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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1998, Volume 30 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT THAT FIELD-DEPENDENCE HAS ON BOUNDARY EXTENSION
    Yang Zhiliang(Psychology Department, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062)Du Jianzheng, Liu Guoxue(Education Department for Special Purposes, West Campus of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, 050091)
    1998, 30 (04):  361-365. 
    Abstract ( 841 )  
    The present study, used 2 × 2 mixed design, examined the effects that field -dependence and scene have on boundary extention. The result showed that field -dependent subjects yielded much more boundary extention than the field-independent subjects. Contrary to the results of other studies, boundary extention occurred when the subjects, who were shown nonscene picture, were tested.
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    SERIAL POSITION EFFECTS DURING ITEMS PRESENTATION IN EQUAL TIME
    Wu Yanhong (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101),Zhu Ying(Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871)
    1998, 30 (04):  366-373. 
    Abstract ( 992 )  
    Using the forward and backward associative method proposed by Liu Inmao, we examined the nature of primacy and recency effect in different presentation and interval times sitution with Chinese characters. The results showed that the recency effect of the serial position effect was sensitive to the changing of time, and the recency effect belonged to absolute memory. The nature of primacy and recency effect depended on the item presentation bine, the interval bine and the item number of the serial.
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    THE GENERATION AND RETAINING OF RELATEDNESS EFFECT IN MEMORY ILLUSION
    Zhang Li(Deparment of Education, Capital Normal University, 100037),Zhu Ying(Department of Psychology, Beijing University, 100871)
    1998, 30 (04):  374-380. 
    Abstract ( 1065 )  
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the generation and retaining of relatedness effects in memory illusion. Experiment 1 involved the effects of learned words and critical lure in both the young and old groups, using both recollection and recognition paradigms. In experiment 2, the article discussed the retaining of the learned words and the critical lure during four intervals (immediate,1 hour, 1 day & 5 days). The serial position effects of both learned words and critical lure were analyzed as well. The main results were: The relatedness effect was comparatively robust, approaching to the lower level of the learned words. Although being significantly lower in the common indexes of memory, the old group had similar relatedness effect to the young group in both recollection and recognition paradigms. When time variable was introduced, the memory illusion didn't change significantly. Compared with the learned words, the critical lure had no serial position effect. Such results are very similar to the relationship between explicit and implicit memory. The article indicated that the study of memory illusion may be a better way to analyze the unconscious memory.
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    SHORT-TERM MEMORY ON VISUO-SPATIAL LOCATION: FROM SUBSPAN TO SUPRASPAN
    Chen Xiangchuan, Zhang Daren, Tang Xiaowei(School of Life Science, China University of Science and Technology, Hefei, 230026),(Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, 100039),(Center for Brain Science, China University of Science and
    1998, 30 (04):  381-386. 
    Abstract ( 941 )  
    Short-term memory(STM) on visuo-spatial location has been studied from subspan to supraspan. The results showed that memory load had different effects on the memory of spatial location and the memory of time order information. For the memory of spatial location, better performance was observed with higher memory load. The memory of bine order information, however, increased first and then decreased when memory load increased. These results suggested that STM processing may change with different levels of memory load, and the resources of STM processing may be capacity-limited.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF CONCRETENESS OF WORDS ON WORD RECOGNITION
    Chen Baoguo, Peng Danling(Deparmtent of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, 100875)
    1998, 30 (04):  387-393. 
    Abstract ( 872 )  
    The experiments were performed to compare the speed and accuracy of lexical decision and naming for Chinese concrete and abstract nouns. The results showed:(1) the effect of concreteness existed in both the lexical decision and ndring tasks; (2) the effect of concreteness appeared only in higher frequency words. The authors gave possible explanation and suggested that the information of graphic, phonological and semantic are possibly interactive during Chinese word recognition.
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    A STUDY ON DYNAMIC FRAMING EFFECTS IN RISKY DECISION
    Wang Zhongming(Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University, ZheJiang, 310028),Liang Li(School of Management, Hangzhou University, ZheJiang, 310028)
    1998, 30 (04):  394-400. 
    Abstract ( 1005 )  
    The framing effects of risky decision have for both theoretical and practical reasons received much attention. By using simulated team scale dynamic distributed decision-making task on computer network, three factors (past performance factor, target set factor and start bonus factor) were used to find their influences on decision maker's risk preference. It was found that the target factor had a refrain function on other framing effects and the start bonus factor had different effects on the individual and the team. The results imply that the risk sensitivity can also be used to explain the risk preference in dynamic context.
