The current results suggest that, compared to the control group, the individuals with depression inclination are more willing to use situation selection to maintain or enhance their sadness rather than weaken it or enhance their happiness. These findings further indicate that emotion regulation goals of depressive subjects may be related to their motivations for selecting emotional stimulus, and provide a new perspective for exploring the causes and mechanisms of emotion regulation deficits in depressive disorders.
Emotion regulation provides an effective way to understand and control our emotion. The lack of emotion regulation skill is viewed as one of the major causes of emotional problems, such as depression, anxiety disorder and others. Researchers have attempted to find an effective way to improve individuals’ emotion regulation ability. In recent years, a promising direction is working memory updating, which is an essential element in the central executive component of working memory. Some studies suggest that working memory updating plays a critical role in modulating the emotion regulation process and that working memory updating training can enhance emotion regulation ability.
Thus, it is possible to improve depression-prone individuals’ emotion regulation ability through working memory training.
In order to examine the effect of working memory training on the emotion regulation ability of depression-prone college students, we used CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and BDI-II-C (Beck Depression Inventory II Chinese) evaluation to recruit 40 depression-prone students and 20 healthy students. The depression-prone students were further divided into training and control groups voluntarily. The depression-prone training group completed a 20-day working memory training program. The depression-prone control group and healthy control group did not take part in the training. Participants’ scores for 2-back and 3-back tasks, Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS) scores, subjective emotion ratings for emotion regulation tasks, and HF (High Frequency Power) HRV (Heart Rate Variability) and LF (Low Frequency Power) HRV measurements for five conditions (resting, neutral, attending, relaxed and regulation) during pre-test and post-test phases were collected and analyzed. Statistical methods, including observation and variance analysis, were used to compare collected data from the three groups.
We found a significant main effect of condition on subjective emotion ratings. Participants’ subjective emotion scores for the regulation and attending conditions were significantly higher than those for the neutral condition. In addition, the emotion scores for the regulation condition were significantly lower than those for the attending condition. As for the HRV data, during the pre-test phase, the depression-prone training and control groups had no significant difference with respect to HF-HRV, and their HF-HRV was significantly lower than that of the healthy control group. As for the ratio of LF/HF-HRV, a significant condition × group interaction was found. Resting LF/HF-HRV of the healthy control group was significantly higher than that of the depression-prone training and control groups. During the post-test phase, there was a significant increase in HF-HRV for the depression-prone training group. HF-HRV for the depression-prone training group became closer to that of the healthy control group and was marginally significantly higher than that of the depression-prone control group. Moreover, HF-HRV for the depression-prone training group was significantly higher with respect to the regulation condition than the resting condition, while there was no difference for the other two groups. During the post-test phase, the ratio of LF/HF-HRV for the depression-prone training group was significantly higher than for the depression-prone control group, and there was no significant difference between the depression-prone training group and the healthy control group.
In conclusion, the HRV data for the depression-prone training group was more similar to that of the healthy control group during the post-test phase than that of the depression-prone control group, which indicated an improvement in emotional regulation ability. For future research, a larger sample size and a more sophisticated experimental paradigm for HRV data collection are needed.
Following the Behavioral Therapy and the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is considered as one of the third wave of behavioral therapies. ACT is based on the relational frame theory, and its therapeutic model includes 6 components (i.e., acceptance, cognitive defusion, self-as-context, committed action, contact with the present moment, values) and psychological flexibility. What is the empirical evidence for these hypothesized components or mechanisms? In recent years, integrating meta-analysis and structural equation modeling, the meta-analytic structural equation model (MASEM) has made it possible to systematically examine the mechanisms of psychotherapy. Compared to the traditional single randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies, the MASEM combines multiple samples to increase statistical power and obtain more robust model estimates. The current study utilized two-stage structural equation modeling (TSSEM) to examine three aspects of the mechanisms of ACT, including: (1) the mediational effects of psychological flexibility and the 6 components, (2) the unique mechanisms of ACT compared to CBT, and (3) the generalizability of these mechanisms to internet-based ACT interventions.
Studies were identified by searching Web of science, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Elsevier, EBSCO, Wiley Online Library from the first available date until November, 2017. We used the search term Acceptance and Commitment Therapy combined with acceptance, cognitive defusion, self-as-context, committed action, contact with the present moment, values, or psychological flexibility. Selection criteria included: (1) adult sample (age > 18), (2) RCT or quasi-experimental design, which measured pre-post change with ACT interventions, (3) quantitative measures of psychological outcomes (clinical or non-clinical) before and after treatment, and (4) quantitative measures of mediational variables at pre and post treatment. Excluding criteria were (1) not having a control group, (2) mixed intervention studies, which integrated ACT with other interventions, or included the Acceptance component but not the complete ACT model, or used CBT with the Acceptance component, and (3) medication treatment as the control group. The metaSEM package in R was used for the TSSEM analysis to examine the mechanisms of ACT.
