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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 31 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    POSSIBLE ACCOUNT FOR THE DECREMENT OF RECALL ACCORDING TO TEMPORAL PRESENTATION ORDER INVISUOSPATIAL AND AUDITORY DUAL MEMORY TASK
    Zhang Daren , Tang Xiaowei, Chen Xiangchuan, Xie Heng(Center for Brain science , Department of Neurobiology & Cognitive science lab, University of Science &Technology of China, Hefei, 230026)(Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, 100
    . 1999, 31 (01): 1-6.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    There was significant and large decrement of recall according to temporalpresentation order compared with the recall according to shmuli modalities in dualmemory tasks in which the presentation orders of auditory digits and Corsi stimuliwere randomly mixed. There may be two possible accounts for thes decrement: 1,there were many shifts between report-modalities; 2, the relative presentation ordersbetween the modalities were needed. In the present study, two experiments ofalternative--recall were carried out in which the shifts between the modalities weremaximal. However, there was no big decrement of performance. And .the score of therecall of only the order of stimuli modalities was not significantly different from thatof the recall according to the temporal order. It suggested that relative presentationorder may be the main cause.
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    EYE MOVEMENTS IN RECOGNITION OF ROTATED CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Wu Bing(Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of science, Beijing, 100101)Sun Fuchuan(shanghai Institute of Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, shanghai, 200031)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 7-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 204 )
    To investigate. the role and mechanism of mental rotation in recognizing rotatedChinese characters, the recognition processes of both rotated Chinese characters andtexts by means of eye--movement experiments were studied. The results demonstratedthat recognition bine and number of fixations required tO recognize rotated Chinesecharacter linearly increased with their angular deviation to upright direction. Theseeye--movement data indicated that the mental rotation process existed in recognition ofrotated Chinese. The comparison of results from text reading experiments, in whichfour modes of characters rotating were adopted, showed that both image and framerotation were operated in the processing of mental rotation.
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    A STUDY ON TIME-PERCEPTUAL CUES IN VISUAL MOTION INFORMATION
    Liu Ringuang, Huang Xiting(Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing, 400715)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 15-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 225 )
    In this study two experiments were conducted to investigate factors affecting timeto contact judgment. The results showed that : When the rate of dilation of the opticalcontour of the moying object was constant (d / dt = 0), (1) The main time--perceptualinformation was distance, velocity and acceleration. In some way, visual informationPlayed a certain role in the judgment of bine to contact. Time--perceptual cues used tocontrol action were usually the results of combination of Physical information andvisUal information. (2) Time judgment showed significant gender effect men providedhigher and more accurate judgment than did women. (3) When the object moved inconstant velocity, a linear model was used to fit the dare obtained in TTC judgmentwhich could describe the relation between actual TTC and judged TTC.
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    PHONEMIC SIMILARITY EFFECTS IN CHINESE READING
    Lin Yonghai, Zhang Biyin(Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 21-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    Two lexical--decision experiments were conducted to assess phonological processesin Chinese lexical access. consults of Experiment 1 and 2 were that the lexicaldecision to a target character was not faster when preceded by a rhyming charactercue than when preceded by a phonological--dissimilar character cue. The homophonicpriming effect was obtained in Experiment 2. The effective activation of phonologicalinformation was dependent of the extent of the phonemic similarity between Primesand targets. The possible conclusion was that the phonological activation was anautomatic process in lexical access, which evidence was less obvious in Chinese thanin the alphabetic writing; the access to meaning in Chinese reading maybe relys onthe visual--orthographic properties in a great extent. The study seemed to support thedual-route theory.
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    THE IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF VERB INFORMATION IN CHINESE SENTENCE COMPREIIENSION
    Shi Dongfang, Zhang Houcan, Shu Hua(Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 28-35.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 67 )
    In the present study, the match between Chinese transitive verbs and the nounsjust .following them was manipulated. Auditory monitoring task and eye trackingtechniques were used in two experiments. In both the experiments, the match betweenverb and noun following that verb produced significant graded effects. All resultsshowed that lexical information attend sentence processing as soon as activated andaccessed. The fast that lexical semantic information also had an immediate effect insentence comprehension gave suppoft to Interactive Models of language processing.
