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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 1993, Volume 25 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AUDITORY-VISUAL M0DALITY EFFECT IN TIME JUDGEMENT
    Huang Xiting,Zheng Yun Institute of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing
    1993, 25 (03):  3-10. 
    Abstract ( 1107 )  
    Two intervals were presented at the same time auditorily or visually.Following the presentation, the subject was given randomly one of the twointervals, and was asked to reproduce it immediately orafter a delay of 5sec.The results showed that: (1) In the short time interval condition (1sec.,1.5sec., 2sec.),the reproduction is more accurate for audition rather than vision,and for audition,deley has little effect on temporal information coding. How-ever, in the Iong interval condition (10sec., 11sec., 12sec.), the subject'spreformance was indistinguishable whether the intervals were presented audi-torily or visually. (2) The source of the modality effects is not sensory storedbut memory. (3) Positive time-order-error often occurred in the judgement off-short time interval,negative time-order-error was more likely to occur in longtime interval.
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    A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY FOR HUMAN COLOR VISION
    Tao Linmi,Yao Guozheng,Wang Yunjiu Institute of Biopysics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100101, P. R. China
    1993, 25 (03):  11-18. 
    Abstract ( 1029 )  
    Combining ecological optics with computational vision, we claim that theunderlying task of color information processing is detecting light invariant,which is spectral reflectance of physical surfaces. On this foundation, we pro-pose a computational theory of color vision and a biological standard ofcomputational vision itself. Early color vigion is a typical ill-posed problem, some constraints mustbe introduced. The first two constraints are full-spectrum and full-color con-straint. After proof of the existance of color algorithm, a subjectivedescription of physical surfaces is constructed, that is relative reflectance. Itis reasonable that the relative refletance is a neural representation of color andbrightness perception. For the objectivity of color perception, the third con- straint, objective constraint, is proposed. As a result, the basic assumption forconstructing color perception is as follows. The early vision system constructs color perception in optic environment.If tke information processing fits well with the full -spectrum, full-color andobjectivity constraints, the constructed color perception is a neural representationof color and brightness. We expound the completeness of neural representation, the objectivity ofcolor perception, and some problems on performance of color vision. We arguethat brightness and color vision is unity and should be considered on the sameframework. Both differences of color and brightness in spatial-temporal domainplay an important role in conveying visual information. Some psychophysicaland physiological results are consistent to the computational theory of colorvision and the unity of color and brightness in early vision.
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    RELATION BETWEEN THE IMAGE OPERATION OF CHINESE CHARACTER DECOMPOSITION AND COMPOSITION AND THE LEARNING OF CHINESE CHARACTER FORMS
    Liu Ming South China Normal University, Guangzhou
    1993, 25 (03):  19-27. 
    Abstract ( 1138 )  
    The study is conducted to explore the factors of Chinese written characterforms and the psychological processes which affect the acquisition of ChineseCharacters, and their inner relationship, in the hope of supplying a theoreticalbasis for elementary Chinese character instruction and cultivation of the pupils'ability in learning Chinese characters. The indexes of this experiment are op-eration speed and accuracy of visual image in composition or decomposition ofChinese characters. TP-801 single board computer was used to present thestimulus and to collect data automatically based upon a survey of 120 pupilsrandomely selected from several Guangzhou elementary schools. The mainresults are as follows: (1) High relation exists between the operation speedand accuracy of visual image in composition or decomposition of Chinese cha-racters and the levels of Chinese character achievement (high middle and lowlevel groups), and significant differences exist among the three levels. (2)Not all of the levels of Chinese characters lead to significant differences ofoperation speed of the visual image, only to a certain degree. (3) The errortypes in composition or decomposition of Chinese characters among the threelevels differ, most in the low level show order confusion, while most in thehigh and middle levels show composition exchange.
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    AGE DIFFERENCES ON DIVERGENT THINKING AND THE EFFECT OF MEMORY TRAINING BY“THE METHOD OF LOCI”
    Xu Shulian,Wu Zhiping,Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1993, 25 (03):  28-35. 
    Abstract ( 1060 )  
    The purpose of this work was to study the age differences on divergentthinking and the transfer effect of memory training. The experimental sub-jects were 24 young and 20 old adults after memory training, and the controlSs were 24 young and 19 old adults who matched with the experimentalgroups. The results indicated: (1) There were marked age differences betweenthe young and the old adults on fluency, flexibility and originality of figu-ral, symbolic and semantic test items; and the individual differences ofdivergent thinking performances was rather large among young adults, butstill less than that of the elderly, (2) Compared with the control groups, theperformances of the young experimental group were significantly better onfigural fluency and originality,and semantic originality,while the performan-ces of the old experimental group were better only on the figural flexibility(P=.052). It showed that memory training with the "Method of Loci" had acertain indirect transfer effect on divergent thinking, especially to young adu-lts. (3) There were obvious and positive correlations between divergent thinkingand imagination ability, the performances of "Digit-symbol" test, memory ofwords of pre-and post-training, and the memory performances of pictures aswell, but the"Vocabulary"test was only correlated with two forms of divergentthinking in the training group.
