ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    28 April 2012, Volume 44 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Activation of Orthography and Phonology During Chinese Sentence Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements
    REN Gui-Qin,HAN Yu-Chang,YU Ze
    2012, 44 (4):  427-434. 
    Abstract ( 859 )   PDF (294KB) ( 1747 )  
    The issue of the role of orthography and phonology in activating the meanings of visual words has provoked a large amount of research for alphabetic writing systems, especially for English. A great deal of research has demonstrated that phonological codes are activated early in English silent reading. For Chinese, however, the role of orthography and phonology remains controversial. Specifically, some empirical evidence supports directly access hypothesis, some supports phonologically mediated access hypothesis, and some for dual-rout hypothesis. Unlike English, the basic unit of writing in Chinese is character which does not associated with phonemes but with meaning instead. Chinese provides an interesting case for testing the current models of visual word recognition that developed essentially for alphabetic writing systems.
    The current study focused the issue that how orthography and phonology is activated during Chinese silent reading when target words were presented in different constrained sentence contexts. Two experiments were conducted by manipulating the word frequency of homophone pairs and types of target words. All the target words were Chinese single character words and were matched for their stroke numbers across conditions. In addition, the homophone density (the number of homophones of a character has) was matched between the high- and low- frequency homophone pairs. Eye tracking method was used in this study and three types of eye movement measures such as first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total fixation duration were examined to determine how orthography and phonology is activated during Chinese sentence reading.
    The results showed that a reversed effect of word frequency occurred for orthographical targets in the fixation duration and total fixation duration, while both gaze duration and total fixation duration were significantly shorter for the homophonic targets than unrelated controls when the targets were presented in the highly constrained sentence context. However, when the targets were presented in the lowly constrained sentence context, all the three measures of fixation duration were significantly shorter for homophonic targets than unrelated controls.
    In conclusion, our data indicate that sentence context influences the activation of phonology and orthography during Chinese silent reading. It is orthography rather than phonology plays an early key role in reading highly constrained sentences, but both phonology and orthography are important in the late stage of processing. In contrast, for the low constraint sentence, both phonology and orthography play an important role at the early stage of processing. These findings suggest that the meaning of word can be accessed directly by orthography or dual routs by orthography and phonology during Chinese sentence reading.
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    The Detection Superiority of Perceived Direct Gaze in Visual Search Task: Evidence from Eye Movements
    HU Zhong-Hua,ZHAO Guang,LIU Qiang,LI Hong
    2012, 44 (4):  435-445. 
    Abstract ( 930 )   PDF (437KB) ( 1736 )  
    Previous studies have reported that a straight gaze target embedded in averted gaze distracters was detected faster and more accurate than an averted gaze target among straight gaze distracters. The phenomenon of detection superiority of perceived direct gaze was termed as “the stare-in-the-crowd effect”. “The stare-in-the-crowd effect” could be explained as that a straight gaze captures visual-spatial attention more effectively than an averted gaze. However, it is also possible that the stimulus items matching process under the direct gaze condition is faster and easier than that under the averted gaze condition. This explanation has not been tested in previous studies.
    In addition, head orientation was found to be able to affect the detection of gaze direction. However, it is not clear how head orientation affectsthe detection of gaze direction. In view of this, we used eye tracking approach and divided the detection of gaze direction into three behavioral epochs: the preparation, search and response epoch. To investigate: (1) in which epoch the detection advantage of the direct gaze occurred, and whether the more effectiveness of stimulus items matching process under the direct gaze condition contributed to the-stare-in-the-crowd effect, along with the capture visual-spatial attention of direct gaze. (2) How head orientation affected the detection of gaze direction, and in which visual search epoch this effect was mainly manifested.
    We used a visual search task. The experiment consisted of two factors: gaze direction (direct gaze; averted gaze) and head orientation (frontal head; deviated head). Subjects were instructed to detect as accurately and quickly as possible whether the target gaze direction was present or not. Sixteen volunteers participated in the experiment (6 males and 10 females).
    Behavioral results showed that the direct gaze targets were detected more rapidly and accurately than the averted gaze targets; Eye movement analysis found: the detection advantage of direct gaze mainly occurred in the search and response epochs; the effect of head orientation on detection of gaze direction was only manifested in search epoch; the direct gaze targets were detected more rapidly than the averted gaze targets in deviated head condition and the direct gaze targets were detected more slowly than the averted gaze targets in the frontal head condition.
