ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 December 2011, Volume 43 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Two-Phase Model of Processing Time Shifts in Text Reading
    HE Xian-You,LI Hui-Juan,WEI Yu-Bing
    2011, 43 (12):  1355-1369. 
    Abstract ( 713 )   PDF (438KB) ( 1021 )  
    Temporal information plays a very important role in narrative comprehension, but how it is processed has remained unclear. For a long time, the Strong Iconicity Assumption and the Scenario Theory offered competing explanations. We argue that these two theories emphasize different stages of processing time shifts. The Strong Iconicity Assumption concerns the first stage, the updating stage, and the Scenario Theory concerns the last stage, the integrating stage.
    We conducted three rating tests and three experiments to test our hypotheses. The first test was designed to explore whether the duration time was significantly different for the three levels of temporal continuity: a moment later, an hour later and a year later, and if the results were significant between any two of them.
    The second rating test was used to ensure that the time continuities of a moment and an hour were not beyond the scenario but a year was. Results were consistent with our predictions, with the longest average scenario found to be 4.85 hours and the shortest one 38.72 minutes. In the third rating test, we further evaluated the syntactic and semantic acceptability of the consistency between temporal markers and critical events to ensure that the results of the first rating tests reflected the processing of temporal information.. No significant differences were found in the three temporal conditions for syntactic acceptability, but significant differences were found for semantic acceptability. This indicated that results reflected the processing of the temporal information, which supported our predications.
    In Experiments 1 and 2 we used a moving-window technique to verify the Strong Iconicity Assumption and the Scenario Theory, and to provide primary evidences for our hypothesis. Results showed that the response latencies of recognition words, reading times of the critical sentences, and temporal markers were consistent with the Strong Iconicity Assumption. As such, reading times of the critical events and the response latencies of the questions corresponded with the Scenario Theory. In Experiment 3 we used the eye-tracking technique to further investigate the processing mechanism of temporal information. An eye-tracking machine was used to record the eye fixations of the region of interest for the temporal markers and critical events. Reading time and number of the fixations were analyzed. Results showed significant differences for dwell time and total number of the temporal makers. For critical events, the difference of the regression path duration of the temporal makers did not reach statistical significance level but did in the critical events.
    These results supported our hypothesis that the Scenario Theory corresponds to the later stage of processing temporal information. However, results the First Run Dwell Time tended to be consistent with the Strong Iconicity Assumption.
    In sum, this research addressed the long-lasting debate between the Strong Iconicity Assumption and the Scenario Theory, and further studied the mechanism of processing time shifts in narratives. The results are discussed in terms of a two-phase model.
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    Repetition Blindness in Chinese Polyphones Processing
    LENG Ying,CHEN Xu-Lian
    2011, 43 (12):  1370-1379. 
    Abstract ( 751 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1347 )  
    Repetition blindness (Kanwisher, 1987, 1991) refers to the phenomenon that participants have difficulty detecting repetitions of words (C1 and C2) presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Several accounts focused on why and how the recognition deficit for C2 occurs, such as Token Individuation Theory (Kanwisher, 1987, 1991; Kanwisher & Potter, 1989, 1990; Chun, 1997), Refractory Period Hypothesis (Luo & Caramazza, 1995, 1996), Potential Retrieval-Based Models (Fagot, & Pashler, 1995), Construction and Attribution Theory (Masson, 2004; Whittlesea & Masson, 2005; Whittlesea & Hughes, 2005) and Competition Hypothesis (Morris, Still, & Caldwell-Harris Harris, 2009). Among these theories, Token Individuation Theory and Construction and Attribution Theory are the most widely influential. Up to now, it is difficult for them to come to an agreement on the processing level of repetition blindness. For example, Token Individuation Theory argued that repetition blindness was perception deficit, occurring at perception level, while Construction and Attribution Theory argued that repetition blindness was memory deficit, occurring at semantic level. The present research investigated the processing level of repetition blindness with Chinese Polyphones.
