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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1993, Volume 25 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    AN EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENT ON GIFTED CHILDREN——FOLLOW-UP STUDY IN BEIJING No.8 MIDDIE SCHOOL
    Zha Zixiu,Zhou Lin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1993, 25 (04):  3-11. 
    Abstract ( 1000 )  
    This paper is a 4 year educational experimental study for gifted childrenin Beijing No. 8 middle school. 35 gifted children (25 males and 10 females)were identified ind selected. The average age was 10.6, and average IQ138.6. The main results are as follows: 1. The gifted children finished allthe curiculums of middle school within four years (4 years shorter than thenormal class). They (at the average age of 14) passed the unified entranceexamination for university with a total score of 35.9 higher than the normalclass of that school. And every one had enrolled into key universities. 2. Thegifted children had made further development in intelligence through the edu-cational experiment. Five creative thinking and reasoning tests were carriedout before graduation. The results of all the tests showed that the gifted chil-dren notably exceeded the same aged normal children, and 4 out of the 5tests exceeded the same grade normal children who were 3-5 years older. 3.They were in good health during the course of the educational experiment.Therefore this study proved that the researchers' idea concerning identificationand education was correct and effective.
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    TIME DURATION ESTIMATED BY PRESCHOOLERS AND THEIR STRATEGIES
    Fang Ge,Feng Gang,Jiang Tao,Fang Fuxi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1993, 25 (04):  12-18. 
    Abstract ( 859 )  
    The purpose of the study was to explore how preschoolers estimated timeduration and their (if any) strategies. A panda figure was shown on thecomputer screen with different time intervals of 2, 4, 6, and 8 seconds res-pectively in random order. The subject was asked to reproduce the same timeintervals corresponded with the presentation of the panda by pressing a keyevery time. The preschoolers with the age of 5 and 6 were investigated bybeing assigned to three experimatal conditions. The results indicated that thepreschoolers could distinguish the variations of simple time duration withinseveral seconds from one another; The duration with 4 seconds were estimatedmore aaccurately than the others under the condition of no reference of theclicked sound; The duration with 6 seconds were estimated by the 5-yr-oldsaccurately under the condition of the reference of the clicked sound; The find-ing also convinced that the time references could be approached by the chil-dren as early as 5 years of age who would potentially regard the time as aquantitative dimension by being counted.
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    PHONOLOGICAL EFFECT FOR IDENTIFICATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Zhang Wutian,Feng Ling,He Haidong Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1993, 25 (04):  19-24. 
    Abstract ( 893 )  
    The present experiment was conducted to examine whether Chinese charac-ter identification is mediated by phonological processes or not. A maskedpriming paradigm was used. Five kinds of character pairs were used as stimuli(orthographically similar; orthographically similar homonym; homophone;synonym; and cotrol character). All of them were divided into higher andlower frequencies. The exposure duration were 40ms for targets and 25, 35,45ms for priming characters. The results showed that there was a significantinhibit effect for homophone targets compared with control targets at 25msand 35ms exposure duration in the condition of higher frequency, And theorthographically similar homonym targets got significant facilitation effect at25ms. In lower frequency condition a significant facilitation was obtained forboth orthographically similar and orthographically similar homonym targetsat three exposure dtirations of priming. And the homophone showed insigni-ficant difference compared to the control targets. The results suggest thatChinese character identification is mediated by phonological processes. Theconditions in which the function of phonology appeared were discussed.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COLLINS' SEMANTIC HIERARCHICAL NETWORK MODEL
    Chen Baoguo Hebei Normal College
    1993, 25 (04):  25-31. 
    Abstract ( 827 )  
    This paper presented an experimental study on Collins' semantic hierar-chical network model under the method of semantic verification. The resultsshowed that: (1) Collins semantic hierarchical netword model cannot be pro-perly applied to the study of information processing in the human brain. (2)the degree of the subjects familiarity with the objects represented by the sub-jects of the sentence to be judged by them is an important factor in determi-ning the time acquired in semantic verification. (3) The time for the subjectsto retrieve the attributes of concept cannot be entirely determined by the loca-tion of the attributes.
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    A CROSS-CULTURAL (CHINESE AND GERMAN)MEMORY TRAINING STUDY
    Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua,Wu Zhiping Xu Shulian Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1993, 25 (04):  32-38. 