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    IMPAIRMENT OF VISUAL FORM DISCRIMINATION IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
    Tang Cimei,Liu Ying Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Cognitive Laborayort, Chinese University of Scieuce and Technology Beijing Neurosurgical Institute
    1993, 25 (03):  36-41. 
    Abstract ( 861 )  
    Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFDT) was performed in 56 patientswith Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-four normal subjects matched with ageand education level were taken as the control group. The results showed thatthe performance of VFDT in PD was significantly poorer than that of the con-trols, The characteristics of errors of VFDT performance in PD were analysedand the possible mechanism of the impairment was discussed.
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    A STUDY ON CIRCADIAN BODY TEMPERATURE “CLOCK” IN YOUNG ADULT SUBJECTS
    Liu Shiyi,Chen Ming,Zhang Yi,Zhang Wenyuan,Dai Xiuju Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica
    1993, 25 (03):  42-48. 
    Abstract ( 1398 )  
    Temperature "clock" was measured by 24-h continuous recordings of body(oral)and skin(middle back, postaural, elbow, hand, foot) temperature in 23healthy young adults. Experiments were undertaken under "standard ambienttemperature" (~20℃) and "thermal neutrality" (~30℃) conditions, respec-tively.The former simulated standard temperature condition during wakefulness,whereas the latter simulated the commonly "quilt" ambient temperature duringsleep. Measurements of skin temperature were done by a specially-equippedmultiple thermographic device model WMSY -01,which allowed 24-h automa- tic recordings of 10 different skin positions of the body at a glance. Resultsshowed: (1) Skin temperature of the extremities (especially foot) showed signi-ficant reversal under "thermal neutrality" temperature condition(~30℃)whichsimulated the commomly "quilt" ambient temperature during sleep. (2)A minornadir was observed around 14:00 between 10:00 and 16:00 of the temperature"clock" of both "non-siesta" and "siesta" groups, indicating the possible in-volvement of the secasemidian nature of temperature "clock" in young adultsubjects.
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    EFFECTS OF AMBIGUOUS FIGURE RECOGNIZED AS EITHER FACE OR NON-FACE STIMULUS ON ERP_S IN HUMAN SUBJECTS
    Liao Guofeng,Shen Zheng Department of Psychology, National Laboratory on Machine Perception, Beijing University
    1993, 25 (03):  49-54. 
    Abstract ( 977 )  
    Line-drawn figures were used as stimuli in this experiment, figure A in-dicated a rat, figure B was an ambiguous figure and figure C indicated anold man. According to two orders of presentation (A→B→C and C→B→A),these pictures were presented to the subjects. 40 subjects were divided into twoequal groups. ERPs were recorded while the subjects recepted the visual stimu-li. After the presentation of figure B, the subjects were asked to report thecontent of the picture. Analyzing the reports, it was found that the ambigu-ous figure was recognized as a rat in the first order of presentation whileit was recognized as an old man in the second order. The latencies of P2evoked by the ambiguous figure as face stimulus at T3 and Pz were longerthan those by the figure as non-face stimulus, and the latencies of P3 evokedby the ambiguous figure as face stimulus at T3、T4、Pz and Oz were longerthan those by the figure as non-face stimulus; there was no change in theamplitudes of P2 and P3.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXAMINING “FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS”
    Sun Shaobang,Meng Zhaolan Department of Psychology, Peking University
    1993, 25 (03):  55-61. 
    Abstract ( 1462 )  
    Through manipulating the subjects' facial expressions in the way of"muscleby muscle" and filling out the emotional differentiation scalt, the experimentwas carried out to examine "Facial Feedback Hypothesis" which considers thatfacial expressions can induce experiences corresponding to them. The resultsshowed: (1) Anger expression increased anger experience significantly. (2) Thefeedback of expressions influencing experiences had two characteristics: Onekind of emotional facial expression not only increased the intensity of the co-rresponding experience, but also increased those experiences in the samedirection as it was in terms of "positive-negtive" dimension, while it decreasedthose experiences in the opposite direction. (3) The feedback effect of facialexpressions could occur without "self-perception" as a medium variable.
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    MULTIPLE GRADUAL REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF VISUALLY EVOKED POTENTIAL AND THE INTERRELATION OF INTELLIGENCE AND MEMORY OF OLD PEOPLE
    Li Yun,Yue Wenhao Psychology Section, Shandong Medical University
    1993, 25 (03):  62-68. 
    Abstract ( 1226 )  
    The subjects were 74 normal old people (40 males, 34 females) in theage range of 55-79 years. The subjects had to pass all the tests that includedvisual evoked potential (VEP), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised inChina (WAIS-RC), Clinical Memory Scale (CMS), the degree of encephala-trophy in CT,the degree of cerebral arteriosclerosis(D. O. C. A. )and bloodpressure. All the results recorded from the subjects were registered into thecomputer, the computer was used to make the analysis of variance, the multi-ple gradual regression and etc. The results showed that: Intelligence and memory were closely interrelatedwith VEP, D. O. C. A and blood pressure while there was little interrelationwith encephalatrophy. The formula to calculate the IQ and MQ in the olderpeople were also studied.
