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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 31 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    CUE-FAMILIARITY HEURISTIC OF FOK AND CUE-FAMILIARITY JUDGEMENTS
    Luo Jin, Lin Zhongxian (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Seiences, Beijing, 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 121-127.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 89 )
    This study examined the cue-familiarity theory of FOK. Two experiments proved that the FKJs and cue-familiarity judgementS(CFJs) were two different kinds of judgements, they had different response patterns under the same stimulus pattern.
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    MECHANISMS OF NOISE SEGREGATION FROM VOWELS AND COMPLEX
    Wang Jing ,Yang Yufang (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 128-134.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 63 )
    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of noise segregation from vowel and complex when one or more harmonics were mistuned.Experiment one dealt with the number of mistuned harmonics as a factor affecting the harmonic mistuned effect(HME). The position effect of HME was concerned in experiment two. The last experiment considered the relationship between HME and phase of the mistuned harmonic. The results indicated that(1) the HME was much greater when more than two harmonics were mistuned than when only one harmonic was mistuned;(2)harmonic position played an important role in HME, the higher the harmonic was, the less HME was found for the complex, and the closer to formant the harmonic stood, the more significant HME existed; and(3) phase did not significantly affect the HME, however, its indirect contribution was observed, which was related to the starting amplitude of a harmonic.
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    TESTING THE CHANGE/SEGMENTATION MODEL(Ⅱ)
    Huang Xiting, Xu Guangguo (Institute & Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing, 400715)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 135-141.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    Based on the former report, two experiments were designed to further test the change/segmentahon model. In experiment 3, target interval, number of segments of Arabic numeral series filling in the interval and duration of segments were under control. In addition, the number of items within the segment was manipulated, Theresults showed that the number of segments of numeral series influenced time estimation but the number of items within the segment did not In experiment 4, the same factors mentioned above in experiment 3 were under control but instead the duration of segment was manipulated. The results showed that time estimation depended on what measuring scale had been used by the subject. These four experiments suggested that change/segmentation model is highly efficient in prediction but deficiencies still exist. In order to make a better account for the factors influencing time estimation from the cognitive perspective, the authors here had fulfilled a further demonstration on the proposed phase-synthesis model. And it is believed that the phase-synthesis model is a theoretical model that can better explain various factors influencing human being's time estimation.
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    INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISM OF THE "WITHIN-OBJECT EFFECT
    Fu Shimin, Chen Lin (Beijing Laboratory of Cognitive Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing , 100039)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 142-147.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 109 )
    To investigate the mechanism of visual selective attention, the present study was designed to further examine whether the controversial "within-object effect" was space-based or object-based. First, the present study replicated the previous finding by observing that the subjects responded foster to validly cued relative to invalidly cued targets, which suggested the existence of space-based attentional component. Moreover,it was found that, perceptual organization between two context objects attenuated by changing their shape and color, the "within-object effect" was independent on the distance. The latter result provided further evidence for the existence of the object-based component of visual selective attention , and suggested that, what visual attention selects is the "perceptual object" grouped by pre-attentive perceptual organization.
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    CROSS-MODAL ENDOGENOUS VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION
    Zhao Chen, Yang Huahai, Zhang Kan (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 148-153.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    The present study investigated cross-modal links for endogenous covert spatial orienting in vision and hearing. By comparing the visual symbolic cues (an arrow at the fixation point indicating a probable peripheral target) with auditory symbolic cues (one of three pure sounds with different pitches), examined the possibility of auditory symbolic cues to activate endogenous visual selective attention, and showed that valid auditory cues come with inhibition rather than facilitation at SOA shorter than 500ms while valid visual cues showed significant facilitation even at the shortest SOA(100ms).At longer SOA, both cues showed facilitation. These results showed that there were indeed separable modality-specific spatial-attention systems, but with links such that auditory orienting tended to result in visual orienting to the corresponding location in visual space, suggesting the "separable but linked" hypothesis.
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    RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS OF VISUAL RECOGNITION TO SYMMETRICAL STRUCTURAL CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Chen Chuanfeng ,Huang Xiting (South-west China Normal University, Chongqing, 400715)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 154-161.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 237 )
    These two experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics of visual recognition to symmetrical structural Chinese characters by using Naming Tasks. The results indicated that there were significant symmetrical structural effects, the reaction time to symmetrical Chinese characters was significantly shorter than that to nonsymmetrical Chinese characters, There were significant interactions between symmetrical structure and stroke number and character frequency; The symmetrical structural effect only existed in low frequency characters and in more stroke number characters. These showed that the Gestalt radical of symmetrical Chinese characters carried redundant information promoted the processing of recognition of Chinesecharacters. A frequency effect and stroke number effect in recognition of both symmetrical Chinese characters and non-symmetrical Chinese characters were also found in these experiments,
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    THE SERIAL POSITION EFFECTS DURING ITEM PRESENTATION IN DIFFERENT MEDIAN RATIO
    Wu Yanhong (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)Zhu Ying (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 162-168.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 285 )
    Using the forward and backward associative method proposed by Liu Inmao, we examined the nature of primacy and recency effect of the serial position effects in different median ratio(0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) with Chinese characters. The results demonstrated that the nature of the serial position effects depended on the item interval and the median ratio. The median ratio took a more important role than the item interval. Under the same presentation time, the degree of distinctiveness of item and the percentage of retrieval were determined by the item interval.
