Loading...
ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

Archive

    25 December 1997, Volume 29 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    THE COLOR ZONE OF CHINESE NATURAL SKIN COLOR ANDTYPICAL SKIN COLOR SAMPLES OF CHINESE PEOPLE
    Lin Zhongxian Sun Xiuru (Institute of Psychology ,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing , 100012)
    1997, 29 (04):  337-344. 
    Abstract ( 1168 )  
    The chromatically coordinates and reflectances of natural skin color of 1668 Chinese people aged from new bom babies to old people were measured by two colorimeters.This was the first time to obtain the color zone of natural skin color of Chinese people, Based on the results, 9 typical natural skin color samples of Chinese people, being made with paint technique, and sized for 6 X 6cm, were manufactured. These natural skin color samples are being used as standard for color reproduction in color television, photographic, lithographic and lighting industries.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    REPETITION BLINDNESS:EFFECTS OF DISPLAY DURATION AND TASK ON RESPONSE LATENCIES
    Wong Kin Fai Ellick Chen Hsuan-Chih (Department of Psychology ,Chinese University of Hong Kong )
    1997, 29 (04):  345-349. 
    Abstract ( 1289 )  
    Two experiments were carried out to explore repetition blindness and related mechanisms. In Experiment 1 , subjects were asked to judge whether or not two rapidly and sequentially presented Chinese characters involved one or two animal characters. When the display rate was 70ms per item, longer response times were found in the repeated-character condition relative to the unrepeated condition, whereasa reversed pattem was found whem the display rate was 200ms per item .The same procedure and materials were adopted in Expedient 2 with a fixed display rate (i. e., 70ms per item). The task was to decide whether or not the second character in each sequence represented an animal . The repetition blindness pattem was not found, but a repetition priming trend was shown. The results collectively indicate that both display duration and task are important determinants of repetition blindness. Implications of the present methodology and results on the processing of repeatedly presented stimuli are also discussed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF TWO -RADICAL CHINESE CHARACTER PERCEPTION
    Shen Mowei Zhu Zuxiang (Department of Psychology , Hangzhou University 310028)
    1997, 29 (04):  350-356. 
    Abstract ( 1381 )  
    The hierarchical model of English word perception, presented by Johnson and McClelland ( 1980), suggested that identification of an English word is mediated by identification of its component letters. The model explains why people are more accurate in perceiving a briefly presented letter when it appears in a word than it appears alone (the word-letter phenomenon). The results of their experiment supported the model. Comparing a Chinese character composed with more than two radicals to an English word, we can see the structure of a Chinese character in as similar way to that of an English word. Is identification of a Chinese character mediated by identification of its component radicals? Suppose that the hierarchical model of English word perception could explain the procession of Chinese character perception, we could make two predictions which are compatible with the ones from Johnson and McClelland' s model: (1) The sizable character-radical phenomenon that can beobtained using a mask made up of radical features should be greatly reduced if the mask consists of complete radicals. (2) The size of the character-radical phenomenon should be the same whether a mask is a real Chinese character or a pseudo-character. The experiment reported in this paper confirmed prediction 1 , but prediction 2 was inconsistent with the result of our experiment. Nevertheless, the hierarchical model of Chinese character perception should be modified.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A STUDY OF MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORY IN DEPRESSEDINDIVIDUALS: USE OF RECOGNITION TASKS
    Guo Liping (Department of Psychology ,East China Normal University ,Shanghai,200062)
    1997, 29 (04):  357-363. 
    Abstract ( 1204 )  
    Employing L. L. Jacoby ' s process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991 ), An experiment was designed to investigate whether mood-congruent memory bias is a function of implicit or explicit memory. The result showed: mood-congruent memory bias was found in explicit memory but not in implicit memory. The findings demonstrated the involvement of elaborative mechanisms in mood-congruent memory. In addition, explicit memory deficit was found in depressed participants, but no implicit memory deficit was found in them. Some directions for future research were discussed at the end of the paper.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    CONSTRUCTION OF THE DRIVER SAFETY APTITUDE TEST
    Ling Wenquan (MBA Education Center Jinan University Guangzhou , 510632) Fang Liluo, Xu Minqun, Li Zhong (Institute of Psychology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing , 100012)
    1997, 29 (04):  364-369. 