The literature search resulted in 50 studies, involving issues such as pain disorder, personality disorder, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and work-related burnout among healthy populations. Most studies examined psychological flexibility (k = 39), followed by contact with the present moment (k = 14), acceptance (k = 6), cognitive defusion (k = 9), and values (k = 5), whereas the studies of self-as-context (k = 1) and committed action (k = 1) were excluded from further MASEM analysis due to a low number of publications. Results indicated that (1) the mediational effects of psychological flexibility, acceptance, contact with the present moment, and values were significant, while the effects of cognitive defusion were not significant, (2) the mechanisms of ACT are evident in internet-based interventions, suggesting the generalizability of these mechanisms, and (3) compared to the traditional CBT, the hypothesized mechanisms of ACT have their unique advantages.
Implications for future studies: (1) measure all 6 core mechanisms as comprehensively as possible; (2) focus more on the increase of wellbeing as opposed to improvement of symptoms; (3) use RCT based multiple measurements combined with the experience sampling method; and (4) apply more advanced statistical methods in addition to the traditional mediation statistics.
Collective psychological ownership has been studies as the latest issue in the field of psychology. Existing studies have not yet explored the mechanism of how collective psychological ownership affects team creativity. This study aims to address the above gaps by examining whether, when and how Collective psychological ownership has impacted on team creativity. Based on the Motived Information Processing in Group Model, this paper first empirically explores the mechanism of collective psychological ownership on team creativity. This study theorizes that collective psychological ownership could affect information elaboration, and in turn enhanced team creativity. At the same time, criteria for status promotion would moderated the positive relationship that collective psychological ownership affects team creativity through information elaboration.
In order to test our hypothesized model, we invited 101 Knowledge-based team leaders and their 800 subordinates who came from 16 big companies located in Wuhan, Zhengzhou and Guangzhou to participate in this research survey. In the end, we got 91 leader-followers dyads. As for scale to measure criteria for status promotion, we learned from Liu et al. (2013) measurement method of how to measure criteria for status promotion. Also, we adopte two items which are Adapted from the scale of Pierce et al (2004) to measure collective psychological ownership, as well as other measurements were well-established scales. Confirmatory factor analyses showed satisfactory model fit indices. Inter-rated agreement (Rwg) and intra-class correlation (ICC) value justified the aggregation of team information elaboration, Collective psychological ownership, Relationship conflict, Team Learning Behavior and Team Creativity.
A hierarchical regression analysis method is adopted to test the hypothesized model. Results showed that collective psychology ownership has a positive impact on team creativity, and information elaboration mediates the relationship between collective psychological ownership and team creativity. Criteria for status promotion moderates the relationship between collective psychological ownership and information elaboration. However, criteria for status promotion does not significantly moderates the relationship between collective psychological ownership and team creativity through information elaboration.
The present research makes some contributions to the Existing literature. First, by examining the positive effect of Collective psychological ownership on team creativity, this research proves the effectiveness of Collective psychological ownership beyond past literatures. Second, this study indicates the mediating role of information elaboration as well as its boundary conditions. For the practical implications, this research suggests that strengthening awareness of collective psychological ownership is conducive to the promotion of information elaboration and team creativity, also leaders should realize that criteria for status promotion will lead to different levels of competition, which impacts the relationship between collective psychological ownership and information elaboration.
Although previous studies have found that a conformity effect exists widely, whether people are affected by groups in the evaluation of creative products, the new products with the basic characteristics of novelty and practicability, remains a question to be studied. Compared to artistic products, such products are closely related to real life, reflecting actual creativity, and they are typical creative products in life. Although such products reveal new perspectives for consumers, they also promote a sense of uncertainty. Research shows that when faced with uncertainty, participants are more likely to follow others. Almost all studies on this subject have involved the evaluation of creativity, yet novelty and practicability are two important aspects of creativity. Researchers have studied the characteristics of creativity or creative products; however, creative products can be divided into innovative products and renovative products according to their originality. Therefore, we plan to compare the conformity effect of the two kinds of creative products in the evaluation of novelty and practicability in this study.
An “initial evaluation-conformity induced-delay re-evaluation” paradigm was used in Experiment 1, in which participants were first asked to evaluate the practicability (or novelty) of creative products; then the 200 undergraduates' average rating and the participants' own ratings were revealed. The group rating would be revealed as higher or lower than or similar to the participants' rating. Thirty-minutes later, participants evaluated the task again were entirely unexpected. To further analyze the difference in conformity degree between the two types of creative products, the subjects were required to make a certainty judgment on the novelty and practicality of the product in Experiment 2.
