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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 33 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Zhang Jijia (Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631) Wang Huiping (Department of Psychology, Yantai Teachers College, Yantai 264025)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 2-6.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 134 )
    Using a naming task, this experiment investigated the effects of phonological and tonal relations between phonetic radicals and whole characters on the processing of pictophonetic characters. The materials were 180 pictophonetic characters. The results showed that there was a "regularity effect" in the processing of pictophonetic characters. The naming latencies were short if the phonetic radicals and whole characters shared the same pronounciations. There was also a "tonal effect" in processing pictophonetic characters. The naming responses were fast if the phonetic radicals and whole characters had the same tones, and this effect was not influnced by word frequency. These results supported the view that there is automatic activition of sub lexical components in phonological processing of Chinese pictophonetic characters.
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    Zhou Zhijin Chen Yongming Cui Yao Yang Lixia (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) Chen Hsuan chih (Department of psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 7-12.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of anaphors on accessibility of their antecedents (referents) and the relation between the effects and advantage for first mentioned participants in processing of Chinese sentences containing anaphoric expression. The experimental results showed: (1) First mentioned participants were easier to be accessed than second mentioned participants. This advantage of accessibility for first mentioned participants is a common cognitive phenomenon; (2) Anaphors not only facilitated the activation level of their referents but also inhibited nonreferents in some degree, thus enhanced accessibility of their referents; (3) In processing sentences containing anaphoric expression the relation between the advantage of first mentioned participants and the accessibility of the referents was dynamic. If the first mentioned participant was a referent and the second mentioned participant was a nonreferent in an anaphoric expression, the advantage of accessibility of first mentioned participant was strengthened, otherwise, the advantage of first mentioned was nullified; (4) The experiments showed that at 550 ms delay after the pronoun, the facilitation effect of anaphors on their referents appeared, but the effect was not founded at 350 ms delay. So there was a time course of appearing facilitation effect. (5) The facilitation effects for the activation level of referents changed depending on properties of anaphoric expression. When the anaphor was a repeated name the facilitation effect was stronger and appeared earlier.
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    Zeng Jieying (Labor and Personnel Department, Beijing Material College, Beijing 101149) Zhou Xinlin Yu Bolin (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 13-17.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 179 )
    s Zeng et al. proposed that the space transparency of Chinese characters can be used to account for varieties of character form effects in visual perception of Chinese characters, such as, the effects of stroke number, stroke type and construction way. This study applied a new method that subjects were asked to report what they saw after the transforming Chinese characters were presented on screen for 1200ms. The results showed that there were construction way and stroke number effect as people had before disclosed, however, it is important that there is reverse effect of construction way. The space transparency computed according to an algorithm can reasonably account for these effects. This study and previous study can partially prove an important hypothesis on visual perception of Chinese characters that space transparency plays a leading role in varieties of form effects.
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    Ge Liezhong Huang Lin (Dept. of psychology,Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)(Public Management Dept.,Zhejiang College of Finance and Economics,Hangzhou 310012)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 18-22.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    Physiologists identified two types of neural pathway in visual cortical areas that represent color:a red green pathway and a blue yellow pathway. Thus there were different channels in color processing. The research studied whether dual task performance would be better when two tasks had different color coding. 32 Ss(16 females and 16 males,agd 20 23 years)were seated in front of a computer screen to complete two searching tasks with two hands simultaneously. Both stimuli were separately displayed on the left and right side of the screen one by one. Subjects were asked to search target words from a series of stimuli,which were made up of figure words,orientation words and strokes of Chinese character words. The target words of one task were figure words,another was orientation words. The color of two tasks had two conditions:red matched green and yellow matched blue. Each subject took part in one color condition experiment,that is,they should complete two kinds of experiment:two tasks with the same color and two tasks with different colors. The results of the data analysis found the following conclusions:(1) When the color of two tasks were different,the response time decreased,but when the color of two tasks were the same,the response time increased. It was proved that if there were different color coding modes for the current two tasks,the dual task performance would be improved because of the decrement of structure limitation. (2) The interference between information processing of the two tasks is a major source in dual task performance decrease. The higher the interference,the worse the dual task performance,so the stimuli for both tasks were not processed independently. This result supported the outcome conflict proposition and was the same as previous experiments. The experiment supported the three factor hypothesis of dual task performance.