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    ON THE TRANSFER EFFECTED BY ANALOGICAL STRUCTURE-MAPPING IN READING MAINTENANCE
    Mo Lei, Guo Shubin (South China Normal University. Guangzhou, 510631)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 169-176.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    This research studied the transfer of information maintenance effected by the structure-mapping analogy and the similar elements in reading. It included two experiments. In Experiment l, the researchers explored the transfer effected by the similar structures and the similar predicates between the source text and the target text.The results indicated that the structural similarity enhanced the maintenance of the target text significantly, whereas the predicate similarity was insignificant. In Experiment 2, it was explored whether prompting either the structural similarity or the predicate similarity between the two texts advanced the maintenance of the target text.The results showed that such effect did exist obviously in both cases. This research implied that both the process of structure-mapping analogy and the process of repeating the similar elements could advance the transfer of maintenance in reading.
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    A STUDY OF CHILDREN'S PERSONALITY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT:BASED ON PARENTS' PERCEPTION
    Zhang Yuqing(Institute of Psychology, CAS, Beijing , 100101)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 177-189.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 1667 )
    In this research, based on the parents' free description, four personality questionnaires(3, 6, 9, 12 years) were developed and employed on 777 3-12-year old children in Beijing and Fuzhou city. The results indicated that the four questionnaires had good validity and reliability. After factor analysis(PCA, principal compoment analysis) to four questionnaires in four age groups separately, the main personality dimensions over the factor structure of 3 to 12-years old groups were named as:"Intellect", "Conscientiousness", "Agreeableness"," Extraversion", "Emotional Stability"and "Autonomy". Among them, "Intellect" was the most stable dimension in the four age groups, "Agreeableness", "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" followed."Emotional Stability" was not a stable dimension in Chinese personality structures.Moreover, the content of the six dimensions were consistent with the first six (sub)categories of "14 Categories System for Personality Coding Descriptors", and the first five dimensions were consistent with adult Big Five faCtors (or sub-factors). The results showed that there were rationally resembleness betWeen Chinese children's personality structures and the Big five factors in adult Personality psychology. On the other hand, there were strong age and culture specificity in the personality dimensions of the four age groups, and it indicated that the dimensions can cover the specific personality characteristics of Chinese children.
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    SPONTANEOUS DESCRIPTION OF INTERDEPENDENT SELF AND INDEPENDENT SELF:DIFFERENCES OF GENDER AND MAJOR IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
    Zhang Liwei (Chinese University of Hong Kong, Beijing University of Physical Education )Fu Mingqiu (Southwest Normal University of China. Chongqing 400715)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 190-199.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 172 )
    Based on cultural differences , Markus and Kitayama's (1991) self construal theory divided self concept into two parts f independent self and interdependent self. The present investigation hypothesized that the study of P. E. will cultivate the students' interdependent self because it involves more social interactions, whereas the study of Science and Art will cultivate the students' independent self because it involves more independent activities. Twenty Statement Test was administered to 258 university students and the result partly supported the hypothesis: P. E. majors made more concrete self-descriptions whereas Science and Art majors made more abstract self-descriptions . However, these two groups of students did not differ in self-focused and social-focused dimention. These results were discussed from perspectives ofsocial-cultural influence and cognitive ability. The present investigation also showed that female university students made more abstract self-descriptions whereas male university students made more concrete self-descriptions.
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    A CROSSCULTURAL STUDY ON THE STRUCTURE OF POSSESSION BETWEEN CHINESE AND JAPANESE CHILDREN
    Yamamoto Toshiya (Faculty of Letters, Nara Women's Women's Univ. Nara, Japan )Zhang Risheng (Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing,Normal Univ, Beijing 100875)Pian Chengnan (Faculty of Culture. Kobe Univ, Kobe, Japan)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 200-208.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 145 )
    This research used natural observation method, observed two groups of Chinese and Japanese children aged 3.4 to 4.4 years. Children's interactions over the one of objects were recorded. The data was analyzed to find out whether these interactions were organized under rank order like Dominance Hierarchy or not. The findings were;1) both rigidity and linearity of the Dominance Matrixes were low in Chinese and Japanese groups. 2) both in the Chinese and Japanese groups, there were no significant correlations between their rank on the Matrix and the values of their strength and leadership which were rated by teachers. 3) dominant = subordinate relationships among children in both groups were not linear but complicated. Overall findings demonstrated that as to the possession these two groups of children which have Chinese and Japanese cultural background were not organized by Deminance Hierarchy.
