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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 4 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY ON EXPERIMENTAL TEACHING OF ALGEBRA TO PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    LIU CHING-HO (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1960, 4 (01): 17-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    On the hypothesis that abstract ideas can be better grasped through more abstract symbols than numerals, an experiment was done to see whether algebra could be taught to children eariler than is. customary.Two 5th grade classes comprising 87 children aged 10—11, Who Would normally not reach algebra for another two years, were taught simple equations in algebra and tested as regards the tendency to a higher level of abstraction through using algebra to solve arithmetical problems, the understanding and use of formulae and the grasp of the rules governing the relation between numbers.Within one month, with no extra hours of teaching, the children did at least one fifth of all the problems set in the arithmetic textbooks of the 5th and 6th year primary school grades and the junior school 1st grade.In the regular term-end municipal examination in arithmetic, though the two classes had missed some of the arithmetic teaching by reason of the experiment, they obtained 92% and 96% respectively, much higher than the general average.The experimental classes also stood out in. a comparative test on grasp of the rules of arithmetic and the rules governing the relation between numbers. Two other classes of the same grade in the same school also took part in this test.Tests in the grasp and use of formulae showed an appreciable level of understanding not based on Mechanical memory.After a four months gap, these four classes were again tested and the two experimental classes remained well ahead.The experiment shows that children of this grade reach a high level of abstraction and suggests that higher abstract symbols ale a better vehicle for abstract thought. It. also shows that the use of algebraic symbols and formulae gives better retention as regards methods of solving arithmetical problems. The experiment suggests the practicability of introducing, algebra into the teaching of arithmetical problems. Work has yet to be done to determine at what stage this is most effective, how widely the conclusions are applicable, etc.
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    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE SCOPE OF THE CONCEPTION OF NUMBERS AMONG 6—7 YEAROLD CHILDREN
    CHANG TSU-HSIN AND LEE MEI-KE (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1960, 4 (01): 32-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    This piece of research tried to discover the scope of 6 to 7 year old children's, grasp of the conception of numbers in order to make suggestions for the complication of ist. year primary school arithmetic textbooks.84 1st year primary school and top class infant school children took part in. this experiment, the content of which had two partS:. 1) to discover the scope of the conception of numbers among 6 to 7 year olds; and 2) on the basis of this to make training experiment. The following results were noticed: in grasping the conception of less than 100, the children recognize the cardinal numbers, the ordinal numbers, understand their real significance and do calculations. These four aspects vary in the course of development. The grasp of the first aspect, far exceeding that of the other three. Children's astimate of the quantity of objects are greatly influenced by the spatial arrangement of the given objects, but training (by means of the regulative effect of generalized verbal words) may alter the effect of spatial influence.Going by the results of this experiment, it is believed that: 1) the children's conception of numbers should be based upon the child's understanding of the real significance of numbers; 2) the child's conceptions of numbers depends on education circumstances contrary to the resialt by the bourgeois scholar Piaget that "children's conception of numbers is completely determined by age". Teaching can play a part in bringing a child forward; 3) the role of verbal words also has a certain influence in forming the child's conception of numbers.
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    THE EFFECT OF RECOGNITION IN THE TREATMENT OFNEURASTHENIA
    LEE HSIN-TIEN (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1960, 4 (01): 40-49.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 196 )
    Based on the analysis of the results of the group synthetic speedy method of treatment in 117 cases of neurasthenia, this paper discusses the relation between recognition of the nature of the disease by the patients themselves and the clinical dynamics, the immediate and lasting effects of the treatment. It stresses the importance of recognition of the nature of the disease by the patient himself and also points to several problems which require further investigation.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ETIOLOGY OF NEURASTHENIA
    WANG JING-HUO AND LEE HSIN-TIEN (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1960, 4 (01): 50-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    Taking "external causes to be the condition of change and internal causes to be the basis of change, external causes becoming operative through internal causes", this paper analyzes the etiology of 283 neurasthenics. It shows that external agents cause overstrain of cortical activity only through the internal characteristics of the patient—the functional state of the cortex and the patient's recognition. The authors draw the following preliminary conclusion: the patient's attitude toward his work, study and life has great effect on the generation and development of neurasthenia. Comments are also made on the problem of the relationship between the patient's recognition and individual characteristics and the characteristics of types of higher nervous activity and on the problem how the two factors interact in causing neurasthenia.
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    A DETERMINATION OF THE NORMAL THRESHOLD OF HEARING OF YOUNG PEOPLE 16—25 YEARS OF AGE Ⅰ. EQUIVALENT CURVE BY ARTIFICIAL EAR CALIBRATION oF EARPHONES
    LUNG SHU-SHUI AND WANG DO-AN (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1960, 4 (01): 58-65.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The first part of a work measuring the normal threshold of hearing is reported. Usable results were obtained from 1843 young people 16—25 years of age. Common electromagnetic earphones were used. The calibration was done on a Brul and Kjaer artificial ear. During the test, subjects were seated in a sound-proof chamber.An "equivalent ctirve" is plotted from the overall anthmetic means for different frequencies. On calculating the means sepatately for the male and female sexes andfor the right and left earss, no significant differences are found.
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