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    Zhuang Jie (Department of Psychology,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875, Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871) Zhou Xiaolin (Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 23-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 156 )
    A picture naming task was used to investigate the word length effect in speech production of Chinese. Pictures that can be named both as single syllable,monomorphemic words and as disyllable,two morphemic compound words,were selected. These pictures were divided into two groups according to whether the monomorphemic words were used as the first or the second constituent morphemes in compound names. Subjects were asked to name the pictures in either monomorphemic names or compound names. A significant length effect was observed for both groups of stimuli,with monomorphemic names pronounced faster than compound names. This finding was interpreted as supporting the view of incremental phonological encoding and planning. A post hoc analysis was also conducted for word and syllable frequency effects in word production.
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    Zhao Chen\ Zhang Kan Yang Huahai (Institute of Psychology.CAS,Beijing 100101) (School of Information,the University of Michigan,USA)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 28-33.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 137 )
    Studies of mechanisms underlying orienting of attention in visual space usually provide subjects with advance cues. These cues indicate the probable locations of targets to facilitate localizing and discriminating the targets. Symbolic central cues and direct peripheral cues are believed to activate different endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting. Endogenous attention involves voluntary orienting response to symbolic indicators,such as a central arrow (central cue);and exogenous attention involves reflexive orienting in response to salient stimuli in the visual field,such as a peripheral flash (peripheral cue). Endogenous selective attention can be inferred from performance differences in detecting signals at expected and unexpected spatial locations. For example,a central cue pointing to the likely target location can direct attention to that location. Compared to a neutral and an invalid cue,spatially valid cues result in benefits,measured in shorter latencies and less errors. Alternatively,attention can be controlled by external factors. In everyday life,attentional selection is often accompanied by cross modal coordination. Many everyday situations require attention available to several sense modalities. Some studies have reported positive effects of spatial cueing on auditory judgements. Spence and Driver(1994) were able to demonstrate unambiguous covert auditory orienting effects. Researches on endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of selective attention operating both auditory and visual cues provoke the question of how they may be linked across modalities. To further investigate the possibility of auditory symbolic cues to activate endogenous visual selective attention,one experiment controlled by an AST DX66 PC was designed to examine the effect of auditory central cues on cross modal selective attention. The peripheral abrupt onsets were presented following the auditory symbolic cues and a target identification paradigm was used. The results showed that valid auditory cues had a significant facilitation at SOA longer than 200ms and a peripheral abrupt onset could capture attention when attention was focused on one of the space locations. The auditory cue validity was apparent on between modality trials. In addition,these effects were interpreted as evidence of separate auditory and visual spatial selective attention mechanisms,but with links such that auditory orienting tends to result in visual orienting to corresponding location in visual space.
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    Fu Dejiang\ Shen Mowei (Department of Psychology,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 34-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    On the basis of a theoretical framework,executive process interactive control (EPIC), a computational model of virtual pilot was developed to simulate cognitive process of complex task performance. By Comparing the outcome of model simulation with experiment results of human beings,a high goodness of fit was found,thus it supported the following key conclusions:(1) It validated the computation model for mimic flight and it bolstered up the claim of the present simulation theoretical model. The performance of human pilot could be well predicted by the presented model. (2) This simulation technique in the present research provided us with feasible approach to mental processing of complex tasks.
