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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 29 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE PROCESS OF HUMAN VISION SYSTEM’S COGNITIVEOPERATION IN KEEPING COLOR CONSTANCY
    Jiao Shulan Ji Guiping he Haidong (Psychology Institute, Chinese Acadeny of Sciences, 100012)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 113-120.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 173 )
    Based on photometerical measurement and psychopysial method, this researchaimed to study the process of human vision system’s cognitive peration in keepingcolor constancy. In experiment 1, the color contrast’s influence on the cognitive pro-cess in keeping color constancy was investigated, the results suggested that human vi-sion system can make use of the adapted color contrast to correct or compenste forthe changed color which is caused by the environmental illumination. In experiment2, human visual experience’s influence on the cognitive process in keeping color con-stancy was investigated, the results suggested that color constancy concerned nor onlywith low level automatic visual process, but also high level consious cognitiv pro-cess.
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    A CHALLENGE THAT TRADITIONAL STATISTICAL METHODS IS FACING: META-ANALYSIS
    Guo Chunyan Zhu Ying(Capital Normal University, 100037) (Beijing University, 100871) Li Bin(Middle School of Capital Normal University,100037)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 130-136.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 271 )
    Traditional statistics methods and meta-analysis were compared in both experi-mental and overall control groups in our experimental study using computerconstruction. Under the condition of 0.50 standard diviation higher in the overall ex-perimental group than in the overall control group, the satistics testing power of thetraditional t testing was only 41%; while using meta-analysis method to analyse sta-tistics, the result was highly consistent with computer construction model. Thus it wassuggested that meta-analysis method had its validity and reliagility in psychologicalexperimental study and proving theories as well as the reality of a challenge thattraditional statistics method faces.
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    THE EFFECT OF THAINING ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTFOR FRIENDSHIP QUALITIES OF 6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN
    Chen Huichang Li Shuxiang Wang Li(Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University,100875)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 137-143.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    The prupose of this study was to find valid intervention method to promotechildren’s cognitive development of friendship qualities.The subjects were 40 childrenaged 6 from a kindergarten in Beijing .The results showed that the training lastingtwo weeks using method of explaining structured stories and structured stories and structured asking success-fully promoted cognitive development for friendship qualities of 6 year old children.
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    RESEARCH ON THE COURSE OF INFORMATION PROCESSING IN WHICH PRLMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS SUMMARIZED THEMES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF NARRATIONS
    Mo Ler(South China Nonnal University, Guangzhou, 510631)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 144-151.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The paper studied on the course of information processing in which primaryschool students summarized themes of two types of narration. The whole research wasdivided into, the author studied the characteristics of the students indifferent grades when they read articles both in the condition with the definite task ofsummarizing themes and in the condition without the task. In the second step, byanalysing the oral report of summarizing themes, the author studied the activity ofthe information processing when the students summarized themes. According to theexperimental demand, the subjects were elected from a processing, that is, the languagethe research program. The results showed: 1. The reading course of the juniorstudents was mainly a single activity of information processing, that is the languagedecoding, and the course of the senior students were two kinds of activities, that is ,language decoding and reading organization. 2. By analysing the data of oral thinkingby which the students of different levels summarized the ifferent types of arration,it showed that the course in which the students of the primary school summarized thenarration themes went through four kinds of information processing, which werelanguage decoding, reading organization, arragement and the concentration of theproposition net of the article, and verification and adujustment. The courses in whichthe students summarized the themes of the two rpresentative types of narration , oneof which depicted its figure by one instance and the other of which depicted its fig-ure by several instances, were roughly the same, but there were some duifferences inthe concrete course of the arrangement and the concentration of the proposition netwhich was the key link.
