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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 29 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    PROCESSING OF CHINESE SENTENCE AMBIGUITY
    Chen Yongming Cui Yao (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100012)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 2-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 154 )
    Two experiments were conducted to examine the role of meaning frequency and the effects of prior and posterior context in processing of ambiguous Chinese sentences.In the first experiment,each ambiguous Chinese sentence had two possible meanings.In order to distinguish these two meanings,a group of students who would not take part in the final trails in the experiment was asked to identify which meaning was used most frequently.Meaning Frequency (dominant,subordinate),Context (prior,posterior),Reaction Type (yes,no) were used as within subject factors.The tasks for the subjects were to decide whether the meaning of a target sentence was similar to that of the last previous stimulus.Both Reaction Times and Rate of Reaction were recorded.The results indicated:(1)Effects of prior context that provide subjects with predictive information upon resolution of sentence ambiguity are more than posterior context;(2) The dominant meaning of an ambiguous sentence is more speedily accessed than the subordinate meaning of an ambiguous sentence under the same contextual conditions.The second experiment aimed at examining the effects of meaning frequency and time course of meaning activation.There were three possible interpretations of each experimental Chinese sentence.The meaning frequency was also scaled before the experiment.The task was the same with the first experiment,but there was no context with ambiguous Chinese sentence.The within subject factor was Meaning Frequency(dominant,subordinate).The first interpretation of an ambiguous sentence was Dominant and the third one was as Subordinate.Interval(100ms,1000ms) between the stimulus and the target was as between subject factors.The result suggested:The time course in activation of multiple possible meanings of an ambiguous sentence is assessed.The dominant meaning of ambiguity can be activated under short interval between stimulus and target sentence,but activating subordinate meaning needs longer time.
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    BASIC PROCESSING UNIT OF CHINESE CHARACTER RECOGNITION:EVIDENCE FROM STROKE NUMBER EFFECT AND RADICAL NUMBER EFFECT
    Peng Danling Wang Chunmao (Beijing Normal University,Beijing,100875)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 9-17.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 298 )
    Both naming task and character decision task were used to investigate the stroke number effect and radical number effect in the processing of Chinese characters.Results indicated that 1) a character with fewer strokes is accessed faster than a character with more strokes when their radical numbers were matched;2) there is no significant interaction between stroke number and character frequency;3) radical number effect only existed in low frequency characters;4) processing of a character included three levels,namely stroke,radical,and character;and 5) processing time of a character is affected by the stroke numbers per radical and the radical number.
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    A STUDY ON IMPLICIT SOCIAL COGNITION
    Yang Zhiliang Liu Suzhen Zhong Yiping Gao Hua Tang Yongming (EastChinaNormalUniversity,Shanghai,200062)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 18-202.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 343 )
    To demonstrate unconscious or implicit aspects of social cognition,90 subiects were selected randomly from university students and were shown three kinds of pictures of attackers and victims of attack and received two tests(implicit and explicit).3×2 Mixed Design was adopted in this research.The resrlts showed:1.Processing types had different effects on recgnition and preferred tests and experimental dissociation appeared;2.Implicot attitude which has great inflouence on the social judgement cam be measured.
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    EFFECTS OF STROKE TYPE ON IDENTIFICATION OF UPRIGHT AND TILTED CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Yu Bolin (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100012) Zhang Shulin (InstituteofPsychology,South-WestNormalUniversity,Chong。ing,630715) Pan Yujin (Wenzhou Teachers' College,Wenzhou,325000)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 24-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 162 )
    This study is the first to propose one conception of stroke type in order to describe morphologically in visual wholistical configurational features.Naming paradigm was adopted.The experimental results showed whether characters were located at upright or at seven disorientations with angular deviations from the upright by 45°step,there were effects of stroke type.This study analysed roles of both oblique effect of line orientation and the factor of the stroke type in the effects of the stroke type.