    We used a mixed design with three variables, one between-subject variable, Time Interval with two levels (100ms and 200ms), and two within-subject variables, Repetition with three levels (completely repeated, homophones repeated and different phonetic repeated), and Position with two levels (position homology and position dissimilarity). Each trial included three words, two experimental words (C1 and C2) and a high frequency word in between. All materials were presented on a computer screen in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Participants were instructed to verbally report all words in a trial, no matter whether a word was repeated or not. The dependent variable was the accuracy rate for reporting both C1 and C2 correctly in a trial. If the repetition blindness occurs at the perception level, the accuracy rate in the homophones repeated condition should not be different from that in the different phonetic repeated condition. Furthermore, if the repetition blindness occurs at the perception level, the accuracy rate for in the position homology condition should be different from that in the position dissimilarity condition. Otherwise, results will support that the repetition blindness occurs at retrieval level of memory.
    Results from a three-way mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of Repetition and Position. The interaction of Interval and Repetition was also significant. In both Time Interval conditions, the accuracy rate in the complete repeated condition was lower than that in the homophones repeated condition and the different phonetic repeated condition. However, only in 100ms condition, the accuracy rate in the homophones repeated condition was lower than that in the different phonetic repeated condition.
    The results indicated: 1. For two completely repeated words, repetition blindness showed in both 100ms and 200ms conditions, but for homophones repeated words and different phonetic repeated words, repetition blindness showed in the 100ms condition only; 2. The repetition blindness occurred at the perception level, not at the semantic level.
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    The Simulation Process of Chinese Simple Negative Declarative Sentence
    GAO Zhi-Hua,LU Zhong-Yi,MA Hong-Xia
    2011, 43 (12):  1380-1387. 
    Abstract ( 604 )   PDF (302KB) ( 1010 )  
    The Experiential View of Language Comprehension, which derived from Embodied Cognition in Psychology, proposes that the comprehender is an immersed experiencer of the described situation and comprehension is the vicarious experience of the described situation. But it has difficulty in abstract language comprehension. Kaup and her colleagues (2003, 2007b) attempted to explain negative operator from the frame of embodied cognition and proposed “Two-Step Simulation Hypothesis”. In comprehension of negative sentence, comprehender simulates the negated state of affairs depicted in the sentence in the first step, and then starts shifting his attention away from the negated state of affairs and onto the simulation of the actual state of affairs in the second step. Kaup and her colleagues (2007a) demonstrated the negated state was simulated when the delay between sentences and pictures was 250ms, but such result was achieved from the negative sentences whose actual state were indefinite; in 2006, they found the simulation of the actual state when the delay was 1500ms in the negative sentences with definite actual state. But the conclusion is susceptive for its bases on different types of negative sentences and different languages (English and German). So the present study aims to explore the simulation process of Chinese simple negative declarative sentences and test the “Two-Step Simulation Hypothesis”.
    The self-paced reading technique was adopted to explore the characteristics of simulation processes of Chinese simple negative declarative sentences on Pentium III computer, using E- Prime software. The Chinese affirmative and negative sentences with contradictory predicates paired with pictures that corresponding to the contradictory states described by the sentences, which composed matched and mismatched condition for sentence-picture pair, matched and mismatched. Subjects were required to self-regulate their reading. When subjects finish reading one sentence and press the space key, a “+” would appear in the center of the screen for 250ms, 750ms and 1500ms respectively, then the picture would present in the center and prompted subjects to press the “Yes” or ”No” key to decide whether the object in the picture is mentioned in the previous sentence. Some questions for checking understanding of the previous sentences are asked and required the subject to response with pressure on “Yes” or ”No” key. The response times for pictures were analyzed by mixed repeated analysis of variance.
    In Experiment 1, 250ms as the probe time for initial stage of comprehension, the response time of matched state was shorter than the mismatched state significantly in both affirmative and negative sentences. In experiment 2, 750ms for the middle stage, there was no significant difference between matched and mismatched state. In experiment 3, 1500ms for last stage, the response time of matched state was shorter than the mismatched state significantly in both affirmative and negative sentences again.
    The result denied the “Two-Step Simulation Hypothesis”, which indicated that simple negative sentences comprehension didn’t always follow the orders predicated by the Two-Step Simulation Hypothesis. The simulation of actual state of affair can be achieved at the initial period.
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    The Development of Social Competence during Early Childhood: A Latent Growth Model
    ZHANG Xiao
    2011, 43 (12):  1388-1397. 
    Abstract ( 1073 )   PDF (410KB) ( 2026 )  
    Social competence is an important aspect of children’s social adjustment, which has been recognized by a majority of developmental psychologists. Much research has been accumulated investigating the developmental dynamics of social competence. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the latent growth of social competence, particularly during early childhood. In addition, existing research on the development of social competence points to child temperament and family socioeconomic status as important predictors; however, the majority of longitudinal research has included just two time points. The present study sought to advance our current understanding of social competence by examining its growth during early childhood. A second goal was to investigate the additive and interactive effects of child temperament, gender, and maternal education on initial levels and growth in social competence.