    Abstract ( 819 )  
    ?he purpose of this study was to compare the age and cross-culturaldifferences of the memory performances, and the training effect of Chineseand Germans across the life span through cognitive training in different his-torical and cultural backgrounds. This study further investigated age andculture-related differences in training transfer on figures. There were 70Chinese and 70 Germans divided into three age groups. The memory trainingof Method of Loci was conducted in Beijing and Berlin. The results indicatedthat the cognitive function of the elderly declined significantly and the deve-lopmental reserve capacity of cognitive function of the elderly were lower thanthat of young adults and adolescents. At pretest, there was no culture-rela-ted difference in all performances between Chinese and Germans. After trai-ning. the performances of the Chinese improved more than that of the Germans.Training exposed cross-cultural differences.
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    EFFECT OF THE FIELD-DEPENDENT/INDEPENDENT COGNITIVE STYLE ON OPTOKINETIC ILLUSION
    Shi Wanghong,HuangFuen,Ren Jianjun,Wang Xiaoying Department of Avaition Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University
    1993, 25 (04):  39-43. 
    Abstract ( 943 )  
    In this research, 100 military university students were tested with Rodand Frame Test, 15 subjects who had high scores and 15 subjects who had lowscores were divided into the field-dependent group and the field-independentgroup respectively, Each subject experienced a series of optokinetic step sti-mulation(5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 deg/sec). The latency and fuzzyestimate magnitude of the illusion were recorded. The main results are asfollow. 1. All the latency of the field-dependent group are longer than that ofthe field-independent group, The latency of the field-independent group de-creased linearly with the increase of stimulation velocity, While the field-de-pendent group decreased exponently. 2. Between 5-120 deg/sec, the fuzzy magnitude of the two groups regressedto two linear equations, The coefficient of two equations have no significantdifference, but the intercepts have significant difference. Consequently, the field-dependent/independent cognitive style is an im-portant factor that has influence on producing optokinetic illusion, It is veryhelpful for psychological selection and training of military pilots.
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    EFFECT OF SEVERAL FACTORS ON TIME SUCCESSION THRESHOLD
    Liu Xuezhi Institute ot psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing
    1993, 25 (04):  44-51. 
    Abstract ( 795 )  
    The present research included two experiments in which orthogonal designwith two covariates controlled were used. Effect of seven factors were in-vestigated: type of stimulus, complexity of stimulus, intensity of stimulus, pre-senting time of stimulus, subjects' criteria on judging the two stimuli, thenumber of the same modality, and gender——on time succession threshold.In experiment one, the results showed that four factors——the type of stimu-lus, the presenting time of stimulus, subjects' criteria on judging the twostimuli, and the number of the same modality——had significant effects onthe time succession threshold, whereas the other three factors——the complexi-ty of stimulus, the intensity of stimulus, and the gender——did not significan-tly affect the time succession threshold. In experiment two, the results showedthat there was no interaction among the four significant factors.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RETROACTIVE INHIBITION BY APPLYING REGRESSIVE-ROTATABLE DESIGN
    Jin Zhicheng Education Department, Northeastern Normal University
    1993, 25 (04):  52-60. 
    Abstract ( 1058 )  
    The paper is an experimental study of retroactive inhibition by applyingregressive-rotatable design, A significant effect was obtained from the experi-ment which proved second-order equation was fitted to the data. The experi-ment showed that the degree of original learning lists (A) and the length pfinterpolate lists (C) played the main role in the four factors concerning theeffect of retroactive inhibition. When A was satisfactorily adequate, the retro-active inhibition, relatively speaking, was always minimal, whether C waslong or short. Whan A was satisfactorily adequate, the length of C and retro-active inhibition exhibited functional relationship of direct proportion. Thisstudy successfully manifasted that regressive-rotatable design is applied notonly to psychological studies, it also can show the functional relationship ofpsychological phenomena which changed under the total effect of multifactors.Hence it has taken a step forward than the methods of traditional design inpsychology.
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    RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT AND CORRELATION RATIO BETWEEN THE OBSERVED SCORES AND LATENT TRAIT
    Chen Xizhen Putian Institute, Fujian
    1993, 25 (04):  61-65. 