Experiment 1 revealed that participants had decreased their practicability (or novelty) ratings when the group rating was lower than their first rating, increased their practicability (or novelty) ratings when the group rating was higher than their first rating, and did not change their ratings significantly when the group rating was comparable to their first rating. In the evaluation of practicability, it was found that the conformity of variation (the second rating - the first rating) of innovative products was significantly higher than that of renovative products. Nevertheless, in the evaluation of novelty, the two types of creative products had the same conformity of variation. Similarly, Experiment 2 found that the uncertainty of the evaluation of the practicability of the innovative product was greater than that of the renovative product. In the evaluation of the novelty of the two kinds of products, the degree of uncertainty was the same.
In summary, both the evaluation of novelty and the practicability of creative products had a conformity effect. In the practicality evaluation of innovative products, it was easier for respondents to follow others, which might be caused by the greater uncertainty in the practical evaluation of innovative products than in that of renovative products. Nevertheless, in the absence of knowledge of new things, blindly following the crowd is likely to have unimaginable consequences. For long-term development, we should fully understand that innovative products are practical and decide what to do the next.
Prior research has consistently demonstrated that consumers have a negative preference for brands associated with dissociative groups. Conditions under which these preferences might be changed have remained largely unexamined. The current work investigates the effect of threat of freedom on consumers’ preferences for brands associated with dissociative groups. We propose that consumers who experience a high level of threat of freedom will prefer brands associated with dissociative groups. This effect is mediated by a heightened feeling of psychological reactance induced by the high level of threat of freedom. We also examined the moderating role of narrative and self-esteem on the effect.
One pilot experiment and three laboratory experiments were conducted to test our conceptualization. In experiment 1, we assessed the basic effect by which threat of freedom influences consumers’ preferences for brands associated with dissociative groups. In this experiment, we also examined the mediating effect of psychological reactance. In experiment 2, we tested the robustness of the effect found in experiment 1 and investigated the moderating role of means of narrative through a two-by-two inter-subject design (freedom threat: low vs. high and means of narrative: yes vs. no). In experiment 3, we investigated the moderating role of self-esteem through a two-by-two mixed design (freedom threat: low vs. high and self-esteem: low vs. high).
The results of three experiments confirm our predictions. The results of experiment 1 showed that the participants in the high threat-of-freedom group tended to prefer brands associated with dissociative groups. This effect was found to be mediated by psychological reactance. In experiment 2, our findings showed that the influence of threat of freedom on consumers’ preference for brands associated with dissociative groups was replicated when a non-narrative information transmission model was used, and the effect was mitigated when a narrative information transmission mode was used. Finally, experiment 3 confirmed the moderating role of self-esteem by showing that participants with high self-esteem tended to prefer brands associated with dissociative groups when they experienced high vs. low threat of freedom. For participants with low self-esteem, such effects became non-significantly different.
The current research has theoretical and practical contributions in the following aspects. First, it contributes to the literature of dissociative groups by documenting a condition in which consumers’ negative attitude toward brands associated with dissociative groups can be improved. Second, this research extends the current literature on threat of freedom by revealing a preference for brands associated with dissociative groups as a new behavioral downstream. Finally, our findings have clear marketing implications. Certain types of consumers may experience varying levels of threat of freedom. Marketers may consider using actors who represent a dissociative identity in their marketing communications to attract this type of consumers.
Negation is an important language expression that can be used to euphemistically express a speaker's opinions and wishes. Due to the restriction of realistic situational factors, when an individual uses negative statements to describe behaviors that are inconsistent with experience or expectation, that is called negation bias. China has a high power distance culture between individuals, and people in China pay more respect to authority. The power difference makes individual expression different. High-power individuals show low empathy due to having control of more resources and having less dependence on others, and they tend to express themselves directly in communication. Individuals in low-power positions have needs, and they deal with the difference in power when meeting high-power individuals by using euphemisms of negative expression to maintain communication. Differences in negation used in various power relations are untested, and this study aims to explore these differences through experimental design.
In this study, three experiments were used to explore the influence of different power relations on negative negation bias. Experiment 1 used the fixed reaction paradigm: 3 (power relations: high vs low/ low vs high/ no difference) ×2 (words type: affirmative/negative) within subject design, and it investigate subjects’ choice of affirmative and negative sentences. Experiment 2 used the subjective evaluation: 3 (power relations: high vs low/ low vs high/ no difference) ×2 (words type: affirmative/negative) within subject design, and it investigated the degree of suitability for negation in different power relations. In experiment 3, the free reaction paradigm was adopted, calculating the frequency of negation to investigate the influence of different power relations on negative bias
Results show that: (1) Power relationships will influence the use of negation sentences. When low-power individuals evaluate high-power individuals, subjects tend to use negation and believe that this form of expression is more suitable, causing negation bias to appear; negation bias does not appear in conditions when high-power individuals evaluate low-power individuals or when no power difference exists. (2) When no power difference exists, social distance will influence the use of negation sentences; the greater the social distance, the more frequently negative sentences are used.