    A sample of 119 preschoolers and their mothers was followed up for two years from preschool entry to the end of the second preschool year. Children’s social competence was evaluated by their mothers for three times, first at three months after preschool entry, second at the end of the first preschool year, and finally, at the end of the second preschool year. Children’s temperament and socio-demographic information were also collected at the first wave. Latent growth modeling was used to examine children’s initial levels and growth in social competence and the predictions of initial levels and growth from child temperament, gender, and maternal education.
    Results showed that children’s social competence increased linearly during the follow-up period. Significant variability in the initial levels and growth was also found. Girls had higher initial levels of social competence than boys did. Children whose mothers had more education had stronger social competence than their peers whose mothers had less education. Growth in social competence was predicted significantly by the interaction between temperamental rhythmicity and gender.
    These findings highlight the importance of examining latent growth in children’s social competence during early childhood. They also expand the existing research on temperament and social competence by testing interactive effects on latent growth.
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    Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Negative Life Events and Social Supports: A Longitudinal Study of Survival Adolescents following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake
    FAN Fang,GENG Fu-Lei,ZHANG Lan,ZHU Qing
    2011, 43 (12):  1398-1407. 
    Abstract ( 1198 )   PDF (542KB) ( 2712 )  
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder following natural disasters. A growing number of studies have reported elevated prevalence and risk factors of PTSD among adolescent survivors of earthquake, flood and hurricane. Social supports and negative life events have been identified as important influence factors of adolescents’ posttraumatic stress disorder. Studies have documented that there are complex interplays among negative life events, social supports and mental health problems. The leading theoretical models of their relations include stress prevention model, support deterioration model, reciprocity of stress and perceived support model. The present study explored and compared these models of negative life events, social supports and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a large, prospective non-clinical sample of adolescents after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
    This study is a part of the longitudinal study of adolescents in Dujiangyan district after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. A total of 1573 adolescents were sampled from Dujiangyan district, 20 kilometer away from the epicenter. At the time of 6, 18, 24 months after the earthquake, participants were asked to complete questionnaires including Self-Rating Scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Social Support Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents, and demographics including sex, age, sibling, location, and earthquake exposure factors. One thousand and seventy-four adolescents were followed up all of the three waves. The mean age of the participants was 14.9 years (SD = 1.3) at wave 1, 42.4% were female, 30.9% resided in rural areas, and 83.2% were only child. Structural equation model was used to explore the causations of posttraumatic stress symptoms, social support and negative life events following the earthquake.
    The results showed a moderate continuity of posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative life events, subjective social supports, objective social supports and utilization of social supports across the three waves (b = 0.39-0.57). Reciprocal relations were founded between posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative life events. To be specific, wave 1 posttraumatic stress symptoms positively predicted wave 2 negative life events (β = 0.16), wave 2 negative life events positively predicted wave 3 posttraumatic stress symptoms (β = 0.07); wave 1 negative life events positively predicted wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms (β = 0.07), wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms positively predicted wave 3 negative life events (β = 0.10). Subjective social supports and negative life events, objective social supports and negative life events also longitudinal predicted each other across waves. Specifically, wave 1 subjective social supports predicted wave 2 negative life events negatively (β = -0.11), wave 2 subjective social supports negatively predicted wave 3 negative life events (ß = -0.07), wave 1 negative life events predicted wave 2 subjective social supports negatively (β = -0.08), wave 2 negative life events negatively predicted wave 3 subjective social supports (β = -0.11); wave 1 negative life events predicted wave 2 objective social supports (β = -0.08) negatively, wave 1 objective social supports negatively predicted wave 2 negative life events (β = -0.06). In addition, wave 1 subjective social supports predicted wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms significantly (β = -0.07).
    Posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative life events and social supports influence each other. Subjective social supports, objective social supports and utilization of social supports have characteristic relations with posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative life events. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative life events should be assessed and prevented timely. It would be effective and meaningful to guide the survival adolescents to perceive, construct, maintain, seek and utilize their social supports.