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    Lin Lei\ Dong Qi\ Sun Yanqing (Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University,100875) Claes von Hofsten (Department of Psychology,Uppsala University,Uppsala,Sweden)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 40-46.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 190 )
    The acquisition and development of motor skill is an important aspect in human development. Children's motor skills have been investigated for many decades as the developmental milestones and have been used as a scale to describe children's developmental level by researchers. However,studies on the characteristics and the development of culturally related motor skill are very limited. \ Investigating culturally related motor skill will be very helpful to understand the nature and developmental course of human motor skill. Chopstick using is not only a necessary operation in the daily lives in eastern countries,but also one of the typical fine motor skills which are very important for the functional activities in early child development. In the present study,the characteristics and the development of chopstick using skills were investigated by comparing the types and frequencies of chopstick using gestures in 3\_7year old children and adults. \ 181 participants were included in this study. 91 children aged from 3\_5 and 60 pupils aged from 6\_7 were selected from one kindergarten and one primary school as the children group. 30 undergraduates were selected as the adult group. Wooden objects in different sizes were used in this study. Participants were asked to hold and move the objects from one testing board to another with a pair of chopsticks. Their gestures and actions were photographed. \ Results indicated that 8 kinds of chopstick using gestures were found in both children and adults and they differed in the relative position of each finger,the interplay between fingers and chopsticks,the space of the palm and the agility in dealing with different tasks etc. The frequencies of Gesture Two,Five and Six were very low both in children and adults,which showed that similarity existed between children and adults,and the gestures used during early ages may have some effect later. With age increase,more and more people tended to use the more efficient gesture. In children,frequencies of the more efficient gesture (Gesture Type One) changed from 3.7% in 3 year olds to 23.1% in 7 year olds,while frequency of the lower efficient gesture (Gesture Type Four) changed from 59.3% to 23.1% accordingly. In adults,frequency of Gesture Type One was 50%,which was significantly higher than the ones in children,while frequency of Gesture Type Four was 10%,which was significantly lower than the ones in children.
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    Bi Hongyan Fang Ge (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 47-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 158 )
    The purpose of the study was to explore the development of spatial transitive inference ability of preschoolers, comparing the children's inference ability in 'front and behind' and 'up and down' tasks, and to investigate their transitive inferences in different experimental situations (consistent, ambiguous, contradictory). So two kinds of spatial positions were used, one was'front and behind', the other was'up and down'. In order to lessen the memory load, the participants were asked to make transitive inference operations according to the premises presented to them. In 'front and behind' tasks, five kinds of models of small animal toys that can stand consisting of tiger, ox, sheep, pig, monkey with three respectively were used. In'up and down' tasks, six kinds of magnetic models of small animal toys consisting of bear, rabbit, cat, pig, dog, and panda with three respectively, and a vertical iron plate were used. There were two steps in each task. First, two-toy premises were presented to the children, then they were given three extra toy models and asked to put them in order. There were two premises in each task: A-B,B-C. If A was in front of (or above) C by sight, that was a consistent situation. If A was the same level as C by sight, that was a ambiguous situation. If A was behind (or below) that was a contradictory situation. A total of 72 children from a kindergarten were examined. There were 24 children in each 4,5,6 year old group (12 boys, 12 girls). The results showed: (1) children as young as 4 years of age developed the ability of spatial transitive inference; (2) the development of cognitive capacity of'up and down' position was faster than that of 'front and behind' position; (3) 4-6 year old children couldn't completely ignore the situational influences in order to form a kind of stable transitive inference ability.
