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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 33 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    VISUAL SMOOTH PURSUIT IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
    Ding Jinhong (Department of Psychology,Capital Normal University,Beijing 100083) Lin Zhongxian (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 2-6.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 108 )
    In this experiment,we examined the characteristics of visual smooth pursuit under different direction conditions. Three major findings were noted. First,a significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical pursuit. This difference was shown in almost all eye movement indices. Second,differences were also observed between the "toward left" and the "toward right" and between the up and the down conditions. These differences were registered only in data structures of pursuits. Third,we found that the distance of saccades was the most sensitive index of eye movement. In addition to these findings,we also noted that the effects of different direction conditions might be registered differently by different eye movement indices. This observation,which points to the complexity of visual pursuit research,warrants further investigation. The spectral analysis used to analyze eye movement in this study provides an alternative method that we believe is more effective than some of the traditional methods.
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    THE INHIBITION MECHANISM OF DIFFERENT SKILLED LANGUAGE COMPREHENDERS IN SELF PACED LEXICAL PROCESSING
    Yang Lixia\ Chen Yongming Zhou Zhijin (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 7-12.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 137 )
    The main purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibition mechanism of skilled and less skilled Chinese language comprehenders. Based on Multi Media Language Comprehension Test (MMLCT), two groups of first year university students were selected as subjects. They were classified into two groups, more and less skilled Chinese comprehenders, according to their scores on MMLCT. Two experiments were conducted to examine the inhibition mechanism of the two groups of subjects in processing Chinese two character words. In the experiments, an experimental paradigm of combining self paced Moving Window and selective recognition task was used. A new method of externally inserting language distractors under self paced reading condition was also used. The inhibition mechanism was examined from two different dimensions of distractors in the two experiments. In the first experiment, the meaningful two character words and meaningless two character non words were used as distractors to examine the effect of the meaningfulness of distractors on inhibition mechanism. This was from a lower level of meaningfulness dimension. In the second experiment, the effect of semantic relevance of distractors to target items on the inhibition mechanism was examined. Semantic relevant and irrelevant two character words were used as the distractors. This was from a higher level of meaningfulness dimension. The results showed: (1) Inhibition mechanism was affected by the properties of distractors, such as meaningfulness and semantic relevance to target words. The more meaningful and semantic relevant the distractors are, the more difficult they will be inhibited. (2) The different skilled comprehenders were also different in the efficiency to inhibit external distractors. Less skilled comprehenders had less efficient inhibition mechanism. (3) The benefit effect of self paced paradigm on the inhibition mechanism of less skilled comprehenders decreased with distractive intensity. It could be concluded that at Chinese lexical processing level, subjects with different comprehension skills exhibited a difference in the effect of inhibiting external distractive information. Less skilled comprehenders showed a weaker inhibition mechanism.
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    THE EFFECTS OF POLYSEMY IN CHINESE TWO-CHARACTER WORD IDENTIFICATION
    Chen Baoguo Peng Danling (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 13-17.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 172 )
    The effects of polysemy and word frequency in the identification of Chinese two character word were explored in lexical decision and naming task. According to Modern Chinese Dictionary (1997), eighty ambiguous unambiguous two character word pairs were selected. The first character's pronunciations of these word pairs were the same. Thirty subjects were asked to rate the number of meaning for these words. Based on the rating data, fifteen high frequency ambiguous unambiguous word pairs and fifteen low frequency word pairs were created. In Experiment 1, thirty undergraduate students participated in the lexical decision experiment. They were asked to make a word nonword discrimination for a stimulus appearing on the video monitor by pressing either the word or nonword key. The result showed: in the lexical decision task, there was a significant interaction between polysemy and frequency variables and the polysemy effects were present only for low frequency words. In Experiment 2, twenty six undergraduate students participated in the naming experiment. They were asked to name a word aloud as quickly and accurately as possible. The result showed: in the naming task, there was no polysemy effect both for higher and lower frequency words. By analyzing the items, it was found that the difference of meaning number for high frequency ambiguous unambiguous words were less than for low frequency ambiguous unambiguous words. The less difference of meaning number for high frequency ambiguous unambiguous words may be the reason why there was nopolysemy effect in the identification of high frequency Chinese two character words in lexical decision task. In naming tasks, the null effects of polysemy may be explained as (1) the pronunciation of two character words can begin at the moment of accessing the first character's sound of two character words. The characteristic of two character word's pronunciation resulted in the weak influence of semantic features on the retrieval of pronunciation of two character words. (2) For the items, the first character's pronunciations of ambiguous unambiguous word pairs were the same. The same pronunciation of the first character may also result in the null effects of polysemy during the naming of Chinese two character words.