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    ANALYSIS ON THE COPING INTENTION AND SITUATIONAL COPING TO SPECIAL LIFE-EVENTS IN THE ELDERLY
    Zhang Weidong(Psychology Department, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062)
    1998, 30 (04):  401-408. 
    Abstract ( 947 )  
    A comparative analysis was made on the coping intention (CD and situational coping (SC) to the special life-events of being infringed on the legal rights in the elderly. The results of factor analysis identified five styles and three underlying dimensions of coping intention, as well as six situational coping styles and four underlying coping dimensions. It was also found by comparison betWeen CI and SC that there existed similarity and difference in the degree to which various coping style was adopted in the aged population investigated. The study explored with multiple regression analysis the possible factors which affected the utilization of various types of CI as well as SC in the elderly. And the results showed that age, education, economic status and acquaintance with the law were factors signiflcantly affecting both CI and SC. In addition, health and sex difference also affected the CI and SC respectively.
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    DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PERSONALITY STRUCTURE
    Wang Lei(Department of Psychology,Peking Universiy,Beijing 100871)
    1998, 30 (04):  409-417. 
    Abstract ( 1086 )  
    The current research was mined to dynamically study the structure of personality. Study I adopted the ideographic method to investigate dynamic contents of personality. One hundred and fifty college students were asked to choose 10 words to descnbe each of their actual-,ideal- and ought-selves.The word frequency analysis revealed the features of different selves. Study II adopted nomothetic method to investigate the structure of personality.The high frequency word lists of actual-,ideal-and ought-self from Stlldy I were used as testing materials.Two hundred college students were asked to rate to what extent each word was appropriate to describe the respective *This study is sponsored by J.Jacobs Foundation“Young Investigator Programme”and Peking University Natural Science Foundation.selves on a 7-point scale with“1’representing extremely inappropriate while“7” representing completely appropriate. Factor analysis showed that there were 5 factors in actual-self explaining 47.1% vanance while 3 factors were revealed in both ideal-and ought-selves explaining 42.3%and 41.9%variance respectively.All factors in actual-self were bi-polar except for emotionality while all factors in ideal- and ought-selves were mono-polar.The ideal-self and ought-self were quite similar both in the content and in the structure.A theory ot dynamic stmcture and mnctions of personality was then proposed to state that the personality structure had its pattern feature and content feature, the latter, influenced by culture, is the main actor of personality function. The different selves as the personality components interact to each other to form a dynamic relanonshlp pattern of personality that has the function of influencing emotion,motivation and behavior.
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    STUDY ON CONDITIONED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION
    Lin Wenjuan, Wei Xing, Guo Youjun, Tang Cimei, Liu Yan(Brain-Behavior Research Center, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China)
    1998, 30 (04):  418-422. 
    Abstract ( 876 )  
    Cyclophosphamide (CY), an immunosuppressive agent, was used as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm with saccharin as the conditioning stimulus (CS) in a two-bottle preference drinking procedure. Conditioned behavioral and immunological responses were observed under both one trial of CS-UCS paring and two trials of CS-UCS paring. Data showed that CTA occurred under both one trial and tWo trials of CS-UCS paring, but conditioned immunosuppression, as assessed by spleen cell proliferation to mitogen and the number of peripheral leukocyte and lymphocyte, required 2 parings. These results suggest that conditioned behavioral and immunological changes might occur independently.
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    DISSOCIATION AND LOCALIZATION OF PERCEPTUAL AND SEMANTIC PRIMING IN AN AMNESIC PATIENT WITH RIGHT BASAL GANGLIA IMPAIRED
    Wang Changsheng(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)Yang Zhiliang(Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)Zheng Tao, Wang Huiju, Chao Mingyu(The 445th Hospital of P. L. A., Shanghai 200062)
    1998, 30 (04):  423-430. 
    Abstract ( 877 )  
    Two experiments conducted with two Perceptual priming tasks (word root completion, word identification) and two semantic priming tasks (free association, preference judgment) on an amnesic patient with right basal ganglia impaired to explore the dissociation between perceptual priming and semantic priming tests. It was found that the patient impaired perceptual priming tests, but not semantic priming tests compared to the controls. The results suggested that neurological structures of perceptual priming but not semantic priming were located in the hasal ganglia and different types of priming might have different neurological locus.