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    Fang Xiaoyi\ Zheng Yu\ Lin Danhua (Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing\ 100875)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 53-59.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 417 )
    Family has important effects on adolescent′s development. A lot of studies explored the effects of family on social and behavior development of adolescents, but few studies examined the relationship between family environment and adolescents' smoking behavior in China. This study aimed at exploring the relationships between family factors and smoking behavior of junior middle school students. 319 7 th to 9 th grade junior middle school students were selected from one middle school in Beijing. All subjects were asked to write a consent and then distribute a self administrated questionnaire. The study measured 22 family factors and adolescents′ smoking behaviors. All subjects were asked to report their own smoking behavior, and 22 family factors, including their parents′ smoking behavior and attitude, family cohesion, communication and conflict, parents′ monitoring, parenting style, family structure, parents′ education level and career, and family income. The study found that about 12% junior middle school students smoked cigarettes. Male students smoked cigarettes significantly more than female students, grade difference was not significant. The Chi square tests showed mothers′ smoking behavior and attitude, mothers′ warm, family communication, family cohesion, parents′ monitoring, fathers′ penalty, fathers′ rejection, fathers′ overinterference had significant relationships with smoking behavior of junior middle school students, but logistical regression analysis found only mothers′ smoking behavior and attitude, family communication had significant effects on smoking behavior of junior middle school students. The Results confirmed social learning theory that modeling (smoking behaviors) and reinforcement (attitudes toward smoking) are the main factors affecting adolescent′s smoking behavior. The reason why different family factors had different effects on junior middle school students′ smoking behaviors might be social expectations on gender role and Chinese tradition valuing family ties. The results implied that modifying mothers′ smoking behaviors and attitudes, and improving family communication might be efficient intervention on adolescents′ smoking behaviors.
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    Liao Boqin (Dept. of physics, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 60-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 61 )
    Based on Mcdemott & Larkin's theory, a hypothesis was made on the representation system in the process of mechanic problem solving. The system was assumed to consist of four stages of representations as students solve a mechanic problem, such as literal, naive, physics and mathematic representation. Furthermore, the system of representation has "dynamic" feature, showing the development of four representations. It is verified that the theoretical hypothesis empirically by employing protocol analysis method. The results from the study showed that subjects always created four representations consecutively in certain order when they solve physics problems. Moreover the time consumed in the literal and naive representation stages is significantly shorter than that in the physics and mathematic representation stages, but it is not significantly different either between the former two stages or between the latter two.
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    Gao Yang\ Guan Xingzhi *\ Kuang Peizi (Intitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) ( *Neurotransmitter Research Laboratory, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 64-679.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    Light exposure during later embryonic development has much effect on the postnatal ability of learning and memory. In the present study, Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect and compare NCAM express in HV of embryonic days E17 to E21 eggs, which was dark reared, light reared or normal reared. The NCAM express significant high in light reared and normal reared eggs at embryonic day E20. During all the embryonic days E17 to E21, the NCAM level was very low in dark reared eggs. All this suggested that the NCAM, which regulated by light exposure, might be involved in post hatch learning and memory behaviour.
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    Ling Wenquan (Institute of Human Resource Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632) Zhang Zhican\ Fang Liluo (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 68-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 372 )
    In accordance with the factor analysis of the Chinese employee's organizational commitment, a 5 factor model was firstly discovered, which included affective commitment, normative commitment, ideal commitment, economic commitment and choice commitment. Based on such a discovery, Path Analysis technique was used to further analyze those individual factors and organizational factors which can influence the organizational commitment. The sample included 3236 Chinese employees. The detailed results were as followis: Those factors that could influence:(1) the affective commitment included employee's trust toward the leaders, life support from the organization, the maintenance behavior of the leader and the perceived dependability of the organization. (2) the normative commitment included employee's social fairness exchange level, employee's satisftaction towards colleagues and the morale of employee's belonging organization. (3) the ideal commitment included the employee's trust towards their leaders, work support from their belonging organization, educational level, leader's workabilities organizational promotion system and the satisfaction level toward their job. (4) the economic commitment included work experience, employee's trust towards their leaders and employee's social fairness exchange level. (5) the choice commitment included employee's satisfaction level towards their salary, life support from their belonging organization, the perceived dependability of the organization, employee's social fairness exchange level, employee's overall satisfaction level towards their belonging organization, educational level, age and their alternatives for another job.