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    PERSPECTIVE OF EMOTION-DESCRIPTION ON SHIFTS OF COGNITIVE STRUCTURE FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD
    Shen Jiliang Institute of Developmental Psychology. Beijing Normal University
    1993, 25 (03):  69-75. 
    Abstract ( 965 )  
    Based on cognitive development coding system, descriptions of anger, fear,sadness and happiness of 90 subjects aged 13 to 55 were assessed. The resultsshowed that: With rigidity, the thought of the adolescent had the characteris-tics of form, objectiveness and abstractness, while the thought of the adultshad the characteristies of openness, subjectiveness, more concrete and figurative.
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    RESEARCH ON THE BASIS OF MORAL JUDGEMENT IN CHILDREN AGED 5 TO 7
    Mo Lei South China Normal University
    1993, 25 (03):  76-83. 
    Abstract ( 905 )  
    This research studied the basis of moral judgement of children aged 5 to7 using two series of adapted paired stories, in one of which the differencebetween the two behaviour motivations in correct degree was enlarged, andthe other of which the difference between the two behaviour results in seriousdegree was reduced. It was indicated by the results that under both circum-stances, the number of children who changed from the previous judgement onthe basis of results to the judgement on the basis of motivation reached amarked level. According to this result, it could be considered that at thisphase the children were influenced by both the behaviour result and the beha-viour motivation, but the effect of the behaviour result was much larger thanthat of the behaviour motivation. And with the increase of age, the effect ofthe result reduced and that of the motivation increased gradually. The conclu-sion about the moral judgement of children at the age of 5-7 made by Piagetshould be replenished and revised.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PEER INTERACTION
    Pang Lijuan Dept, of Education, Beijing Normal University
    1993, 25 (03):  84-91. 
    Abstract ( 1075 )  
    In this study, sociometric measures, interview with children, and teacher'srating were used to examine the psychological characteristics of popular, rejec-ted, neglected and average types of preschool children. The results showedthat there were significant differences among children in the four types inbehavior, character, emotion, activeness in interaction and social skills. Child-ren of these various types behaved very differently in all the qualities.
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    RESEARCH ON THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TESTCHINESE REVISION AND IT'S NORM
    Zhang Tongyan,Xu Sisun,Cai Zhengyi,Wang Cuilian,Chen Zhimin,Xu Fangzhong Mental Health Institute of Zhejiang province
    1993, 25 (03):  92-101. 
    Abstract ( 1236 )  
    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective technique ofpersonality, as well known as the Rorschach Test. But the original picturesare not suitable for Chinese, and the operation is too complex, it's scoringis not objective enough, it's reliability and validity is not satisfactory, andthere is no standard norm, so it is difficult to popularize it for clinical use,Therefore there is no special research using this test in China. In order to improve the original TAT; First, the TAT tool was revisedto suit Chinese cultural pattern; Second, the technique from structurism toimage-selecting was developed, in order to make the TAT-RC become a han-dy projective technique, and easy to be popularized. Through the research,the TAT-R.C has now certain reliability and validity, artd it's norm(ZHE-JIAN) has been established.
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    EFFECT OF NOREPINEPHRINE ON THE LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN RAT DENTATE GYRUS
    Xu Shitong,Song Yueping,Qu Yingqi Neurophysiology Researsh Laboratory, South China Normal University, Guangzhou
    1993, 25 (03):  102-107. 
    Abstract ( 858 )  
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of microinjectionof norepinephrine (NE) into the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) on thesynaptic efficacy during the establishment and consolidation of conditioneddrinking response. Field potentials elicited by perforant path stimulation wererecorded from the DG of freely moving rats. The results were as follows:NE significantly enhanced synaptic efficacy, facilitating the development oflearning-dependent long-term potentiation (LdLTP) and the establishment ofconditioned drinking response, but no effect on retention of LdLTP was ob-served. The results indicated that NE was involved in the development ofLdLTP in the dentate gyrus.
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    SOME SUGGESTIONS ON THE INTEGRAL REFORM OF COMMON COURSE PSYCHOLOGY IN NORMAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN CHINA
    Li Xinwang Henan University
    1993, 25 (03):  108-113. 
    Abstract ( 782 )  
    On the basis of practice, the author puts forward three suggestions on theintegral reform to overcome the problems existing in psychology as a commoncourse in normal colleges and universities at present in China: 1. to knowwell the double tasks of this course; 2. to build a new system of teachingmaterials according to cognitive factors、non-intelligence factors、socio-psycholo-gical factors and psychological factors of the teacher. And also emphasisshould be put on practicability and readability in the teaching material; 3. tea-ching procedure should be closely related to the characteristics of the majors ofthe students, and various teaching forms and methods should be adopted.
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