    Abstract ( 886 )  
    It is the purpose of this study in constructing the Driver Safety Aptitude Test which is suited to China. The results showed that the reliability and the validity fulfilled the requirements in both ability test and personality test,so they laid the foundation for further standardization.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    MULTICHANNEL TIME-SHARING MECHANISM UNDER MULTIPLE TASK CONDITIONS
    Liang Li Wang Zhongming (Department of Psychology ,Hangzhou University ,Hangzhou ,310028) Bai Yanqiang Ma Guoqing (Beijing Institute of Space Medicine,Beijing, 100094)
    1997, 29 (04):  370-376. 
    Abstract ( 876 )  
    Structure theory and resource theory were used to explain the performance of multiple task. Cognitive ability played a major role in multiple tasks in form of the rate of information processing and the capacity of storing and manipulating information. The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between the rate of information processing and the performance of mufti-task as task rate changes and task number increases. We hypothesized that resource included the clock of brain process, working memory and set of process instructions. The mechanism of clock distribution is multichannel time-sharing . The results showed that as the speed of task signals increased, the performance became worse under the condition of certai work load. The implications of the present study were discussed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    RESEARCH ON INTERFERENCE FACTORS OF CHILDREN'SCOGNITION OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES
    Li Wenfu (Institute of Psychology ,CAS,100012) Wang Zhenlin (Shanxi Normal Univ ,710062) Liang Ping (China Hewlett Packard Co, Lid 100004)
    1997, 29 (04):  377-385. 
    Abstract ( 837 )  
    This research aimed at the investigation of the main factors that influence children' s cognition of geometric figures of rectangle, triangle, trapezium, ellipse and parallelogram. We chose object factors, inner-category and outer-category as interference factor and name, indication. classification, confirmation to distinguish five test items. Our research results indicated that the important criteria of children is elementary geometric cognitive development is casting off the nonessential feathers, confirming the varied figures and distinguishing the outer-category similar figures. Adopting double classification standards and separating the essential from nonessential feathers are the main transition status of the development of children' s ability to classify geometric figures. Language prompt play an important role in classifying. Especially, the elementary geometric knowledge of second grade primary school pupils merely correspond to the level of five year old children, therefore, the educational department concemed should pay great attention to this phenomenon.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    SELF-EXPLANATION STRATEGIES IN LEARNICG FROM EXAMPLES
    Pei Lifang Zhu Xinming Lin Zhongxian(Institute of Psychology ,CAS)
    1997, 29 (04):  386-392. 
    Abstract ( 1134 )  
    Learning from examples has been studied by many researchers,many problems need to be studied .The relationships between the domain-specific knowledge and the self-explanation strategies were examined.The conclusions of the experimental research were ws follows:(1).The subjects of the high domain-specific knowledge preferred to apply the explanatory strategies of finding meaning and establishing the relationships between the new and old knowledge,while the ones of the low domain-specific knowledge were inclined to use the syntactic processing strategy ;(2).The subjects of the high domain-specific knowledgeresolved predicament with explanatory strategies when they monitored understanding failure,while the subjects of the low domain-specific knowledge resolved predicamentwith the syntactic processing strategy .
    Related Articles | Metrics
    TEH DEVELOPMENTAL MECHANISM OF OBJECT PERMANENCE DURING INFANCY
    Zeng Qi Dong Qi Tao Sha (Institute of Developmental Psychology ,Beijing Normal University ) Joseph J. Campos (Institute of Human Development ,University of California)
    1997, 29 (04):  393-399. 