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    THE PROCESSING OF CHINESE REVERSIBLE WORDS─—THE ROLE OF MORPHEMES IN LEXICAL ACCESS
    Peng Danling ,Ding Guosheng ,Wang Chunmao(Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)Marcus Taft, Zhu Xiaoping(University of New South Wales)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 36-46.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 154 )
    Four experiments investigated the role of morphemes in the recognition ofChinese two--character words and its mutation in the bine course of processing. In allof the experiments, semantic priming procedure was used and Chinese reversible wordsas primer. In Exp 1, it was found that the presentation of a reversible word can,when SOA is 157ms, facilitate not only the lexical decision of a target which hassemantic relation with the reversible word, but also that of a target which hassemantic relation with its reversed form. There was no difference of priming effectsbetween the two conditions. In Exp 2 (SOA = 314ms) and Exp 3 (SOA = 57ms), theresultS showed that the presentation of a reversible word can significantly facilitate onlythe decision of one of its semantically related words, but not that of one which hassemantical relation with its reversed form. These results were also obtained in Exp 4which was controlled more strictly. Three points were concluded. First, the morphemewhiz played some roles in the recognition of words, but its activation was not anecessary stage. Second, in the process of recognition, the antivation of morphemeunits came through from weaness to strength, then to weakness gradually, while thatof whole word units was constantly strengthened.Third, the information of the positionof morphemes was processed later than that of morpheme units themselves.
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    A STUDY ON THE COGNITIVE PROCESSING MECHANISM OF STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES
    Jin Zhicheng, Sui Jie(Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 47-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 286 )
    In strictly controlled conditions, a 2 × 3 mixed design was used in the presentresearch to investigate the difference of working memory (WM) capacity betweenstudents with learning difficulties and students good at learning. On this basis, cueingprocedure was introduced to explore further the deficits of students with learningdifficulties in WM capacity were due to storage ability, processing efficiency or bothof them together. The results showed that students with leading difficulties wereinferior to students good at learning in WM capacity (P < 0.01). The results alsorevealed that the deficits of students with learning difflculties in WM capacity wereprimarily caused by their storage ability. These findings indicate that one should putmore emphasis on the training in storage ability of students with learning difficultiesto broaden their WM capacity and improve their learning.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS TRAINING (SAT) IN IMPROVING STUDENTS' ABILITY TO SOLVE APPLIED PROBLEMS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
    Yao Fei(Chongqing Architectrual College, Chongqing, 400030)Zhang Dajun(Southwest China Teachers University, Chongqing, 400715)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 53-59.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    The experiment took forth graders as subjects, adopted completely random-designof equal groups. The experimental group adopted SAT at the same bine, thecontrolled group followed conventional teaching pattern to do relevant exercises. Theexperiment results were as follows: (1) trained students obviously improved theirability to solve problems, of all the students the middle--level students benifitted most;(2) the thening effect correlated with the intelligence level of the pupils; (3) pupilswelcomed the training and made positive responses.
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    CHINESE PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS OF CHILDREN AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOOD AND POOR READERS
    Jiang Tao, Peng Danling(Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 60-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 164 )
    In this research, 20 children from each of 3, 4, 5 grades served as subjects,according to the teachers ' recommendation, each group of children subjects weredivided into good and poor readers. Several tasks were designed to study the featureand development of childres' syllable awareness, onset--rime awareness, and phonemicawareness. The results of this research indicated that: Chinese phonological awarenessof children developed with the increasing of grade, syllable awareness and onset--rimeawareness developed earlier than phonemic awareness. The Poor readers fall behindgood readers in their phonological awareness, the differences between good and poorreeders are analogous to those between older and younger children, and performanceof the older poor readers tends to resemble that of younger good readers, good andpoor readers tend to differ in the rate at which they develop phonological awareness.
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    CRAWLING EXPERIENCE: ITS IMPACT ON INFANTS'DETOUR BEHAVIOUR
    Tao Sha, Dong Qi, Wang Yanping(Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)J.J. Campes(Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkely, U.S.A.)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 69-75.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 214 )
    This study was aimed to examine the relation between crawling experience andthe development of detour behavior in infants aged 8--10--month. One hundred andsixty--five infants (79 Precrawlers and 86 crawlers) were tested in the lab withstandardized prcoedures. The results indicated: (a) Crawling status had significant maineffect on the infants' detour task performance; this main effect was still significantwhen the infants' age was controlled statistically; Infants with crawling experience gotmuch higher scores than precrawlers, which indicated that crawling experience hadpositive effect on the infants' detour behavior development. (b) There was significantpositive correlation between the duration of crawling and the score on detour task.With the infants' age being controlled statishcally, this positive correlation was stillsignificant which provided further evidence for crawling experience as a facilitator ofthe infants detour behavior development. (c) In the 8--month--old group, crawlingexperience faCilitated the infants' detour behavior development significantly; in the 9and 10month--old groups, while crawlers showed the tendency of performing betterthan precrawlers, there was no significant difference in the development of detourbehavior between the crawlers and the precrawlers.