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    MEANING ACTIVATION OF CHINESE SYNTACTIC CATEGORY AMBIGUOUS WORDS IN ISOLATION
    Wu Ningning Shu Hua (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 18-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    Understanding the nature of lexical access for ambiguous words has been the aim of many psycholinguistic studies in the past two decades. The principle issue concerns whether all meanings of an ambiguous word are activated at the same time or ordered and selective access is led by meaning frequency and context. In lexical decision task, Zhang et al. (1999) had found that meaning access of Chinese homographs is mainly affected by the relative frequency of meanings, and referential sentence context had no effect on the access of homograph's subordinate meaning. Using a primed naming task, the present study examined the time course of meaning activation of Chinese syntactic category ambiguous words in isolation In four SOAs (43, 84, 200 and 400ms), subjects named target single character words that were semantic related to the more frequent or less frequent meaning of an ambiguous single character prime. The results showed that two meanings of ambiguous words were both activated, with the dominant meaning retrieved earlier than the subordinate meaning. After initial activation, the less frequent meaning became less active, while the dominant meaning maintained a high level of activation. It was suggested that relative frequency played an important role in the multiple activation process of Chinese syntactic category ambiguous words.
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    ACCESSING OF BACKGROUNDED INFORMATION IN DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION
    Wang Suiping\ Mo Lei (Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 25-32.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 120 )
    Using on line window display technique, the present study investigated the process of accessing backgrounded information in discourse comprehension. In 3 experiments, participants read passages in each of three elaboration conditions: consistent elaboration, inconsistent elaboration, and qualified elaboration. The consistent version elaborated on a characteristic of the protagonist that was consistent with a subsequent target action carried out by the protagonist. In the inconsistent version, the target action was inconsistent with the elaborated characteristic. The qualification condition was created by modifying the inconsistent version in order to restrict the conditions under which the characteristic was operative. Besides that, the qualification version also presented some characteristics of the protagonist that would support execution of the actions described in the target sentences. The data demonstrated that subjects experienced comprehension difficulty whether the conflicting information was restricted to the past or was informed as untrue. These results support the memory based text processing view, indicating that both past information or misinformation could be accessed and influence the current information processing in discourse comprehension.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOK JUDGMENTS AND THE ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION
    Shen Dawei\ Han Kai (Department of Psychology,Beijing University,Beijing 100871)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 33-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    FOK(Feeling of Knowing)judgment is one of the most important monitoring judgments of meta memory. Studies on FOK judgments focus on two aspects:rankings of FOK judgments and accuracy of FOK judgments. Based on the studies. Koriat(1993)proposed the Accessibility Model:the rankings of FOK judgments increase with increasing the amount of accessible information;the accuracy of FOK judgments increases with increase of the strength of accessible information. But,in 1998,Scheriber's studies indicated that the rankings of FOK judgments decreased with the increasing amount of implicit information that had preexisting connections to the targets. Why did the two studies produce contrary results?We think it was because Koriat's research studied the explicit and retrieved information,and Scheriber's research studied the implicit information that had preexisting connections to the targets. If we study the two kinds of information at the same time in the identical experiments,what results would appear? In addition,Scheriber's research only studied the rankings of FOK judgments,however the two kinds of accessible information will be how to influence the accuracy of FOK judgments? The present research aimed at studying these problems.\;In Experiment 1,the design is Within Stubject Design,two target set sizes were given in order to compare the influence of two kinds of the amount of accessible information on rankings and accuracy of FOK judgments,one was the explicit and retrieved information,the other was the implicit information which had preexisting connections to the targets.\;Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 were designed to investigate the influence of strength of activated information on the ranking and accuracy of FOK judgments by manipulating the presenting time and the learning times. In Experiment 2,the design was 2×2 Within Subject Design,the two factors were the target's presenting time (2s and 4s)and the target set sizes(big target set size and small target set size). In Experiment 3,the design was 2×2 Within Subject Design too,but for enhancing the strength of activated information,the two factors were the target's learning time(1 time and 2 times)and the target set sizes(big target set size and small target set size).\;Results showed that not only explicit information but also implicit information influenced the rankings of FOK judgments. The more the amount of explicit information was retrieved,the higher the rankings of FOK judgments were,however,the more the amount of implicit information was,the lower the rankings of FOK judgments were. The accuracy of FOK judgments was influenced by the strength of activated information. The strength of activated targets had favorable influence on the accuracy of FOK judgments. While the strength of activated implicit information had negative effect on the accuracy of FOK judgments.