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    PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL ' S JUDGMENTS OF CONVENTIONAL TIME DURATION
    Jiang Tao (Psychology Department ,Beijing Normal University 100875) Fang Ge (Psychological Institute of C A S 100012)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 152-159.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 137 )
    The experiment was conducted to study the development of the mental representation and processes underlying the knowledge of conventional time 20 primary school pupils from each of grades 1 , 3, 5 , and 20 university students served as subjects. they were asked to judge whether or not a given day of the week was one of the next 3 days after the reference day. The results Showed that, (1 ) The scores of cognitive processes underlying performance on the tasks of conventional time increased with age. (2) the distance effect and the boundary effect were both significant. The response time and the number of errors increased with the increasing of the distances between the two days, the longest response time and the greatest number , of errors ocurred adjacent to the category boundary (3 days after the first day). (3) The Subjects could use number, to solve the problems of conven- tional time, 1 and 3 graders solved the problems by means of counting recitation, some 5 graders could use image processing to judge the task, most of the 20 year old subjects solved the problems by means of calculation of numbers and image processing.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL FOLDINGABILITY IN CHILDREN
    Shi Ji annong Zhou Lin Zha Zixiu Xu Fan (Laboratory of Human Behavior and Development Instute of Psychology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing ,100012)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 160-165.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    This paper is one part of the cross -cultural study on technical creativity of gifted and normal children between China and Germany In this paper, the development of spa- tial representation in Chinese children aged from 11 - 15 -years of age were detected. The results showed that, (1) in general , students ' mental folding ability develop Ed as they grew up: (2) gifted children ' s mental folding ability was significantly higher than normal children. and the strong interaction between age and intelligence indicated that the intelligence of children was the major factor which had impact on their development of mental folding ability: (3) there exited sex difference between boys ' and girls , mental folding ability under the condition mentioned in this paper , the performances of boys were better than that of girls (4) the curve of development of mental folding ability were differ- ent between sub - groups.
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    TUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF CAILEARNING CONTROL AND METACOGNITIVE MONITOROF 3rd. GRADE PUPILS
    Liu Rude (Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University, 100875)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 166-171.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 102 )
    This experiment studied the relationship between the level of learning control (the adequacy of selecting learning content and controlling pace) and the level of metacognitive monitor (the accuracy of judging one's own learning effectiveness) when 58 3rd grade primary school pupils learned addition rules (rule learning) and used them for computing (skill learning) in CAI condition. The results showed, ( 1)in rule learning, there was significant relationship between the level learning control and metacognitive monitor, but in skill learning, there was no significant relationship be- tween them; (2) level of learning control in rule learning was significantly higher than in skill learning: (3)there was no significant relationship between learning control or metacognitive monitor and achievement.
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    ON FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE ABILITY TO STUDY MATHEMATICS
    Chen Renze Chen Mengda (Xiamen Educational College, Xiamen, 361004)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 172-177.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 252 )
    In this paper, the authors made Q -model and R - model analyses of the scores of the entrance examination of four sorts of middle schools in Xiamen, and calculated the factor scores as well . Based on the investigation of the similarity coefficient ma. trix of the sampling units (students) , three typical representations which govern all the students were found , furthermore based on the investigation of the indexes correlation matrix, four kinds of mathematical abilities which govern all the indexes were found and estimated too.
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    THE EFFECT OF REFERENCE POINT ON DECISIONMAKING UNDER RISK
    He Guibing Bai Fengxiang (Psychology Department, Hangzhou University, 310028)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 178-186.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 300 )
    The effect of reference point on individual and group decision - making under risk were studied based on prospect theory and social decision scheme. 300 subjects were asked to make choice among bets which were different in risk, and then to discuss with others in a three - person group until reaching a consensus . The results showed that, 1) subjects who had recent loss or even experiences prefered riskier bets than those who experienced recent gains in individual decision situation, but there was no difference between GAIN subjects 'preference and EVEN , s, 2) social context had significant effect only on the GAIN subject , s decision, 3) reference point effects were not found in group choice, but majority principle took a role instead.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUSDIFFICULT MENTAL ARITRHMETIC ON HEARTRATE T-WAVE AND RESPIRATION IN INTROVERTSAND EXTROVERTS
    Yan Kele Zhang Yuejuan Shang Zhien Yin Jinquan Chu Jianfang (Hebei Normal University. 050016)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 187-194.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 134 )
    The present study is a further research of the difhrenon in the changes of Heart Ratej T - wave Amplitude and Respintory Fmquency between introverb and extroverts doing mental arithmetic of three different difficulty levels. 15 introverts and 15 extroverts scmened by Eysenck Penonality Quesdonnaire served as subjects and were nquind to fin- ish the mental a.thmetic of three diffrent diffculty levels. The .result showed that the heart rate of the subjects of both groups increased significantly, while the increasing magnitute of the introverb were greater than the extroverb: the T - wave amplitute decreased significantly while the decreasing magnitude of the introverts were greater than the extroverts, the differ ence was not significant though: the respiratory fhquency increawd signifiantly, but the dif ference of the increasing magnitude between the two groups was not significant. lksides, from the chang. of the heart rate we can see that both of the two groups showed adap. tation to the mental arithmetics, but the adapting speed of the introverts was slower than the extroverts. This experiment suggested that anxiety - induced stress had greater effect on heart rate than intellectual performance stress.