    The results showed that the detection advantage for direct gaze occurred in both the search and response epochs. The superiority of direct gaze was due to both the more effective capture of visual-spatial attention and the more effectiveness of stimulus items matching process in direct gaze. In addition, the effect of head orientation on the detection of gaze directionwas limited, head orientation only affected the search process of gaze direction, but not the confirm process of targets.
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    The Effect of COMT Gene Polymorphism on the Neural Substrate of Attention Control: A Meta-analysis of Imaging Genetics Studies
    LIU Ling,LI Jing-Guang,SONG Yi-Ying,LIU Jia
    2012, 44 (4):  446-458. 
    Abstract ( 642 )   PDF (397KB) ( 1120 )  
    Investigation on the genetic origin of individual differences in attention control has become increasingly popular. A majority of imaging genetics studies primarily focused on the effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on the activation of the prefrontal cortex during attention control tasks. However, neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated that the neural substrate of attention control comprises cortical regions not only in the prefrontal cortex but also in the parietal and cingulate cortex, which together form a neural network of attention control. In addition, these regions are also richly innervated with dopaminergic projections. Therefore, it is possible that COMT gene polymorphism modulates the activation of the parietal and cingulated cortices during attention control as well.
    To examine the effect of COMT gene polymorphism, we used meta-analysis approach to re-analyze results from seventeen imaging genetics studies on the effect of COMT gene polymorphism under attention control tasks. These studies consisted of a total number of 742 participants (208 Met/Met, 315 Val/Met, and 219 Val/Val). The coordinates of peak voxels reported in the studies were projected onto a brain template to visualize the distribution of the effect of COMT gene polymorphism. Then, the effect size of COMT gene polymorphism in each region was calculated with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program (CMA). Finally, a power analysis was performed with G*power program.
    The meta-analysis indicated that Val/Val homozygotes showed higher activation not only in the prefrontal cortex but also in regions such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) than Met/Met homozygotes. Besides, the effect sizes of COMT gene polymorphism in these regions were above 0.8 (Cohen’s d).
    In sum, the meta-analysis provides evidence that COMT gene polymorphism modulates activation in multiple cortical regions of the attention control network, suggesting that individual differences in attention control partly originate from the modulation of COMT gene polymorphism on the attention control network, not just the prefrontal cortex. Thus, our study provides clues for future COMT imaging genetics researches on attention control.
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    Upregulation of K+ Current in Hippocampal Neurons from Rat with Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Lipopolysaccharide
    CHI Shao-Peng,QI Zhi,JI Guang-Ju,KUANG Xue-Ying,LIN Wen-Juan
    2012, 44 (4):  459-468. 
    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (683KB) ( 852 )  
    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunity activation can result in evident depressive-like behavior, such as anhedonia and reduced locomotion. Earlier studies have shown that K+ channels, such as Kv7 and TREK-1, are involved in the development of depressive-like behavior in animal models. In the present study, we show that LPS (200 μg/kg) could induce significant short-term depressive-like behavior in rat. In order to get insight into the underlying molecular mechanism, we investigated the potential involvement of rat hippocampal neuron voltage-dependent K+ channels in the depressive-like behaviors induced by LPS. Methods: Twenty rats were randomly divided into LPS and control groups, each with ten rats. The rats in the LPS group were injected with LPS (200 μg/kg), while saline was injected in the rats of the control group. The saccharin preference test and open field test were carried out 2 hours and 24 hours after injection of LPS to assess short-term or long-term effects on animal behavior, respectively. Next, 12 rats were randomly divided into LPS 2 hr, LPS 24 hr and control groups, each with four rats for assessing the effect of LPS on K+ channel currents of hippocampal neurons by using whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. Results: The data showed that LPS induced depressive-like behavior in rat after 2 hours of single injection. However, this depressive-like behavior was recovered after 24 hours of single LPS injection. In agreement with these behavioral observations, voltage-dependent K+ current density was increased in neurons isolated from rat after 2 hours of single LPS injection, whereas no significant change was found after 24 hours injection. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that LPS–induced immunity activation can result in evident short term depressive–like behavior in rats, which are coincident with LPS induced up-regulation of voltage-dependent K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. This result suggests that voltage-dependent K+ current might contribute to the development of the depressive-like behavior induced by LPS.