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    THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNAPSES IN THE PROCESS FROM INDUCTION OF LTP TO MAINTENANCE
    Han Taizhen, Chen Yucui, Shen Jianxin and Chen Caiyun(Department of Physiology,Shantou Uni.Medical College,Shantou, 515031)
    1998, 30 (04):  431-435. 
    Abstract ( 886 )  
    The present study examined the ultrastructure of synapses before and 80 min. after LTP produced in visual cortical brain slices of young rats aged 18—30 days. Double—blind scoring procedures were used to quantify the following parameters in electrophotographs with image analyzer:(1)the width of the synaptic cleft;(2)the thickness of the postsynaptic densities(PSD);(3) the length of the active zones and(4) the curvature of the synaptic interface.The result suggested that the curvature of the synaptic interface and the length of active zones all increased significantly.
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    A STUDY ON THE APPLYING OF ITEM RESPONSE MODELS
    Zhang Minqiang(Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275)Liu Xiaoyu(South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    1998, 30 (04):  436-441. 
    Abstract ( 896 )  
    The study focused on the selections to mathematical models of item response theory, and fitting tests of mathematical models. relations between the sample size and item reponse models, and relations between the sample size and pararnaters estimation of item response models. All the data the study adopted came from the National College Entrance Examination. The study has come to some significant conclusions.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ATTRIBUTIONAL RETRAINING IN PRIMARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Han Rensheng(Education Department, Qufu Teacher's University Qufu, 273165)
    1998, 30 (04):  442-451. 
    Abstract ( 1094 )  
    Based on the attributional theory, this study selected two groups of students from third grade primary school, second grade junior middle school and senior middle school. One was the experimental group, the other was the control group. The experiment was staged to pretest, pedagogy interference and posttest. Both groups had pretest, and posttest. The experimental group had attributional retaining at the stage of pedagogy interference, but not the control group. The findings showed f (1) attributional retraining can transfer the student's attributional tendency, expectation on future success and emotional reaction to positive direction; (2) attributional retraining can enhance the student's achievement motivation, (3) attributional retaining can enhance the student's persistency.
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    CHILDREN'S EVALUATIONS ON LYING AND TRUTH-TELLING
    Xu Fen, Fu Genyao(Psychology Department, Hangzhou University, Hangzhou, 310028)
    1998, 30 (04):  452-459. 
    Abstract ( 1000 )  
    Developmental psychologists have shown a renewed interest in children's understanding of the concepts and moral judgments of lying and truth-telling since 1980s. The main reason of the recent upsurge is due to the fact that the study on this area has theoretical significance for current debates about children's theory of mind, and the universality of moral development. The present study tested the universal issues on the concepts and moral judgments of lying and truth-telling by children's evaluations of pro- and anti-social behaviors. The evidence presented here confirmed Sweetser's folklorist model.
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    INHIBITED AND UNINHIBITED BEHAVIOR OF TWO-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN
    Chen Huichang(Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University 100875),Zhang Yuebo(Pndue University, USA)
    1998, 30 (04):  460-466. 
    Abstract ( 1002 )  
    Behavioral inhibition and uninhibition is one of the most important dimensions of temperament which influences individual's personality and social development. Laboratory observation which included three strange situations were adopted. 122 subjects around 2-year-old (aged from 21 to 27 months), were randomly selected from Beijing residents. The results showed : (1) The behavioral inhibition and uninhibition toddlers constituted the extreme 20% and 10% from each end of the distribution respectively: (2) Inhibited and uninhibited behaviors were consistently shown across different strange situations.
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    AGE DIFFERENCES ON PROBLEM SOLVING OF PRACTICAL LIFE IN ADULTS
    Sun Changhua, Xu Shulian, Wu Zhenyun, Wu Zhiping(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    1998, 30 (04):  467-473. 
    Abstract ( 922 )  
    20-85yr old adult subjects (forming 4 groups) were tested for studying the age differences on problem solving of practical life. At the same bine, the twenty questions problem experiment was carried out. The results showed: (1) Rating consistency was up to standard for two groups of experimenters; (2) The number of scheme in putting forward (N) on practical problem solving was more in the three younger groups than the old group. However, no age differences were found in score of efficiency of practical problem solving; (3) The educational level had obviousinfluence on N and H scores, (4) The percentage in using strategy for guessing thepicture and how many bines could the aim pictures be reached had very significant age differences; (5) The N score of problem solving of prachcal life was correlated with using strategy for guessing pictures and how many bines could the aim picture be reached; (6) The results suggested, age differences on problem solving in practical life was smaller than in the laboratory.
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