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    HEURISTICS IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING PROCESSING
    Zhang Qinglin Wang Yongming Zhang Zhongming (Department of Psychology,Southwest Normal University,Chong。ing 630715)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 30-37.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 146 )
    Using a computer program designed by us,we studied how college students solved the problem on rule discovery.We concentrated on thinking strategies in processing of hypothesis formation,experiment design and experiment performance.The results showed that the effects of rule difference were significant and the effects of feedback difference were not significant,the heuristics were most important strategies in hypothesis testing processing.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DISSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSES IN SELECTIVE ATTENTION
    Zhang Yaxu Jin Zhicheng (Department of Psychology,Northeast Normal University,Changchun,130024)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 38-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 150 )
    Using Chinese single character words as materials,red as targets and green as distractors,with process dissociation procedure,the study examined directly the relationship between target activation/distractor inhibition and conscious/unconscious processes.The results showed:1.Identity of the Critical Words influenced not only the estimation of value Pc,but also that of value Pu.Both Pc and Pu decreased when the Critical Words worked as distractors,which meant making information unrelated decreased not only the degree with which conscious processes were involved,but also the degree with which unconscious processes were involved;2.The level of processing(LoP)affected Pc,but not Pu when the Critical Words worked as targets.However,LoP didn′t affect Pc and Pu when the Critical Words worked as distractors.Therefore,whether LoP could dissociate conscious and unconscious processes depended on the identity of the Critical Words or whether information was related.
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    DEVELOPMENTAL FUNCTIONS FOR SPEEDS OF INFORMATION PROCESSES DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
    Lin Chongde Wo Jianzhong Yu Guorong (Institute of Developmental Psychology (Development of Radio electronics Beijing Normal University (100875),Beijing China) Beijing Normal University (100875) Beijing China)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 44-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 300 )
    The aim of the present research was to determine if age differences in processing time reflected (a) changes that are specific to particular processing tasksor (b) global change in speed of processing.To distinguish these explanations,7 to 19 year olds were administered measures of choice reaction time,letter matching and sentence figure matching.Results showed that the 7 to 17 year olds′ response times (RTs) increased linearly as a function of young adults′ RTs in sentence figure matching performance,which developmental change was described well by exponential functions with a common rate of change,but not better in letter matching.With age increase there were different speeds of processing in different tasks.The choice reaction time and letter matching time decreased rapidly,but sentence figure matching time decreased slowly.
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    THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR FRIENDSHIP QUALITIES OF CHILDREN AGED 6—15 YEARS OLD
    Li Shuxiang Chen Huichang Chen Yinghe (Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University,100875)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 52-60.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 214 )
    The purposes of this study are: (1) To reveal general low and characteristics of children's cognitive development for friendship qualities; (2) to search children's cognitive structure of friendship qualities.The subjects were 100 children aged 6,8,10, and adolescents aged 12 and 15 who were from a kindergarten, a primary school and a high school in Beijing.The results showed: (1) The children's cognitive structure for friendship qualities consisted of five dimensions which are personal communication and conflict resolution,exempting and competition,liking and appreciating each other,common activities and helping each other,intimate personal intercourse; (2) for children and adolescents aged 6—15 years old the importance of the five dimensions are different,the sequence of their importance are: common activities and helping eacho ther,personal communication and conflict resolution,exempting and competition,liking and appreciating each other,intimate personal intercourse; (3) there are substantial developmental differences in different dimensions of friendship qualities.The common activities and playing are developed at age 6 as well as at other ages.It seems that the critical age of its development must be at earlier ages than 6 years.However,other dimensions locate lower level at 6 years old and gradually growth from middle childhood to early adolescence,the critical period is from 10 to 15 years old. (4) Sex differences were found only in dimension of common activities at children aged 12 years old along with boys higher than girls, in dimension of conflict resolution along girls get higher scores than boys,and in dimension of appreciating each other at adolescents aged 15 years old,along with boys higher than girls.
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    A STUDY OF COGNITIONS AND BODY SENSATIONS IN ANXIETY DISORDERS
    Zhou Yun Xu Junmian Wang Xida Jiang Kaida (Department of Psychiatry and Psychology,Zhongshan Hospital,Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai,200032)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 61-67.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 247 )
    Schachter's two factor theory proposed that both body arousal and cognitive interpretations determine the experienced emotion. This view is consistent with Beck's cognitive model of psychopathology. The present research used the Belief Scale (BS), Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scales for depression and anxiety (HAMD, HAMA) to test these theories in anxious subjects (N=58), depressed (N=35) and normal control (N=96) subjects. It was concluded that Automatic thoughts about somatic danger and fear of somatic sensations are specific features of anxiety disorders. Thoughts about social and behavioral consequences, however, seem to be a more common feature of both anxious and depressed patients. These results indicated that body arousal and cognitive interpretations play an important role in the onset and maintenance of anxiety. The content of clinically anxious patients' cognition is characterized by theme of threat. Dangerous negative automatic thoughts are closely related with anxiety. Schema, which are reflected by dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes might make patients magnify the degree of danger. The data provided evidence for Schachter's two factor theory and Beck's cognitive model.