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    Zheng Quanquan Zhu Huayan (Department of Psychology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 73-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 165 )
    This article examined the factors that affected the decision quality in unstructured discussion of groups and tried to further confirm the information sampling model of group decision making proposed by Garold Stasser et al., which was done by simulated experiments in the laboratory. Two kinds of materials for experiments were used in this study. One was the profiles of three hypothetical candidates for student body president (less difficult decision level) and the other was the profiles of six hypothetical faculty candidates (high difficult decision level). Subjects met in three person groups (small size) or six person groups (large size) to decide which of the candidates was best suited for the position of student body president or would be the best person to teach English course. Each profile for candidate contained five positive, three neutral and one negative item. The actual items member in a group received were not identical, 1 33% of the total items was shared (each member received the same items) and the remained items were unshared (only one member received). 144 Zhejiang University undergraduates were involved in this study. Assignment to experimental conditions and to decision making groups within each condition was random. Subjects individually studied written descriptions of candidate profiles and then met to make the decision. Several questionnaires(such as preferences on a private questionnaire and questionnaire of free recall task) were fulfilled by subjects during pro and post discussion. The results showed:(1)Partially certified Stasser's information sampling model. When information that members held was not ample and if group member's preference before discussion was consistent, the group discussion tended to focus on information that members already shared before discussion and information that supported the predominant sentiment within the group. But if the preference before discussion was not consistent or if the task was relatively easy, this conclusion would not be confirmed. There might be two kinds of different ways through which the shared and unshared information affected group decision making. (2)In the unstructured discussion,only the discussion of shared information increased as group size increased and only when the task was more difficult could we find the preponderance of shared information. Variables of personality of members and culture might affect sampling information processes of group decision making also, which should be explored further.
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    Ye Haosheng (Institute of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 79-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 227 )
    This thesis deals with the trend that more and more psychologists in western countries pay attention to social historical and cultural factors in their psychological researches. It seems that western psychology increasingly turns to cultural considerations. In the past, western psychology was influenced by positivism, which asserts that science is value neutral, therefore psychology should be free from any cultural influence. But positivism has already declined now, and new philosophy of science regards science as value loaded and puts science in the social and cultural context. The new philosophy of science provides theoretical background for the cultural turn. Another important reason for the turn is the indigenous movement in the third world psychology. The psychologists in the third world are tryng to reduce the dependence on western psychology and to establish an indigenous psychology in terms of their own cultural tradition. Western psychologists were influenced by the movement and began to take culture into account. The cultural turn shows in the following respects: (a). The natural science model of psychology has been criticized and some psychologists hold that psychological phenomenon is different from natural phenomenon, therefore it is inappropriate to take natural science as psychology's ideal model. (b) Multicultural psychology comes into being. The psychologists that accept multiculturalism think that traditional psychology is a product of mainstream culture and gives little regard to minority group culture. These psychologists insist that all the cultures be included in psychological research in order to cure culture blindness. (c) Mainstream cross cultural psychology was criticized for its ethnocentrism and universalism, and transcultural psychology, a branch of human science instead of natural science like cross cultural psychology has emerged. (d) Psychologists from cognitive psychology, developmental psychology and health psychology begin to recognize the importance of cultural factors. The author concludes that the cultural turn provides a "fourth dimension" to the psychological interpretation of human behavior which gives additional meaning to psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral interpretations. The cultural turn is, in the author's opinion, conducive to the development of western psychology.
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    Pan Jun (College of Industry & Business, Najing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016) Li Yan (Department of Education,Shenyang Normal College, Shenyang\ 110023)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 85-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 144 )
    Lie detection of Backster System from U.S.A has been applied in Chinese court as a new technique since 1993. It is successfully used in both civil and criminal cases which had never been done in other countries. Efforts were made to improve the system to meet with Chinese culture. The reliability, validity and distinguishability were verified at a high level by a large sample of more than 300 Chinese subjects in three years. Relevant issues are discussed in order to make greater progress in practice work, such as the estimating level in the judgment of lying or honesty, error elimination and so on.
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    Tian Ping (Institute of Higher Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2001, 33 (03): 93-96.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    Based on the statistics of the cited frequency of published papers of Acta Psychologica Sinica since 1956, the paper includes 120 papers and analysed the situation of relationship between authors and co authors?distribution of core authors?distribution of source of authors?distribution of subjects and concludes that Acta Psychologica Sinica is the best core periodical of core journals of psychology.
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