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    Can Older Adults Promote Their Processing Speed by Training?
    WANG Da-Hua,HUANG Yi-Fan,PENG Hua-Mao,CHEN Xiao-Min
    2012, 44 (4):  469-477. 
    Abstract ( 816 )   PDF (296KB) ( 1575 )  
    The slowing of processing speed with aging is one of the most influential causes that can explain the age-related decline of cognitive abilities. It’s reasonable to assume that older adults’ cognition might be maintained or promoted through processing speed training. However, whether processing speed can be enhanced or not is still questionable for older people. Thus, the present study aims at examine the plasticity of processing speed in later life.
    Overall, 46 community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 60 to 79 years, participated in this study. For the baseline test, a kit of primary mental ability tests, the intellectual self-efficacy questionnaire, and two perceptual speed tests were administered to all the participants. There were 25 participants in the experimental condition (cognitive training). For this condition, the baseline test was followed with additional computerized exercises involving pattern comparison. Each participant received five 50-minute sessions of training over a five-week period. There were 21 participants in the control group condition and these participants received no additional training after baseline test. All the participants completed a post-training test using the same measures at baseline. At four months follow-up, 31 participants completed assessments once more.
    In this study, the two perceptual speed test, namely number comparison test (NCT) and picture matching test (PMT) were used to examine the training effects. And, the primary mental ability tests, including word fluency, number, reasoning, spatial orientation, and vocabulary, were used to explore the transferring effects of training. Repeated MANOVA analyses, with group (intervention vs. control) and time (pre-training vs. post-training) as independent variables, were conducted for performances on NCT and PMT respectively. A significant group and time interaction was found for PMT (F(1,44)=4.34, p=0.043) but not for NCT. Repeated MANOVA were also conducted for the five primary mental abilities respectively. The results indicated significant group and time interaction effect on the performance of word fluency test, F(1,44)=7.70, p=0.008. MANOVA were employed to analyze effect at four month follow-up, however, no interactions of group and time were found for either PMT or word fluency test.
    In conclusion, processing speed, as measured by reaction time, would appear to be improved through a short-term training intervention. However it cannot be discounted that changes in processing speed could be influenced by secondary rather than primary aging processes. Different processing speed indices may exhibit differential training effects. Compared to NCT, PMT would appear to be more reliable to reflect the training effects.
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    Personal Self-Support, Self-Schema, and Other-Schema
    XIA Ling-Xiang,GENG Wen-Chao
    2012, 44 (4):  478-488. 
    Abstract ( 998 )   PDF (350KB) ( 2223 )  
    Interest in the relationship between personality and the self has a long history. Prior studies showed that individuals have trait-congruency self-schema and that some health-related personality traits are related to positive or negative self-schema. Other-schemas also are important and related to mental health. However, few studies have focused on the relation of personality, self-schema and other-schema.
    According to previous studies, self-schema and other-schema are assumed to be the cognitive units of personal self-support. Specifically, the present study presumed that the self-schema and other-schema of high personal self-support people would be more positive than those for low personal self-support people. Two studies were designed to test our hypotheses by explicit and implicit experiments, respectively.
    Sixty undergraduate students selected from a larger pool of 189 students were invited to participate in the two studies. The high and low personal self-support groups both had 30 participants, respectively.
    Study 1 used the adjective-rated task to explore the relation of personal self-support, self-schema and other-schema at the explicit level. The results revealed that there were no significant different between high and low personal self-support groups on reaction times. The rated grades for positive adjectives in the high personal self-support group were significantly higher than those in the low personal self-support group. In addition, the rated grades of high personal self-support group for negative adjectives were marginally significantly lower than those for the low personal self-support group.
    In study 2, the relation of personal self-support, self-schema and other-schema were examined at the implicit level using the extrinsic affective Simon task (EAST). The results showed that EAST reaction time scores on past self and future self in high personal self-support group did not significantly differ from comparable scores in the low personal self-support group. EAST reaction time scores on present-self, past-other, present-other, and future-other for the high personal self-support group were significantly greater than for the low personal self-support group. There were no significant differences between the high and the low personal self-support groups on EAST error rate scores.