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    THE EFFECTS OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY AND MODALITY IN SOURCE MONITORING
    Yang Zhixin (Department of Philosophy, Anhui University,Hefei 230039)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 41-45.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    The experiment presented here was designed to explored the impacts of the semantic similarity and the test modality on listeners' ability to identify speakers' voice and recognition. Fifty two undergraduate students participated in this study as subjects for course credit of General Psychology. Participants heard an audio tape of two people,a male and a female,uttering Chinese two character words from six categories,and later decided who said each word. The author varied the semantic distinctiveness of the words that two people spoke and the distinctiveness of the test modality. Participants demonstrated higher source monitoring scores and the recognition advantage of source constancy between study and test when the same category words were spoken by the same speaker. The advantage of source constancy between study and test was not found in source monitoring. There was correlation between recognition and source monitoring only when the same category words were spoken by the same speaker and test modality was audition. These results suggested that if the words from the same source had more similar semantic features,subjects identified sources of the words more easily. The semantic similarity was an important factor that influenced the source monitoring.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF COLOR NAMING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT NATIONALITIES IN CHINA
    Lin Zhongxian\ Zhang Zenghui\ Han Buxin (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) Fu Jinzhi (Yunnan Institute of Educational Science, Kunming 650092)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 46-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 185 )
    This paper reports on the level and the difference of the development of ability to name colors by 3-6 year old children in China's Han, Mongolian, Uighur, Zhuang, Bai and Hani nationalities. Eight familiar color chips, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black and white, were used as color test samples in this study. The results were indicated as follows: 1) the percentages of correct color naming of all the six nationality children increased with age; 2) the total mean percentages of correct naming of colors by the different nationality children were as follows: Han, 75.7%; Mongolian, 74.9%; Hani, 59.8%; Zhuang, 57.8%; Bai, 56.3%; Uighur, 42.9%; 3) the eight colors did not present equal degree of difficulty for correct color naming, some were easier than the others, but the degrees of difficulty of correctly naming the eight colors were very consistent for all the six nationality children; 4) the order of colors according to the percentages of correct color naming scores by total Chinese young children were as follows: firstly black, red and white, then yellow and green, and then blue, the last were purple and orange.
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    THE COMPILING OF ADOLESCENCE TIME MANAGEMENT DISPOSITION INVENTORY
    Huang Xiting\ Zhang Zhijie (Institute and Department of Psychology,Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing\ 400715)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 51-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 1083 )
    Time is the most precious resource in business and society,which can be effectively managed and used However,the way people subjectively experience and utilize time varies substantially between people But in psychological study, research such as time attitude,time experience,time structure,are related to the subjective experience and utilization of time At present Time Management Questionnaire and Time Management Behavior Scale is used abroad to evaluate the way individuals utilize time The time management disposition reflects the way that individuals make of use and controls his time,and it can be considered as a kind of personality trait which is a multi dimension and multi level mental structure The study aims at developing the Time Management Disposition Inventory for Chinese adolescents \ \ With studies abroad and our preliminary investigation as base,the Adolescence Time Management Disposition Inventory has been compiled According to the results of 1207 adolescents by exploratory factor analysis,the time management disposition is consisted of the sense of time value (it included social oriented time value and individual oriented time value),the sense of time control (it included setting goals,planning,priorities,time allocation,and feedback)and the sense of time efficacy (it included efficacy of time management and efficacy of time management behaviors) The confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the construct validity with the result of other 507 adolescents,the goodness of fit of three dimension model was better than other unconstrianed models Compared with the three scales on time management abroad (Time Management Questionnaire,Time Management Behavior Scale and Time Structure Questionnaire),Time management Dispositon Inventory has content validity The reliability analysis provided Cronbach α and retest correlation,which indicated the inventory had internal and temporal consistency \ \ All the results indicated Time Management Disposition Inventory had clear factor structure,good reliability and validity It can be used to assess the time management disposition for Chinese adolescence
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    THE RELATIONSHIP OF EVENT STRESS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT TOBEHAVIORAL ADJUSTMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Yu Guoliang (Institute of Psychological and Behaviord Research,Tianjing NormalOniversity, Tianjin 300073) (China National Institute of Education Research, Beijing 100088) Chen Shifang (Taiwan Political University, Taibei)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 57-61.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 309 )
    This paper discussed the life event stress status of elementary school pupils through 4-6 grades, and examined the relationship of life event stress and academic achievement to the behavioral adjustment which were appraised by their teacher in charge of the class. Results showed: The major negative stress in elementary school pupil's life was academic achievement. The elementary school pupil's life event stress increased by age and without gender difference. Boys were more behaviorally maladjusted and the 6 th grade pupil's were less dependent on the teacher′s appraisement. Regression analyses indicated that academic achievement, gender, family income, life event stress and age were significantly predictive of the pupil's behavioral adjustment.
