Table of Content
, Volume 4 Issue 03
A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE AGE OFSCHOOL ENROLLMENT
WANG WEN-SIN (Kansu Pedagogical University)
After one year's experimental study of the age of school enrollment the author drew the following conclusions:1. If children enter school at the age of six, their achievement may be lower than the seven-year-old ones at the beginning, but the difference would gradually diminish. The six-year-old children may therefore enter primary school, if the teaching method is accordingly adopted to them.2. Early school enrollment does no harm to the children's health. It shows furthermore the first grade instruction may beneficially influence the mental development of the six-year-old children.3. The level of mental development at the age of six and of seven is not like what we have estimated. At present, a small part of the content of teaching does not mit their ability, and most of the contents are too simple for the children. This may interfere the sound development of the children.4. Children can enter school at age of six and if the content of teaching is not changed, its organization and the method of teaching should be reformed. The pre-school education should be enriched.5. The content of teaching for seven-year-old children must be promoted, and the organization of teaching materials, especially the teaching method must be reformed.
A PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS OF MASTERING SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
CHANG HOU-TSAN (Peking Pedagogical University)
Concept is the basis component and also the result of the thinking process. According to the way how they are mastered concepts can be divided into two kinds : the pre-scientific concept and the scientific concept.One of the most important tasks in teaching is to make the pupils master the scientific concept quickly and correctly. In this article, the author sums up the teaching experiences gained from several courses in primary and middle schools, analyzes them from the psychological point of view, and finally puts forward the following points to be considered by the teacher: 1) providing abundant sensory material by using images of the past and perceptions made at class ; 2) selecting adequate and using correct sensory material. The elected material should be of different types and Should be used in a great variety of ways ; 3) enlightening the active thinking of the pupils, paying attention to the interconnection of previously and newly acquired knowledge, using the method of contrast and eventually fixing the meaning to a certain definition ; and 4) using the concept in practice, in which it can be consolidated and developed.
A STUDY OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS OF TECHNICAL INNOVATION IN MACHINE WORK
(Division of Industrial Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Academic Sinica)
The process of creative thinking of innovators was studied by means of summarizing their experiences and controlled experiments in some machine shops. The results indicate that classification of the problems of innovation into appropriate categories may facilitate the process of problem solving. In the course of new tool construction, one of the most important principles for problem solving is to find out the relations between the centers (or axes) of parts and tools. The knowledge of geometry is necessary for the development of creative thinking for workers, this branch of science should be properly enforced in technical schools.If the object of innovation is complex in structure and the relations between space and time in its operation is complicated, a solid model used as prototype is favorable for the worker's imagination. Authors also discussed the influence of the geometrical form of the parts upon the perception and thinking of the innovator, the function of prototype, types of creative' thinking, etc. In the course of creative activity, the innovator's cognition of the relations between the object and the tool to be constructed become more and more complete as the creative work goes on. Only under certain conditions would prototype show its effective result.
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