    Abstract ( 975 )  
    The goal of the present study was to explore the developmental mechanism of object permanence during infancy by means of examining crawling effect on the development of object permanence and its developmental trend under Chinese ecological environment There were 208 subjects aged from 8 to 11-month -old. In this study, object permanence was assessed by spatial search test, and infant crawling status was assessed by locomotion assessment and maternal interview questionnaire. Results indicated: ( 1 ) Compared with crawling effect on object permanence in American infants, crawling status was not related to Chinese infant performance on object permanence. It supported the hypothesis that crawling effect on object permanence resulted from crawling experience, not crawling action itself (2) For Chinese infants, the developmental level of object permanence also improved with age. It illustrated that there were other channels for infants to acquire object permanence besides crawling. (3) At the age of 8 to 11-month, infants arrived at the developmental level of Stage Ⅳ on object permanence. There was a significant change on infant developmental level of object permanence at the age of 9-month.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE CROSS-MODAL STUDY ON ERP DEVIANCE-RELATED COMPONENTS OF CHINESE LANGUAGE
    Luo Yuejia, Wei Jinghan (Institute of Psychology ,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100012)
    1997, 29 (04):  400-408. 
    Abstract ( 861 )  
    Even-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in 15 normal young subjects using the paradigm "Cross-modal and delayed response" proposed by Wei Jinghan, which was able to improve inattention purity and to avoid the effect of task target on the deviance-related components (DRC) of ERPs. The experiment was conducted under two conditions: one is attending to the visual modality but ignoring the auditory modality, the other is attending to the auditory modality but ignoring the visual modality. A series of five kinds of stimuli were presented to every subject: standard, deviant stimuli and response imperative signal in attended channel; standard and deviant stimuli in unattended channel. The visual and auditory stimuli presented in a pseudo-random order with a probability of standard stimuli was 82.5% and deviant stimuli was 17.5%. Every standard or deviant stimulus was followed by a response imperative signal in attended channel. The DRC was obtained by subtracting the ERPs of the standard stimuli from that of the deviant stimuli. The present results showed: ① The largest N1 peak elicited by spoken words was located at the fronto-cental scalp and the N1 elicited by the written words was located at lateral occipital and posteriortemporal area regardless of modality or attention condition. This showed an obvious modality difference and suggested that the N1 elicited by verbal is probably specific index reflecting primary processing of Chinese shape and sound. ② Under both attended and strict unattended conditions, an early deviance-related negativity (DRN1) was evoked by using Chinese orthographic and phonological processing. The basic properties, such as peak latency, distribution and attention effects were analogous with the mismatch negativity (MMN) except for scalp distrbution of DRN1 peak evoked under the unattended condition. In addition, these properties of DRN1 yielded by visual verbal and non-verbal stimuli were also proved the same as auditory MMN Regarding the question as to whether or not visual MMN and verbal MMN existed, it can be initially believed that the MMN existed in the visual modality and in the language processing process in the current experiment ③ According to the characteristics of N350 peak latencies, amplitudes and its scalp distribution, the current results suggested that the N350 is overlapping of N200 and N400, but N400 played a more important role under the attended condition. On the other hand, the N350 consisted mainly of the N200 component under the unattended condition. They were not immutable and this gives an expression that ERPs components reflect a plasticity of the processing mechanism in the brain.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EXPRESSION OF JUN-LIKE PROTEIN IN MONOVISUAL DEPRIVED CHICK FOLLOWING ONE-TRIAL PASSIVE A VOIDANCE TASKA
    (Institute of Psychology , Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing ,100012) Liu Jun Wu Weiping et al. (Neurotransmitter Research Laboratory ,Chinese PLA General Hospital ,Beijing ,100853)
    1997, 29 (04):  409-413. 