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    The Influence of Positive Emotions on Interpersonal Trust: Clues Effects
    HE Xiao-Li,WANG Zhen-Hong,WANG Ke-Jing
    2011, 43 (12):  1408-1417. 
    Abstract ( 1919 )   PDF (358KB) ( 4133 )  
    Although the existing studies have explored the effects of positive emotions on the interpersonal trust (Dunn & Schweitzer, 2005; Lount, 2010), the influence of positive emotions on the interpersonal trust that can be affected by the setting and characteristics of trustees calls for further studies. In this study, two experiments were conducted to compare different influences of positive emotions on interpersonal trust in related or unrelated settings.
    In the first experiment, a writing task was employed to induce 102 undergraduate subjects’ emotions of happiness, anger and neutral condition in an unrelated setting, and a trust game and direct report method were used in the experiment to explore how positive emotions could influence interpersonal trust in unrelated settings. In the second experiment, information feedback method was employed to induce 71 undergraduate subjects’ emotions of happiness, anger and neutral condition in related settings, and a trust game and direct report method were used in the experiment to explore how positive emotions could influence interpersonal trust in related settings.
    The results of the two experiments show that when individuals are acquainted with the trustees and are under the positive emotions in the unrelated setting, the amount of trust investment and trust of direct report under the positive emotions are significantly higher than that under the neutral and the negative emotions. When individuals are strangers to the trustees and are under the positive emotions in an unrelated setting, emotions do not influence trust. Secondly, incidental emotions can also greatly influence trust in related settings. When individuals are acquainted with the trustees and are under the positive emotions in related settings, the amount of trust investment is significantly higher than that under the neutral and the negative emotions. And when the individuals are strangers to the trustees in related settings, the amount of trust investment and trust of direct report under the positive emotions are also significantly higher than that under the neutral and the negative emotions, and interpersonal trust is not significant when it is under the neutral and the negative emotions.
    As a result, the conclusion that the influence of positive emotions on interpersonal trust can be affected by setting and characteristics of trustees as clues effects may safely be drawn.
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    A Combined Emic-Etic Approach to Personality: CPAI and Cross-Cultural Applications
    FAN Weiqiao,Fanny M. CHEUNG,ZHANG Jian-Xin,Shu Fai CHEUNG
    2011, 43 (12):  1418-1429. 
    Abstract ( 1217 )   PDF (278KB) ( 1674 )  
    Since 1970s, major Western personality assessment were translated and applied in different Chinese societies. Although the reliabilities and validities of these imposed-etic measures were largely demonstrated, cultural differences were found at the item, scale and factor levels. These cultural differences have led to attempts to construct indigenous measures to assess personality constructs that are particularly relevant to the Chinese societies. The CPAI was developed with a combined etic-emic approach in the late 1980s.
    The CPAI includes multidimensional personality scales for normal personality and diagnostic assessment of the Chinese people. To derive emic dimensions, the research team used a bottom-up approach based on multiple inputs from a wide range of daily life experiences, research review, and clinical experiences of local professionals. Reference was made to research results on imported Western instruments in Chinese settings. The CPAI, its revised version, CPAI-2, and the adolescent version, CPAI-A, were developed using vigorous procedures of scale construction, and were standardized on large representative samples across different Chinese regions. Extensive research to validate the CPAI, CPAI-2, and CPAI-A has been undertaken by the CPAI research team and other psychologists in Chinese and cross-cultural settings in Asia, Europe and North America. The personality traits measured by the CPAI inventories have demonstrated validity in predicting external variables such as life satisfaction, marital satisfaction, leadership, work performance, and vocational development, as well in differentiating among psychiatric diagnostic groups.
    Findings from the CPAI research program highlight the value of a combined emic-etic approach in personality assessment. The Interpersonal Relatedness (IR) factor, as an indigenous Chinese personality dimension, contributed additional variance beyond the universal dimensions of mainstream personality measures in explaining behaviour in both Asian and Western cultures. The added value of the IR factor illustrates the importance of relational personality constructs which fill the gap in Western personality models. On the other hand, the lack of a distinct Chinese openness factor as that found in the Five Factor Model suggested differences in the taxonomy of personality structure across cultures.