    Abstract ( 843 )  
    Reliability is a very important idea in classical test theory. Under classi-cal true score model reliability coefficient R=D(T)/D(x). In general, it isconsidered that there exists no relation between reliability and item responsetheory. But it is interesting to notice that reliability coefficient is just thesame as η_X~2θ=1-MD(x/θ)/D(x), which is nonlinear correlation ratio be-tween the examinee's observational scores and latent trait scores. A new me-thod of estimating reliability was obtained on the basis of the relation. Therelationship between coefficient of correlation and correlation ratio between xand θ are discussed.
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    THE SIGNIFICANCE AND PROCESS OF DEVELOPING CHINESE PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INVENTORY (CPAI)
    Song Weizhen,Zhang Jianxin,Zhang Jianping,Fanny Cheung,Kwok Leung Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong
    1993, 25 (04):  66-73. 
    Abstract ( 1410 )  
    Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) was developed and colla-borated by the Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences andthe Department of Psychology of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, whichwas strictly studied using the method of constructing personality scale. Thedevelopment of the CPAI included the following four steps: a) establishmentof the constructs to be measured by personality and clinical scales; b)generation of scale items; c) construction of the CPAI; d) standardization ofthe CPAI. The final inventory consisted of 22 personality scales, 12 clinicalscales and an infrequency seale (35 scales and 510 items in total). Throughpractical examination and statistical analysis, it was shown that CPAI hadhigh reliability and validity and could be used in many fields in China.
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    THE ACTIVATING EFFECT OF CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY ON THE TWO HEMISPHERES IN CHILDREN
    Guo Kejiao,Gao Dingguo,Henry S. R. Kao East China Normal University University of Hong Kong
    1993, 25 (04):  74-80. 
    Abstract ( 920 )  
    The study explored the effect of calligraphy load and other load includinghandwriting, English writing and calculation on reaction time(RT) in the twohemispheres. It was found that: (1) RT of children significantly shortenedafter calligraphy writing. (2) Children's RT was significantly cut downafter handwriting. (3) Calculating load and English writing load did notcause significant shortening in RT.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF VISUAL EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL IN UNDERSTANDING OF FAMILIER PHOTOGRAPHS
    Yang Wenjun,Chen Wenming,Huang Huangjing,Liu Mantang Southern Hospital, First Military University, Guagzhou 510515
    1993, 25 (04):  81-84. 
    Abstract ( 1222 )  
    50 students as volunteers were examined with visual event-relatedpotentials (ERP) to detect whether the subjects knew the team-leader. Theteam-leader's photographs were projected as targets with the probability of0.25 randomly with many photographs of strangers as nontargets with theprobability of 0.75 by a slide projector. The probability of the control nontar-gets were the same as the targets the. The subjects were asked to watch thescreen and press either one of the two buttons (YES or NO) while he sawthe familier or the stranger's photograph. The functions of these two buttonswere the same as thoser to trigger the projector for the next slide and theevoked potential equipment for averaging of the electricity from the scalp. Theamplitude and area of P3 wave from Cz and Pz with targets and nontargetswere calculated and analized by a microcomputer. It was considered as posi-tive if three of the four parameters which included the amplitude and area ofP3 from Cz and Pz with targets larger than those with nontargets. The positive rate was 98% and the false negative was 2%. It was indi-cated that the P3 of ERP could be utilized to find out whether the subjectconfessed truly that he was familier with his team-leader.
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    CNV OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT IQ AND CHILDREN WITH DOWN'S SYNDROME
    Jiang Deming,Yang Wenhua,Wang Boyang Physiological Department, Fudan University, Shanghai
    1993, 25 (04):  85-93. 
    Abstract ( 626 )  
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    A STUDY ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT OF MENCIUS
    Yan Guocai Department of Educational Management, Shanghai Normal University
    1993, 25 (04):  94-101. 
    Abstract ( 792 )  
    Mencius' thought on general psychology was systematically argued in thispaper, (1) basic views on psychological thought; (2) psychological thought onperception and thinking; (3) psychological thought on emotion and desire; (4)psychological thought on will and motivation; (5) psychological thought onintelligence and ability; and (6) psychological thought on human nature andpractice.
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    ON THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN COMMON COURSE PSYCHOLOGY FOR HIGHER NORMAL COLLEGES
    Yu Wensen Education Department, Fujian Normal University
    1993, 25 (04):  102-107. 
    Abstract ( 441 )  
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