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    CROSS-MODAL RESEARCH ON ATTENTION COMPONENTSOF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS
    Luo Yuejia Wei Jinghan (Institute of Psychology ,Chinese Academy of Sciences ,Beijing, 100012)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 195-201.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 167 )
    Event - related potentials were measured on 1 2 normal youth subjects aged 20 - 22 using paradigm " Cross - modal and delayed response" which can improve inattention purity and avoid the effect of task target on the deviant components of ERP.The experi- ment included two conditions: Attend visual modality , ignore auditory modality: At- tend auditory modality , ignore visual modality. The stimulation presented to every subject was the series of five kinds of stimuli, standard, deviant stimuli and response imperative signal in attended modality: standard and deviant stimuli in unattended modality. The vi- sual and auditory sdmuli occurred with a pseudo - random order. The presentation probability of standard stimuli was 82.5 % and deviant stimuli was 1 7. 5 % Every standard or deviant stimulus followed a response imperative signal in attended modality. Different waves were obtained respectively by subtracting ERPs of the standard and deviant sdmuli in unattended condition from those of the same standard and deviant stimuli in attended condition. The present results showed, Under attended condition, there was anenhancement of N1 elicited by deviant stimuli in auditory ,and standard and deviant in visual modality at their own primary sensory area The evidence supported early selection the- ory of attention being provided by the N1 and Nd1 topography, which showed that the Nd 1 onset was earlier than N1 onset in unattended condition rather than that in attended condition. The Nd1 elicited by auditory and visual deviant stimuli were distributed respectively over their primary sensory areas, but Nd1 evoked by auditory and visualstandard stimuli over frontal scalp This result suggested that the processing location of cross-modal attention to deviant stimuli was modality-specificity and to standard stimuli was supramodal mechanism. With regard to the lasting debated problem about selective at - tention, the author suggested that early and late-selection probably changed as a result of various conditions. This means that the early and late - selection of attention has plasticity
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    MEMORY FORMATION FOLLOWING VARIOUSLY REINFORCEDTRAINING IN DAY-OLD CHICKS
    Zheng Li Wang Jianjun (NanJing University , 21003) Weng Xuchu Kuang Peizi (Institute of Psychology , Chinese Academy of Science , Beijing , 100012)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 202-207.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    Day - old chicks were trained with varying concentrations of a taste aversant, methyl anthranilate (MeA) , and tested for retention at different time - points after training. Chicks trained with 5% and 20%MeA preserved memory about 15 minutes and 50 minutes respectively , fitting the STM and ITM of the multiple - stage model of memory formation, while those trained with 40%MeA yielded high retention level up to 8 - 10 hours, this time -course appeared to correspond with the glycoprotein - synthesis - independent stage of the LTM. Only MeA over 60% resulted in good reten- tion lasting at least 24 hours. The results demonstrated that the weak - learning. paradigm not only could dissociate the traditional three main stages of memory forma- tion (STM, ITM, LTM), but also could differentiate the LTM into an early and a later phase. This could open a new approach to the further investigations of the mechanisms of memory formation
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    AN INQUIRY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THINKING INTHE PERIOD BEFORE THE QIN DYNASTY
    Yan Liangshi (Psychological Department ,Educational School Hunan Normal University , Changsha , 410081)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 208-214.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 144 )
    In this dissertation some social psychological thinking reflection on the features of Pre - Qin Dynasty are considered, such as Conformation of peoples ' mind: Making people have Constant Property and Common mind: Superiors behaving as Examples and Inferiors Imitating: Reward and Punishment according to Justice and Sincerity Conformation of the Peoples' mind is the key point of all of these thinking. Thinkers before the Qin Dynasty used system of concepts different from that of modern social psychology. With these concepts, they reflected precisely the state of social attitudes and mind of the Chinese at that historical age, and their thinking had reference value to modern times
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    CONCRETENESS EFFECTS OF TWO -CHARACTERCHINESE WORDS
    Zhang Qin Zhang Biyin (Department of Psychology ,Beijing Normal University ,100875)
    . 1997, 29 (02): 216-224.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 195 )
    Three experiments were performed to examine concreteness effects of two- character Chinese words and test Contrasting predictions of a dual - representation and a context availability hopothesis for concreteness effects. In experiment 1 , equivalent lexical decision times were obtained for concrete and abstract words when they were frequent words , whereas longer lexical decision times were ob- tained for abstract words than for concrete words when they were rare words. The se- cond experiment was to repeat the priming experiment of rare words. Results indi- cated that concreteness effects still existed. The third experiment was perforrned to ex- amine coacreteness effects with two kinds of seotence contexts. With a neutral context lexical decision times for abstract words were longer than for concrete words. With a congruous context , however , the lexical decision times fbr these two word types were equivalent. These results didn, t completely support dual - representation theory or con text availabilitv model .
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