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    GOAL SETTING AND SELF-EVALUATION OF DEPRESSED PEOPLE IN SOLITAIRE TASKS
    Qian Mingyi, Chen Zhonggeng, Zhang Shen (Psychology Department,Peking University, Beijing, 100871)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 209-214.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 234 )
    This research is designed to explore depressed people 's characters on goal setting as well as their self-evaluation and attribution styles. Participants in this experiment were 20 depressive neurosis patients (DN), 13 major depression patients (DE) (both DN and DE were diagnosed according to the Chinese Classitication of Mental Disorder-2-R) and 29 normal people as the control group (CO). All Ss were required to expect their goals pre-and post-performance in the Solitaire task, then express their satisfactory degree to their own performance and attribution to related factors. The results showed that : (1) Goal setting in depressed people was similar with those in the CO group during the tasks; (2) The actual performance was related with the score of self-efficacy, (3)DN group and DE group showed more apparent negative tendency of self-attribution than those in the CO group.
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    CONSTRUCTION OF VOCABULARY TESTS FOR JUNIOR SCHOOL LEVEL
    Cao Yiwei(Shenzhen University Normal College, Shenzhen, 518060)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 215-221.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    The present study was to construct three vocabulary tests at junior school level that could be used for measuring the student's lability of word omeaning comprehension.The three tests were constructed of 143 words multiple-choice items and administered to about 3000 students. The statistical item analysis and the test of goodness-of-fit of the 2PL model showed 90% vocabulary items could be used for IRT analysis. IRT analysis of the item responses was carried out separately for each test and estimated item parameters were equated utilizing the anchor items included in all the tests, the mean discrimination parameter of each grade was 0.61(grade7), 0.59(grade8),0.55(grade9); the mean difficulty parameter was - 1.61, - 1.30, - 0.56 respectively.
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    MANAGEMENT APTITUDE TEST FOR MANAGER EVALUATION IN BUSINESS
    Research Group for Management Aptitude Test (Personnel Ministry Examination Authority, Beijing , 100054)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 222-229.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 169 )
    This is a report on the development of Management Aptitude Test (MAT).Management aptitude was defined as a kind of mental trait which covers a wide range of activity, which is a stable potential ability less influenced by instruction. MAT score reflects the potential aptitude rather than realistic achievement reflects the authentic management competency rather than the preparation of the test reflects the reasoning proficiency rather than the memory of certain content of knowledge. Test items were pre-tested and revised twice in 1995 and 1996. There were 2814 middle managers from 149 enterprises in 26 provinces of this country in the norm sample.Statistical results showed that the difficulty and discriminate of MAT were acceptable.kinds of evidences supported the validity of MAT.
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    RESEARCH ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS OF PREQIN STRATEGISTS' STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING
    Tao Xinhua, Zhu Yongxin(Suzhou University, Suzhou,215006)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 230-235.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    Bemre the Qin Dynasty, the military strategists already had rich psychological ideas in making strategic decisions.Their main points are as follws.1.Know the enemy and yourself, then you can fight a hundred battles with no danger ot defeat,this shows the psychological idea in overall information managing, 2.Get all-sided information with stratagem. The methods of getting information are:(1) inferences from analysis:(2) observation; (3) the use of spies;(4)reconnaissance. 3.Make careful calculations and full plans, and you'll succeed on sufficient condition of winning victory, otherwise you won' t be able to succeed, this shows the psychological thinking in making strategic decisions. The psychological idea in making decision is aimed at"full victory without fighting". It Is based on overall information managing and including three principles They are(1)selecting the best method;(2)making changes in tactics according to the enemy 's situation. (3) Changing strategies frequently and fighting with both general principles and special tactics.
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    THE EFFECT OF HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION MEMORY ABILITY AND ON BRAIN SYNAPTOSOME Ca~(2+) IN AGED-MICE
    Guo Dan (Dept , of Physiology, Naval Medical College, Nanjing 210099)Xu Xiaohong (Dept, of Biological Science of Zhejiang Normal Universith, Jinhua, 321004)Zhang Weining (Dept .of Biological Science and Techology Nanjing University , Nanjing 210093)
    . 1999, 31 (02): 236-240.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    The spontaneous behavior and the learning memory retention of aged-mice were assessed using open field and one-trial passive avoidance task after atmospheric (101.3kPa)oxygen or hyperbaric (253.3kPa)oxygen treatment (HBOT),At the same time, the synaptosomal free calcium concentration in some main brain regions (cerebral probe [Ca2+],indicat or Fura-2/AM and an AR-CM-MIC cation measurement system The results showed that the spontaneous behavior and explorative response in the openfield significantly increased and the memory retention was remarkably elevated. The high synaptosomal free Ca2+ concentration caused by decrepit was decreased afteratmospheric oxygen or HBOT, and there was a better inhibiting action of HBOT on high level of calcium in the brain, Memory declination was closely related with hypercalcemic phenomenon in the brain. It indicated that the senile memory impediment can be treated by HBOT through decreasing the synaptosomal free Ca2+ concentration.
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