    Overall, our hypotheses were supported in both studies. This suggests that individuals with high personal self-support have positive self-schema and other-schema, whereas individuals with low personal self-support have negative self-schema and other-schema.
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    Processing Priority for Self-related Information: Evidence from Visual Search of Screen Names
    YANG Hong-Sheng,WANG Fang,GU Nian-Jun,HUANG Xi-Ting
    2012, 44 (4):  489-497. 
    Abstract ( 851 )   PDF (277KB) ( 1744 )  
    It is well established in a number of studies that there exists a cognitive priority for self-related material, such as one’s own face and name. Among these findings is the well-known cocktail party effect which demonstrates that one’s own name can be more easily detected, even in unattended conditions. As both names and faces are fixed self-related material to a large extent, the current research was aimed to extend previous findings by employing a kind of flexible self-related material --- one’s own screen name which is usually chosen or designed by users themselves and can be easily changed. Despite the large difference in formation rule, usage practice and environment, screen names and real names share the same function as symbol of self-representation in their respective contexts. As a result, it can be expected there might be a similar cognitive priority for one’s own screen name. In the current research, three visual search experiments were designed to examine such a possibility.
    Experiment 1 compared the visual search speed and accuracy for participants’ own QQ (one of the most popular instant messaging software in China, which has several hundreds of million registered users) name and one control QQ name. The results showed that across all three different display set sizes (2, 6 and 12 names), the search speed was consistently faster for participants’ own QQ name than control stimuli. Besides that, there was a marginally higher hit rate for own QQ name while the false alarm rates demonstrated no difference under the two conditions. In Experiment 2 which was aimed to examine the own QQ name’s interference effect on target item, participants were asked to search one specific QQ name with own/control QQ names as distracters in different trials. ANOVA found neither significant main effects nor interaction. Across all three display set sizes, the search speed and accuracy showed no difference whether own or control QQ name was used as distracters. There was either no difference between hit rates in the two kinds of trials. Experiment 3 made direct comparisons between visual search performance for own screen name and real name. There was no significant difference in either response time or accuracy for these two names. However, they were both more accurately and quickly detected than famous names.
    Taken together, results of the three experiments showed that as target stimuli, own screen name can be detected more quickly and accurately than control screen name while as distracters, they do not show any larger interference effect on target stimuli. These results completely replicated those of studies using real name stimuli. These similar patterns suggested that recognition of own screen names might share the same mechanism as own real name.
    In conclusion, the current research provided preliminary evidences on the cognitive priority of self-related online material. As a result of its self-relevance and repeated use, one’s own screen name obtains strong personal salience and the consequent preferential processing. Based on the existence of such an online cocktail party effect, processing priority about self-related information can be extended from real world to the virtual online environment. In future studies, the possible individual difference and the effect of familiarity in screen name recognition constitutes two important issues which deserves to be directly explored.
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    Time Course of Attentional Bias Components Toward Body-shape Related Pictures Among Women with Fat Negative Physical Self: An Eye Movement Study
    GAO Xiao,WANG Quan-Chuan,CHEN Hong,WANG Bao-Ying,ZHAO Guang
    2012, 44 (4):  498-510. 
    Abstract ( 1132 )   PDF (462KB) ( 2772 )  
    Despite evidence indicating fatness and thinness information are processed differently among weight preoccupied and eating disordered individuals, the exact nature of these attentional biases is not clear.
    In this research, eye movement (EM) tracking assessed biases in specific component processes of visual attention (i.e., orientation, detection, and maintenance of gaze) in relation to body related pictures among 20 women with fat negative physical self (FNPS) and 20 body satisfied young women. Eye movements were recorded while participants completed a dot-probe task that featured fatness-neutral and thinness-neutral picture pairs with the stimuli being presented for 2000 ms.
    Women with FNPS showed different attentional bias pattern toward fat- and thin-related pictures, with vigilance-maintenance pattern toward fat body pictures and vigilance pattern toward thin body pictures. Specifically, compared to controls, women with FNPS were more likely to direct their initial gaze toward fatness pictures, had a shorter mean latency of first fixation on both fatness and thinness pictures, had longer first fixation and total gaze duration on fatness pictures. Reaction time data showed a maintenance bias towards fatness pictures and difficulty in disengagement from both fatness and thinness pictures among the women with FNPS.