    The CPAI research program aimed not only to establish the reliability and validity of an indigenously derived assessment measure, but also to promote understanding of personality beyond that of a Western-based personality structure in a truly universal model. The CPAI-2 has been translated into six other languages, including Dutch, English, Korean, Japanese, Romanian and Vietnamese. Reliability analysis supported the internal consistence of the subscales of CPAI-2 in cross-cultural settings. Proscrutes rotation of the factor structures of a cross-cultural sample of college students confirmed the congruence and relevance of the emic CPAI-2 personality factor beyond Chinese culture. These results have encouraged us to further examine the cross-cultural validity of the CPAI inventories and the contribution of the combined etic-emic approach to the study of personality in cultural contexts.
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    Modulation of Attribution of Responsibility on ‘Action Effect’ and Its ERP Evidence
    SUO Tao,FENG Ting-Yong,GU Ben-Bo,WANG Hui-Li,LI Hong
    2011, 43 (12):  1430-1440. 
    Abstract ( 765 )   PDF (601KB) ( 1169 )  
    The relationship between emotion and decision-making is of significant interest in the field of scientific psychology as well as in economics research. The emotions that individuals experience for post-decisional outcomes are not only influenced by properties of the outcomes (e.g. magnitude, valence), but also by the paths of individuals’ action (e.g., action vs. inaction) to reach it. Considerable behavioral researches have claimed that emotional reactions to outcomes following decisions to act are typically more intense than are those following decisions not to act. This well-known phenomenon has been labeled ‘action effect’ (Landman, 1987, Kahneman and Tversky, 1982). Though numerous convergent studies on decision-making have reported this phenomenon, few have reached agreement on its cognitive mechanism. By simultaneously recording event-related potentials (ERPs) data from participants with different locus of control (internal versus external locus of control, ILC vs ELC ) engaged in a simple gambling task, the present study aimed to further investigate the role of attribution of responsibility in inducing the “action effect”.
    Fifteen ILC participants (7 males and 8 females, age18-25, M=20.69±2.28 years) and fourteen ELC participants (5 males and 9 females, age17-25, M=20.42±2.19years) took part in the experiment. The two groups were selected from 256 volunteers recruited from Southwest University in China with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (ANSIECS). The participants in the experiment were all right-hand, had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and had no neurological or psychological disorders. Each participant signed a consent form prior to the experiments and was paid after the experiment, according their performance. The study was approved by the local academic committee.
    In this experimental task, participants were first presented with two choice options and were told that the computer would choose one of two options for them. Both choices were randomly associated with identical monetary gains and losses in each trial. Participants were asked to decide whether to keep the computer choice (inaction condition) or to choose the other one (action condition). Subsequently, a feedback conveying the outcomes of the two options (either gaining or losing money) was provided. By manipulating the action types that depended on whether the participants followed the chosen options by the computer and the valence of the feedback in the gambling task, four conditions were included: inaction-gain; inaction-loss; action-gain; and action-loss.
    The behavioral data showed that, whatever the feedback outcomes were winning or losing, the emotions and responsibility experienced by the ILC participants for the feedback outcomes were not significantly different between following their action and inaction; while the emotions and responsibility experienced by the ELC participants for the feedback outcomes following their action were more intense than that following their inaction. Moreover, the FRNs and P300s elicited by the feedback outcomes following action and inaction were no differences for the ILC participants, whereas the two ERP components elicited by the feedback outcomes following action were both larger than that following inaction for the ELC participants. In short, the action effect is not evident in ILC participants, but evident in EIC participants. Thus, it most likely that action effect is induced by different degree of sense of responsibility to identical outcomes following variant behavior.
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    The Influence of Negotiators’ Roles on Bargaining Outcomes in Simulated Buy-Sell Transactions
    XIE Tian,WEI Qing-Wang,ZHENG Quan-Quan
    2011, 43 (12):  1441-1453. 
    Abstract ( 765 )   PDF (493KB) ( 1449 )  
    In real life, negotiations occur in specific social contexts where negotiators always play certain roles. The current study explored how negotiators’ roles influence their bargaining outcomes in buy-sell transactions. Based on Neal, Huber, & Northcraft (1987), we proposed that the buyer-seller role induces framing effect (s), and that negotiators’ perceived bargaining pie (or the total value of the resources they are considering) mediates negotiators’ roles and outcomes. In buy-sell bargaining settings, the buyer’s role typically induces a loss frame, whereas the seller’s role evokes a gain frame. Thus, buyers are more risk-seeking than sellers. These dynamics prompt buyers to perceive their pie as larger than sellers’, and thus the former outperform the latter.