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    CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSES: NUMBER OF ITEMS IN QUESTIONNAIRES AND SMALL SAMPLE APPLICATION STRATEGIES
    Hau Kittai(Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kng, Hong Kong)Cheng Zijuan(Faculty of Education, Northeast China Normal University, Changchun, 130024)Herbert W. Marsh(Faculty of Education, University of Western Sydney ,Macarthur, Sydney,
    . 1999, 31 (01): 76-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 860374 )
    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been widely used in psychological andeducational research. By summarizing and referring to results of three simulationstudies, the present paper discussed strategies panicularly relevant to small samplestudies. Specifically, it was suggested that more items should be used and factorloadings can be restrained to be equal within the same factor. Generally, larger sampleis more desirable, but when resource is limited, the above two strategies may solvenon-convergence problems and increase the estimation accuracy of important parameters.Furthemore, the use of two indicators within a factor, the use of less than fourindicators when sample size is only about 100, and the combination of items intoparcels and using their averages as indicators are not recommended because they maylead to non--convergence, large standard error and biased parameter estimation.
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    THE CHANGES OF KINESTHESIS POSITION ACCURACY OF ELBOW JOINT AFTER RATIONING MOTOR LOAD
    Shi Yan(College of Physical Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 84-89.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    Based on past research results in which the kinesthesis position accuracy of elbowjoint.significanhy increased after rationing motor load, this study attempted to furtherexplore the changes of kinesthesis position accuracy of the elbow joint. 120 malecollege students from the physical education department were served as subjects, theywere randomly divided into Saturday--Sunday group and Monday--Tuesday group. Therationing motor loads were tested 3 minutes going up and down benches of differentheight. The kinesthesis position accuracy of the elbow joint was measured at differentbine points aftor rationing motor load. The research results showed: (1) with theincrease of rationing motor load, the dUration that the kinesthesis position accuracy ofelbow joint significantly increased was prolonged; (2) state of body was an importantfactor affecitng the changes of kinesthesis position accuracy of the elbow joint afterrationing motor load. The results provided theoretical basis for conducting an overseasthening method, in which the heat rate of archers and shooters were improved byrunning.
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    STUDY ON THE THOUGHTS OF LEADERSHIP PSYCHOLOGY OF Lu's SPRING AND AUTUMN ANNALS
    Fan Tingwei, Zhu Yongxin(Suzhou University, Suzhou, 215006)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 90-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 216 )
    The authors consider that the book of Lit's Spring and Autumn Annals containsrich ideas of leadership psychology. The ride discussed its leadership psychologyfrom the following four aspects: the individual mental process, the trait, thecontingence theory, and the proper use of personnel.
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    A STUDY ON COGNITIVE AGING MODEL
    Li Deming, liu Chang ,Li Guiyun(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 98-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 169 )
    A cognitive aging model was set up by using the method of Structure EqationModelling (SEW) in the test indicators of 5 cognitive abilities, such as perceptualspeed, mental arithmetic efficiency, working memory, short--term memory and reasoning,and in 232 subjects of 20--79 years of age. The model revealed: (1) Age had anegative effect on speed significantly, and education lab a positive effect on speedsignificantly; (2) The effects of age and education on the nonspeed cognitive abilitieswere mediated by speed, and education had an effect on the nonspeed cognitiveabilities directly. The results indicated that speed was an important mediator ofage--related differences in nonspeed abilities, and education played an important role incognitive aging Process.
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    STUDIES OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE COGNITIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
    Zhang Qian(General Hospital of Beijing Command, PLA, 100700)Guo Nianfeng(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 104-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 187 )
    The comparative study between 17 aggressive behavior children (average age 8.97)who were selected by the "Peer--Nomination inventory" and 16 normal children(average age 9.03) aimed at understanding the cognitive characteristics of aggressivesubjects and their cerebral hemisphere integrative abilities. The cognitive stimuli werepresented tachistoscopically to the left and right visual fields. 1. In the experiment ofStroop Effect the aggressive group had high right--visual figure--Chinese characterStroop effect compared with the controls, while within groups, neither aggressivesubjects nor controls had significant left vs. right--visual field Stroop effect. 2. In theGestalt Figure Perception experiment, the aggressive boys had significantly low levelof left-visual discriminative limen, and there also exsisted left vs. right--visualdiscrimination differences within both groups. The results suggested that aggressivechildren were inferior to the normal group in cerebral hemisphere balanceddevelopment and brain cooperative or integrative functions, presented in this study, asinsufficient left hemisphere ability against interferences and inadequate right hemisphereperception of configuration in some cognitive processes. The differences may probablybe the neuropsychological bases for the children's aggressive behavior.
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    STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF MENTAL ARITHMETIC
    Liu Chang ,Li Deming(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 111-117.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 133 )
    Mental arithmetic, an important thinking activity, is one of the subjects incognitive psychology. There is an obvious problem--size effect in mental arithmeticwhich has close relation with working memory and long--term memory, and researchon mental arithmetic from interdiscipline (e.g., coghitive psychology, neuroscience) isa main direction in the future.
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    COMMENTS ON THE TWO DETERMINING CRITERIA FOR THE CORRECTNESS OF CONCLUSION DERIVED FROM SYLLOGISTIC REASONING
    Deng Liping(Ji'an Teachers College,Ji'an JiangXi 343009)
    . 1999, 31 (01): 118-120.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
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