    In sum, results indicated women with FNPS show initial orienting, speeded detection and initial and total maintenance biases towards fat body pictures in addition to a speeded detection in relation to thin body pictures, which partly supported Vitousek and Hollon’s (1990) cognitive model.
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    Theoretical Construction and Empirical Research on Attribution Orientation

    WANG Xiao-Jun,LEI Xiao-Ming,LIAN Shao-Xian

    2012, 44 (4):  511-523. 
    Abstract ( 981 )   PDF (561KB) ( 2063 )  
    From Heider’s proposed attribution theory in 1958 until now, attribution theory is a hot spot of social psychology all the time. In the history of attribution theory studies, numerous attribution theories have been proposed, and the most representative and widely-influenced attribution theories include: Heider’s two-dimensional theory; Keller’s variance analysis theory; Rotter’s control point theory, etc. Above- mentioned theories have the following characteristics: That pay great attention to details, but there is not enough stress on the human psychology’s total perspective.
    This paper tries to use a new angle of view-orientation research to deal with the previous attribution theory research, and to construct an attribution orientation theory which is combined with social situation more closely and more generally. The presumptive model of attribution orientation theory has four dimensions: social orientation, individual orientation, active orientation and negative orientation. According to the above-mentioned construction, we formed our attribution orientation scale. In ShenZhen, our evaluators rate 1301 subjects with the attribution orientation scale, Dealing with data by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis method. Results showed the existence of such a theoretical construction. In attribution orientation’s theoretical construction, factors load and fitting index of each dimension is good, and attribution orientation scale had good reliability and construction validity.
    At the beginning of attribution orientation’s theory construction, theory supposition was set to 4 orientation dimensions respectively independence. This supposition has obtained the support of EFA、CFA result and the correlation analysis result. Through the subscales score’s operation, we expanded the application space of attribution orientation scale. This scale estimated that this scale is estimated to produce obvious application value in social psychology and management psychology domain, such as talent selection, talent appointment, talent evaluation, talent supervision, career planning, individual psychological healthy and the social adaptation.
    After inspecting the relationship between Attribution orientation dimensions and 8 social psychological variables, the following characters of four attribution orientation dimensions have been confirmed: generalizability, stability and effectiveness for evaluation.
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    The Motivation Mechanism of Collective Action in Different Contexts
    ZHANG Shu-Wei,WANG Er-Ping,ZHOU-Jie
    2012, 44 (4):  524-545. 
    Abstract ( 813 )   PDF (647KB) ( 1559 )  
    As the representation of social contradictions, collective action in China typically involves mass incidents which refer to the conflicts between certain civilians and local administration. A group member engages in collective action any time that he or she acts as a representative of a group and when the action is directed at improving the conditions for the entire group. This research, consisting of two experiments, focused on the motivation mechanism underlying collective action in different incident contexts (i.e., instrumental vs. non-instrumental) which were manipulated by using scenarios. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating roles of group identity and incident contexts in the relationship between group relative deprivation and collective action. Moreover, the present study also explored the effects of group-based anger and group efficacy on collective action. The results indicated that:
    First, regardless of incident context, group identity moderated the relation between group relative deprivation and collective action (or collective action intention). Specifically, when general group identity (i.e., identity with undergraduates) was salient, individuals with high general group identity were more likely to participate in collective action because group identity moderated the relation between group efficacy and collective action intention at different levels of group relative deprivation. That is, in the high group relative deprivation condition, when general group identity was salient, participants’ collective action intention increased as their group efficacy increased; while in the low group relative deprivation condition, group identity did not have a moderating effect. However, when special group identity (i.e., identity with undergraduates at a certain university) was salient, participants were very likely to engage in collective action and collective action intention increased regardless of group relative deprivation condition. In this process, group-based anger partially mediated the moderating effect of group identity on the relationship between group relative deprivation and collective action intention.
    Second, incident context moderated the relation between group relative deprivation and collective action intention at different levels of group identity. Specifically, in the non-instrumental incident context, when general group identity was salient, participants’ collective action intention was better predicted by group relative deprivation; whereas in the instrumental incident context, participants with high group relative deprivation were more likely to engage in collective action than those with low group relative deprivation despite of the nonsignificant difference. In addition, group-based anger predicted collective action intention more strongly than group efficacy in the non-instrumental incident context. Nevertheless, group-based anger and group efficacy exerted equal impact on collective action intention in the instrumental incident context.