    Two hundred and four undergraduate students participated in two single-issue buy-sell simulated negotiation exercises. In both experiments, the power of the two parties was set to be equal by manipulating their number of best alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA). In experiment 1, we explored how negotiators’ roles influenced their bargaining outcomes. Eighty-two undergraduate students, i.e., 41 dyads, were randomly designated as buyers or sellers. The item for exchange was an eye-protection lamp. The result of experiment 1 showed that the buyers outperformed the sellers, and that the perceived size of the pie mediated the effect of negotiation role on bargaining performance. Moreover, the communication strategies used by the buyers and the sellers did not contribute to their performance, which means that the behavioral differences among the buyers and the sellers did not account for their contrasting performance.
    In experiment 2, we explored why negotiators’ roles influenced negotiators’ perceived size of the bargaining pie. One hundred and twenty-two participants i.e., 61 dyads, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (20 dyads), control group 1 (20 dyads), and control group 2 (21 dyads), respectively. In the experimental group, participants played the role of buyers and sellers, similar to experiment 1. In control group 1, participants played the role of “chief of a tribe” and “civilized man.” The role of caciques was similar to buyers, except they held shells, rather than money to complete the exchange. And the civilized men were similar to sellers, except they exchanged items for shells, rather than money. Participants in control group 2 played the role of “buyers” and “sellers” as in the experimental group, while the medium of exchange was shells as in the control group 1. Each seller (civilized man) held a watch as the item for exchange. The reservation price of buyers (caciques) and sellers (civilized men) was set to be equal to avoid the confounding caused by the difference of the reservation price between the two parties. Results of Experiment 2 showed that in the experimental condition, buyers’ perceived size of the pie was larger than sellers’, whereas no differences in perceived pie size were observed in the two control groups. These results suggest that the perception difference between buyer and seller can only be accounted for by buyer-seller roles, only when money was used as the medium of exchange.
    These findings reveal how negotiators’ roles influence their bargaining outcomes via their perceptions about the size of the pie. This research also suggests that the function of role may be independent of negotiators’ power differentials and communication strategies. Practical implications of this research include the following: Although negotiation practitioners realized that their respective roles exerted some influence on their performance, they did not specifically understand the role of those context features in negotiation nor did they try to modify or manage them. Also, this study suggests that buyers and sellers could be aware that they are acting in accord with the loss (for buyer) or gain (for seller) frame, while the other party is behaving according to the opposite frame. Therefore, negotiators could adjust their perceived pie intentionally to avoid the influence of this cognitive bias.
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    On the Use of Polynomial Regression in Congruence Research: Application and Analysis
    TANG Jie,LIN Zhi-Yang,MO Li
    2011, 43 (12):  1454-1461. 
    Abstract ( 727 )   PDF (415KB) ( 1232 )  
    For decades, the study of congruence in organizational research has relied on difference scores, which induces numerous methodological problems in presenting congruence, such as covered relations, reduced reliability and validity. Unfortunately, this method is still used dominantly in domestic researches due to few available alternatives. The method of polynomial regression is introduced in this research to directly test relationships among two component measures of difference scores and dependent variables, and also the advantages of polynomial regression over difference scores in expressing congruence are discussed and verified.
    Then, from the aspects of foundation points, theoretical derivations, analytical procedures and hypothesis tests, the framework of polynomial regression equations coupling with response surface analysis for congruence researches are modified. Three key features of surface are concerned for analysis. The first is stationary point, which corresponds to the overall minimum, maximum, or saddle point of the surface. The second is principal axes of the surface, two of which intersect at the stationary point. The upward or downward curvature of surface, depending on the shape of surface (convex or concave), is greatest along one of the principal axes and least along the other. The third feature is the slope of the surface along two principle axes, Y = X and Y = -X lines. Formulas expressing these key features can be derived from coefficients of polynomial regression equations, based on which, this general framework clarifies how coefficients from equations can be used to comprehensively describe surface and test hypotheses. Moreover, the framework permits researchers to evaluate complicated congruence conceptual models rigorously.
    Finally, as an illustration, how the person-organization value congruence affects persons’ affective commitment to change in four dimensions are examed, which specifies the characters of surfaces and puts forward theoretical implications. This paper deliberately interprets how data analytical results deduce theoretical conclusions based on the framework mentioned above. The results reveal that the congruence effects completely supported by traditional methods are not perfect, and should even be rejected as to two of four value dimensions with the same data.