    Abstract ( 880 )  
    The Medial Hyperstriatum Ventrale (MHV) and Lobus Parolfactorius (LPO) have been known to be the crucial part in the memory formation process in chick, the former is more important in the stability of memory, the latter is necessary for the store of long-term memory in the chick. The Jun protein derived -from c-fos proto-oncogene has been known to form a heterodimer with Fos protein, which functions as a third messenger to induce the expression of target gene. Immunohistochemical technique was used in the present study to detect and compare Jun expressed in HV and LPO of monovisual deprived chick following one-trial passive avoidance task. It was shown that the expression of Jun was scatty in the normal chick: monovisual deprived 2.5 hours, 4 hours or 24 hours induced Jun expression definitely increased in HV and LPO; monovisual deprived hours and 24 hours following one-trail passive avoidance task and memory retention test at 10 minutes and 70 minutes after learning . induced Jun expression continue to increase in HV and LPO; Jun expression in LPO was higher than that in HV.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL DETERIORATION ANDREGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW )rCBF) FOLLOWINGCEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE
    Zhng Xiaoshu (Department of Neurology ,261 Hospital ,Beijing, 100094) Wu Weiping, Kuang Peigen (Department of Neurology ,Chinese PLA General Hospital ,Beijing , 100853) Oike Yasaburo, et al (Hirosaki University ,School of Medicine, Hirosaki City ,036,Ja
    1997, 29 (04):  414-421. 
    Abstract ( 847 )  
    The paper reported mental change measured by Hasegawa ' s method in 61 patients with cerebral hemorrhage. The rCBFs in 15 regions for each cerebral hemisphere were measured by SPECT, and the ratio of rCBF in each region of both sides was calculated. The effects of cerebral hemorrhage, rCBF and the ratio of rCBF on Hasagawa ' s score were analyzed. The results indicated that the structures related to learning and memory were destroyed by the lesions, rCBFs decreased in the left cerebral hemisphere (especially left temporal lobe, supramarginal gyrus and langular gyrus) as well as abnormal ratios of rCBF in supramarginal gyri and angular gyri, rears of superior and middle temporal gyri, and inferior temponral gyri might be the cause of mental deterioration following cerebral hemorrhage.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    STUDY ON THE THOUGHTS OF MANAGEMENT PASYCHOLOGY BEFORE QIN DYNASTY
    Yang Chunxiao ( Yaantai Teachers University ,Yantai ,264025)
    1997, 29 (04):  422-427. 
    Abstract ( 788 )  
    Based on comprehensive study, this article covered the psychological viewpoinls of great Chinese thinkers before Qin Dynasty. Points involved here are: presumption of human nature, strategy of management personality of the manager. Meanwhile , comparisons were made with some points on modem management psychology in the westem countnes.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    VIEWS OF ANCIENT PEOPLE ON THE RELATION BETWEENLITERARY LANGUAGE AND IMAGES
    Yu Tiecheng (Quanzhou College of Education ,Quanzhou ,Fujian,China)
    1997, 29 (04):  428-432. 
    Abstract ( 665 )  
    This anicle refers to the views of ancient people on the relation between literary language and images of characters. It described how ancient people desolved the contradictions between language and images which were very difficult to comply, and by induction how they produced four ways to deal with them.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    OMMENTS ON THE EXPERIMENT OF PROMOTING CHILDREN'SINVENTIVE ABILITY
    Kong Qiping (College of Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    1997, 29 (04):  433-435. 
    Abstract ( 540 )  
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIGNIFICANCE T-TEST AND META-ANALYSIS
    Guo Chunyan Zhu Ying (Capital Normal University) (Beijing university)
    1997, 29 (04):  436-442. 
    Abstract ( 923 )  
    A sampled study through computer constructed population subject group and simulated experimental study procedures probed into the difference between significance t-test and meta-analysis in testing data rusults of experiments. In the process of simulated experiment, the t-test result was affected by significance level, sample capacity and population effect size. Thus reliability of statistical inferences was affected. Suggestions: In the process of significance test, statistical testing power should be estimated; inferring population subject group througlt samples as factors, meta-analysis has high accuracy and reliability, it will very likely be a very important statistical method in later research in psychological science.
    Related Articles | Metrics