One of the most puzzling findings in decision research field is the disjunction effect. Several studies demonstrate that the disjunction effect exists in a two-person prisoner’s dilemma game. This effect violates the sure-thing principle and cannot be explained by classical decision-making models. During the recent decade, quantum decision making models have been established on the basis of the mathematical structure and methodologies of quantum mechanics. Owing to their special theoretical structures, quantum decision-making models are well suited for explaining the disjunction effect, although these models continue to encounter difficulties.
This study aims to overcome the difficulties in existing quantum decision-making models by developing a modified model. To achieve this goal, the deficiencies of the previous models were analyzed. We concluded three deficiencies: 1) Although previous quantum decision-making models can account for the disjunction effect, they can also obtain findings that defy the experimental results and common sense. 2) They cannot explain the disjunction effect with large values in certain experiments (e.g., the experiment of Shafir & Tversky, 1992). 3) They cannot properly illustrate the relationship between the utility of decision maker’s pay off and the scale of the disjunction effect.
The reasons for these difficulties were investigated. An important reason is that previous quantum decision-making models ignore that the decision maker may consider another’s pay off based on different decision conditions. Another reason is the over-simplicity of the utility function. With the above analyses as basis, we adopted the equate-to-differentiate method to rebuild the quantum decision-making model. In this new model, whether the decision maker considers another’s pay off or not based on a specific decision condition is determined with the equate-to-differentiate method. In addition, the utility function is redefined by value function and hyperbolic tangent transformation.
Results revealed that the new quantum decision-making model overcomes the difficulties in previous quantum decision-making models. The proposed model is an integration of heuristic and computational or mathematical models. This ideal model integration deserves much attention and has good theoretical significance and application prospects.
In PISA 2015, scientific literacy is defined as “the ability to engage with science-related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen”. There are four interdependent dimensions are specified in the scientific literacy assessment framework for PISA 2015: Competencies, Knowledge, Contexts, and Attitudes. Given that knowledge of scientific literacy contributes significantly to individuals’ personal, social, and professional lives, it is of vital importance to find an objectively and accurately assessment method for scientific literacy. However, only unidimensional IRT models were used in the analysis in PISA 2015. Which means that the analysis model does not match with such a multidimensional assessment framework. It is desired to develop a new analysis model. This study attempts to measure scientific literacy in cognitive diagnostic assessment for the first time.
According to the scientific literacy assessment framework for PISA 2015, a third-order latent structure for scientific literacy is first pointed out. Specifically, the scientific literacy is treated as the third-order latent trait; Competencies, Knowledge, Contexts, and Attitudes are all treated as second-order latent traits; And nine subdomains, e.g., explain phenomena scientifically and content knowledge, were treated as first-order traits (or attributes). Unfortunately, however, there is still a lack of cognitive diagnosis models that can deal with such a third-order latent structure. To this end, a multi-order DINA (MO-DINA) model was developed in this study. The new model is an extension of the higher-order (HO-DINA) model, which is similar to the third-order IRT models. To illustrate the application and advantages of the MO-DINA model, a sub-data of PISA 2015 science assessment data were analyzed. Items were chosen from the S01 cluster, and participants were chosen from China. After data cleaning, 1076 participants with 18 items were retained. Three models were fitted to this sub-data and compared, the MO-DINA model, in which the third-order latent structure of scientific literacy was considered; the HO-DINA model, in which the scientific literacy was treated as a second-order latent trait and contacted with attributes directly; and the DINA model.
All three models appear to provide a reasonably good fit to data according to the posterior predictive model checking. According to the -2LL, AIC, BIC, and DIC, the DINA model fits the data worst, and the MO-DINA model fits the data best, the results of MO-DINA model are used to make further interpretations. The results indicated that (1) the quality of 18 items are not good enough; (2) The correlations among second-order latent traits are high (0.8, approximately); (3) Knowledge has the greatest influence on scientific literacy, Contexts second, and Competencies least; (4) Explain phenomena scientifically, procedural knowledge, and local/national has the greatest influence on Competencies, Knowledge, and Contexts, respectively. In addition, a simulation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the proposed model. The results showed that the proposed Bayesian MCMC estimation algorithm can provide accurate model parameter estimation.
Overall, the proposed MO-DINA model works well in real data analysis and simulation study and meets the needs of assessment for PISA 2015 scientific literacy which included a third-order latent structure.