    In sum, current research testifies that polynomial regression equation not only can explain more variance of dependent variables than difference scores, but also uncover more valuable relations and information. Firstly, it exhibits whether the perfect congruence effects exist. Secondly, it exams main effects, congruence effects and interaction effect at the same time. Thirdly, it reveals scores and changing rate of dependents under imperfect congruence condition. Admittedly, the framework and the required analytical modes presented in this paper are more complicated than previous methods. However, approach to this method enables researchers to study congruence in a more comprehensive way. Practical implications derived from this study point toward the actual effect of person-organization value congruence in management activities.
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    Deriving Polytomous Scoring Models Based on Item Node
    XIAO Han-Min,DU Wen-Jiu,ZHANG Ting-Ting
    2011, 43 (12):  1462-1467. 
    Abstract ( 587 )   PDF (252KB) ( 634 )  
    Nowadays, polytomous items are widely used in psychological and educational tests. Polytomous items are more attractive than dichotomous items because they can provide more information for the examinees. With respect to polytomous items, there are many models to use such as the Grade Response Model (GRM), which was proposed by Samejima (1969), the Nominal Categories Model (NCM), which was proposed by Bock (1972), and the Partial Credit Model (PCM), which was proposed by Masters (1982). It is known that the GRM and PCM can be used observed ordered levels of response and the NCM is suitable for those nominal categories items.
    However, it is a common fact that most polytomous items are not always scored in ordered categories or nominal ones. What models can be used for those polytomous items with responses scored in mixed categories? What scoring models to propose? It is the main purpose of the paper to discuss these problems.
    In the paper, the notion of item node is given firstly. Then, given assumption that the probability of a correct response on an item node can be fit by the two-parameter Logistic model, three polytomous scoring models, one of which is GRM, are outlined for three different types of items. In conclusion, the model for a polytomous item based on item node can be derived.
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    On the New Characteristics and Achievements of the Marxism Orientation in Western Psychology
    HUO Yong-Quan,WEI Ping
    2011, 43 (12):  1468-1475. 
    Abstract ( 757 )   PDF (432KB) ( 1097 )  
    The strong vitality of Marxist Thought has been proved once again by the rise of the Marxist orientation among schools of contemporary Western psychology. While Marxist schools of all kinds are now prevalent in Western psychological research, there have emerged, in addition to traditional Marxism as exemplified by psychoanalytic Marxism, humanist Marxism and dialectical psychology, such new trends as positivist Marxism, feminist Marxism, critical Marxism. Despite the lack of a unified school of these newly formed Marxist research orientations and the many differences and conflicts among them, they share common characteristics on some basic issues: First, criticalness has become mainstream in the Marxist orientation of Western psychology, from macro critique to micro critique, from the reality critique of post-industrial social systems in developed capitalist countries to the critique of science, technology, ethics, arts, and psychics. Second, they all attach importance to social relations and cultural historical questions with regard to the subjects of psychological study and they uniformly call attention to the social attributes of psychology, generally promoting a shift towards "more social science" rather than " more natural science"; they believe that psychology cannot conduct value-neutral research divorced from social and cultural influences and that the generation of psychological knowledge, either by scientific or other procedures, cannot be divorced from culture. As psychology is a part of culture, social-historical-cultural patterns should be the basic connotation and framework in psychological research. Third, the elements and concepts focused on in the research mean essentially that, in order to bring Marxist concepts closer to the psychological discourse system, now not only macro-narrative issues are studied, but greater attention is also paid to the micro level.The contributions made to psychology theory construction by the new development orientation in Western Marxist psychological are as follows: new content has been added to psychology’s in-depth development by the current basic concepts and the functional analysis proposed by Western Marxist psychology; the earnest concern with social reality and a strong spirit of participation in social change shown in the orientation have indicated how wide the scope is for the future development of psychology; the resurgence of Western Marxist psychology has to a certain degree enriched and expanded the content and domain of Marxist studies, bringing added intellectual distinction to the rich psychological-cultural content of humanity.
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    Conference summary
    FU Xiao-Lan
    2011, 43 (12):  1476. 
    Abstract ( 465 )   PDF (202KB) ( 789 )  
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    2011, 43 (12):  1478-1486. 
    Abstract ( 457 )   PDF (367KB) ( 1146 )  
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