    An important theoretical implication of this study is that it extends the dual-pathway model of collective action in different incident contexts at distinct levels of group relative deprivation. Furthermore, the current study provides a useful experimental paradigm involving the successful manipulation of incident contexts in the lab. Regarding practical implications, this research examines the social psychological mechanism underlying collective action in China by examining motivation, thus informing administrators and policy makers on how to monitor and reduce mass incidents in response to public administration.
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    The Influence Mechanism of Team Emotional Climate on Team Innovation Performance
    LIU Xiao-Yu,LIU Jun
    2012, 44 (4):  546-557. 
    Abstract ( 1238 )   PDF (431KB) ( 2903 )  
    The emotional aspect of teams has received increasing attention in the group/team literature in the West. However, very few empirical studies have addressed the issue in China. This study examines the effect of team emotional climate, emotional labor, and team efficacy on team innovation, especially the moderating role of team emotional labor and the mediating role of group efficacy on the relationship between team emotional climate and team innovation.
    In the study, team emotional climate and team emotional labor are conceptualized as contrasting types of team emotional exchanges. We define the former as within-team member directed emotional exchange and the latter as the outward directed emotional exchange required to enact one’s job role. We argue that team emotional labor moderates the relationship between team positive emotional climate and team innovation performance such as the relationship is stronger in lower than higher team emotional labor contexts. In addition, we hypothesize that the interaction between team emotional climate and team emotional labor on team innovation is mediated by team efficacy.
    Data were collected from 85 team leaders and 475 team members using questionnaire survey. The average team size was 5.29 (SD = 2.46) with a minimum of three and a maximum of 16 members per team. Results of analyzing the matched sample showed that team positive emotional climate promotes team efficacy. Emotional labor has resource draining effects and weakens the relationship between team positive emotional climate and team innovation. When emotional labor is high, even a team possesses low positive emotional climate, which has positive effect on team innovation. In contrast, when emotional labor is low, team positive emotional climate has positive effect on team innovation. The results also showed that the interactional effect of team emotional climate and emotional labor on team innovation performance is fully mediated by team efficacy.
    This study offers five major contributions. First, it examines the specific mechanism through which team-level convergence of emotions influences team innovation by investigating the moderating role of team emotional labor and the mediating role of team efficacy in the relationship. Second, it expands the existing literature which is dominated by studies based on Western cultures by providing evidence of team-level emotion in China. Third, it contributes to the literature of team emotional climate and addresses the question of team innovation from the emotional aspect of teams. Fourth, it identifies and examines team emotional climate and team emotional labor as two types of emotional exchanges, thus contributing to the research on team emotional dynamics. Finally, our study identifies positive team emotional climate as an important source of team efficacy, which plays a significant role in the relationship between team emotional climate, team emotional labor and team innovation.
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    A New Method of Q-matrix Validation Based on DINA Model
    TU Dong-Bo,CAI Yan,DAI Hai-Qi
    2012, 44 (4):  558-568. 
    Abstract ( 683 )   PDF (329KB) ( 1112 )  
    Recently more and more attentions were paid on cognitive diagnosis (CD). The recognition of Q matrix was the basis and proposition of CD, and it was the only information media about cognitive attributes and test items. Only if it was recognized correctly, then the following cognitive analysis might be reliable.
    This paper developed a new modification method of Q matrix (called g method) based on DINA model. The method could detect and modify the mistakes on Q matrix that could make the Q matrix rationally and promote the correct match ratio of CD.
    Monte Carlo simulation method was use here, and some comparisons with western similar studies were done. Findings showed:
    (1) Under any response slip probability (5%, 10%, 15%) context, when the critical value of parameters s and g was set to be 0.2, 0.25 or 0.3, g method could modify the mistakes of Q matrix efficiently. When Q matrix was recognized correctly, no modification will be done by g method. These indicated that g method could work well on recognition and modification on Q matrix whether it has mistakes or not.
    (2) Compared to the similar western studies, the correct modification ratio of g method was relatively great and similar with the consequences of d method suggested by de la Tarre (2008). But g method was simpler than d method.
    (3) The g method could not only rectify the mistakes of Q matrix efficiently but also promote the correct match ratio of CD. Especially the correct match ratio of PMR increased greater than 40% which was a wonderful work.
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