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    A STUDY ON THE COPING ACTIVITIES OF UNDERGRADUATES
    Wei Youhua (Psychological Counseling Centre,Southeast University,Nanjing,210096) Tang Shengqin (Dept of Psychology,East China Normal University,Shanghai,200062)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 68-75.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 254 )
    Coping activities of 744 undergraduates were studied using the COPES cale.The results showed that:(1) there were four fundamental ways in coping:active coping focused on the problem,seeking social support,escape and inaction;(2) the undergraduates in our country take much more strategies of active coping focused on the problem and seeking social support than escape and inaction,and there were more significant differences among situations,grades and between males and females,and less siignificant differences among subjects;(3) there were significant differences between Chinese and Americans.
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    THE TREND AND STRUCTURE OF NEED FOR STAFF OF NATIONAL ENTERPRISES
    Kuang Zhihua Zhang Hongwei (Nanjing University of Scienceand Technology,Nanjing,210094)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 76-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    Using research paper the trend and structure of need for staff of national enterprises were measured.The results showed that:1.Twenty eight kinds of primary needs were realized by the Chinese staff.2.The twenty eight kinds of needs could be differentiated into six patterns and six administrative levels,from the lower level upwards they were:existence needs,security need,relationship needs,self management needs,respect needs and development needs.In the six patterns of needs,security needs,development needs and existence needs were prior to the staff of national enterprises.3.Differences in enterprises,ages and degree of education influenced the staff requirement,moreover,there were different depths in each need.
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    A PHASE MODEL OF HIERARCHICAL DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATION:SOME EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES
    Ma Jianhong (Department of Psychology,Hangzhou University,Hangzhou,310028)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 83-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 119 )
    This research proposed a Phase Model of Hierarchical Decision Making in Organization based on action theory.Data collected from 15 Chinese enterprises confirmed the model by showing a successive differentiation process of decision making coalitions over decision phases in terms of influence distribution among organizational levels.Specifically,two decision coalitions were found in phase 1:Top management on the one side,middle management,foreman and workers on the other side.But as the result of differentiation of the mean end structure of the decision in phases 2 and 3,the middle management emerged out as the third independent coalition.In phase 4,further differentiation seemed to empower the level of foreman as the representative for workers in participation of decision making.Besides,implications of this model for further research on decision making as well as its application for practice were discussed.
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    A STUDY ON MEASURING S-R COMPATIBILITY AND USING S-R COMPATIBILITY TO EVALUATE LEARNING EASINESS OF TYPING CHINESE CHARACTERS INTO COMPUTERS
    Liu Yanfang Zhang Kan (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100012)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 92-98.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 130 )
    Stimulus-Response Compatibility,an important concept in psychology,has been demonstrated that it is an influential factor in human information processing.Complexity of the input of Chinese characters into computers raised the problem of evaluating learning easiness.This study applied the concept of S-R Compatibility to put forward a new method of evaluating easiness of learning to master a Chinese character inputting program.The value of the Stimulus-Response compatibility was used to predict the easiness of learning Chinese character inputting program. Three most popular Chinese character inputting programs were used in this study.The real learning easiness drawn from an experiment confirmed the predictability of the method suggested.
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    A GENERAL APPROACH OF MEASURING TEST VALIDITY ——CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE CRITERION STRUCTURE SPACE
    Wang Quan Dai Lingyun (Dept.of Education Hangzhou University,Hangzhou 310028) (College of Adult Education.Hangzhou University 310028)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 99-104.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    This paper put forward a general approach to measure test validity. First, according to the measure aim, the test constructor raised a certain set including various possible fitting models which is called“Criterion Structure Space”.Then each model in the criterion structure space was examined respectively with confirmatory Factor Analysis,If an assumed model did fit the observed data best,the proportion of the variance which is caused by the factor of the model to the total variance of the observed variable could be defined as validity of the test.
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    PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH ON COMPUTER SUPPORTED CO OPERATIVE WORK
    Fu Xiaolan (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100012) Gary M.Olson,Judith S.Olson (The University of Michigan,Ann Arbor,MI 48109 1234,U.S.A.)
    . 1997, 29 (01): 105-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 91 )
    Computer supported co operative work(CSCW) is a new topic that blends applied computer science and cognitive science.The focus of CSCW is group work that can be supported by some kind of technology.There are a large number of psychological issues in this field.Psychologists need to understand the nature of group work to evaluate whether the new technology fits the group work.We found a number of contributions from psychology to the understanding of how to build technology and what might be successful.In this paper,we described first the dimensions in this field,some other importat psychological issues,and finally as an example some work done at the University of Michigan.
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