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    THE ROLE OF GOAL-ORIENTATION IN SELF-REGULATED LEARNING
    Lei Li\ Wang Ling (Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100089) Tanja CULJAK (University of Zagreb, Croatia)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 62-66.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 3205 )
    The present study investigated the relationships between goal orientation and cognitive strategies, school failure coping style, school achievement, in order to probe into the role that goal orientation played in self regulated learning. Based on the result, it was hypothesized that goal orientation served as the impetus variable in self regulated learning, influencing the cognitive strategies which the subjects adopted to deal with the cognitive materials, and the coping style which the subjects selected when facing school failure; while the cognitive strategies and coping style directly influenced the school achievement.
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    ENCODING OF OBJECT LOCATIONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    Tian Xuehong 1,2 \ Fang Ge 2\ Fang Fuxi 2 ( 1 Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004) ( 2 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 67-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    This study used an improved paradigm of object searching to examine 7 , 9 , and 11 year old primary school children′s ability in encoding target locations. The performance of the 9 and 11 year olds were significantly higher than that of the 7 year olds. For the 7 year olds, the performance in locating two landmarks was significantly better than that of encoding three locations. This task effect was absent from the two older groups. For all age groups, encoding performance was better under the cued condition.
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    THE ROLE OF CENTRAL INTERLEUKIN-1 ON STRESS-INDUCED HYPERTENSION
    Zou Changjiang\ Liu Jingdong (Dept. of Physiology and Pathophsiology, Peking University, Beijing 100083)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 75-79.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 57 )
    Central interleukin 1 (IL 1) plays very important roles in mediating the neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stressors. Furthermore, cardiovascular and endocrine responses to interleukin 1β are similar to stress. To test the roles of central IL 1 in hypertension induced by stress (footshock or conditional fear emotional stress), intracerebral ventricular (ICV) injection of IL 1β or IL 1ra was performed on male Sprague Dawley rats. We observed that: 1) ICV injection of interleukin 1β induced pressor responses. 2) Hypertension induced by interleukin 1β was blocked by ICV injection of an IL 1 antagonist, IL 1ra. 3) ICV injection of IL 1ra attenuate the pressor response induced by footshock but intravenous injection of IL 1ra did not significantly reduce this response. 4) The hypertensive response to conditioned fear stimuli was reversed by ICV injection of IL 1ra. These results suggested that the pressor response induced by footshock or conditioned fear emotional stimuli is mediated by central interleukin 1.
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    EFFECT BY EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ON THE ONSET OF DIABETES IN CHINESE HAMSTER
    Wu Daxing ①\ Yao Shuqiao ①\ Zou Tao ①\ Sun Haixia ①\ Hu Min ②\ Liu Youshuo ② (① Chinical Psychological Research Center, ②Institute of Metabolism & Endocrinology, the Second Hospital of Xiangya, Zhongnan University, Changsha 410011)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 80-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    The aim of this stndy was to investigate the role and interaction effects of experimental stress, emotionality and cage shelf level in spontaneous hereditary diabetes mellitus of Chinese Hamsters, and to find out risk factors in onset/incidence of animal diabetes. The results showed that incidence of diabetes mellitus and blood glucose level of Chinese Hamsters are significantly increased in the experimental stress (shaking, rotation and restraint); With experimental times lasting, high emotionality animals have a high incidence of disease and remained in steady level; A three way ANOVA suggested that interaction effects of experimental stress and animal emotionality play a main role in incidence of diabetes mellitus and blood glucose level of Chinese Hamster. In short, experimental stress and emotionality play an important role in the onset/incidence of diabetes mellitus of Chinese Hamster.
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    THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY AND STRUCTURE MODELING OF ASSESSMENT CENTER
    Wu Zhiming (School of Economics and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084) Zhang Houcan (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 85-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    In this study, we used multitrait multimethod matrices and confirmatory factor analysis to examine the construct validity or structural models of a set of instruments making up an assessment center (AC). The AC consisted of three exercises tapping multiple performance dimensions. The three exercises included leaderless group discussions, in basket exercises, and personality questionnaires. One hundred and thirty six employees were assessed on four ability dimensions using these exercises. The convergent validity was found to be lower than the discriminant validity. These and other results suggest that AC ratings on various ability dimensions across multiple exerciese are situation specific rather than dimension specific. That is, the latent factors underlying AC ratings represent method but not trait dimensions.
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    PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS OF HR MANAGEMENT IN MOHISM & ITS MODERN SIGNIFICANCE
    Xia Jinhua\ Zhu Yongxin (Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006)
    . 2001, 33 (04): 92-96.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 347 )
    HR management plays an important part in the theory of organization psychology as well as in the practice of modern business management. Mohism thoughts in Pre Qin Dynasty involved abundant thoughts on HR management. This article tries to recognize and elaborate those thoughts in the following aspects, such as recruiting, staff assessment, stuff appointment, stuff motivation. Besides, it is about to bring to light its modern significance.
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