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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 October 2001, Volume 33 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE EARLY ERP EFFECTS REFLECT NEURAL ACTIVITY IN SPATIALSCALE OF VISUAL ATTENTION
    Luo Yuejia(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)R. Parasuraman(The Catholic University of America, Washington DC 20064)
    2001, 33 (05):  2-6. 
    Abstract ( 840 )  
    To investigate temporal dynamics of the spatial scaling of attention during visual search, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in young subjects who performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by valid cues that varied in size and hence in precision of target localization. The effects of cue size on P1 and N1 components, and the time course of these effects with variation in cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), were examined. Reaction time (RT) to discriminate a target was prolonged as cue size increased. The amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 evoked by the search array were affected in opposite ways by the size of the precue: P1 amplitude increased whereas N1 amplitude decreased as cue size increased, particularly following the shortest SOA. The results showed that when top-down information about the region to be searched was less precise (larger cues), RT slowed and the neural generators of P1 became more active, reflecting the additional computations required in changing the spatial scale of attention to the appropriate element size to facilitate target discrimination. In contrast, the decrease in N1 amplitude with cue size may reflect the broadening of the spatial gradient of attention. The results provided electrophysiological evidence that changes in the spatial scale of attention modulate neural activity in early visual cortical areas and activate at least two temporally-overlapping component processes during visual search.
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    CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS PERCEPTION:THE TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN ATTENTION AND STIMULUS QUALITY
    Geng Haiyan Zhu Ying(Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871)
    2001, 33 (05):  7-14. 
    Abstract ( 1375 )  
    This study provides a different perspective on the concept of perceptual awareness by examining the possible trade-off effects of attention and stimulus duration through a character-exclusion task. In Experiment 1, the use of target characters in completing character radicals occurred more often than the baseline expectation when they were presented for a short time. The reverse was observed when increasing either the attention to or the duration of the target characters. Similarly, in Experiment 2, target characters were used to complete the radicals more often than the baseline under the divided-attention condition. The reverse was again observed when either under the focused-attention condition or when the divided-attention condition was combined with the long stimulus duration condition. These results suggest trade-offs between attention and stimulus quality in defining perceptual awareness.
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    DISCRETE OF CONTINUOUS?──THE DYNAMICS OF SEMANTIC INFORMATION PROCESSING
    Gao Liqun 1 2 Peng Danling 2 (1 Chinese Test Center, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing 100083) (2 Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    2001, 33 (05):  15-21. 
    Abstract ( 842 )  
    The present study focused on the dynamics of semantic information processing, and the role of familiarity. In order to solve this problem, two experiments with speed-accuracy decomposition and conventional reaction-time paradigm were conducted to inspect how dose familiarity influence the dynamic of semantic processing. Experiment 1 used conventional reaction-time paradigm with sentence verification task to investigate the effects of familiarity and semantic hierarchical distance on time course of semantic process. The results showed there are complex interaction among familiarity, semantic hierarchical distance and percentile of reaction time. It provides evidences consistent with the dual-process mechanism in semantic processing. This mechanism combined discrete search and continuous computation. Experiment 2 used SAD technique with the sentence verification task. The aim of experiment 2 was to explore the familiarity effect on the available partial information accumulations of discrete search and continuous computation mechanisms. The results showed that the high familiarity sentences verification process produced discrete intermediate outputs of partial information; and the process of low familiarity produced continuous intermediate outputs of partial information.
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    EFFECTS OF SUPPORTIVE CONDITIONS ON AGE DIFFERENCES IN MEMORY
    Luo Lin Han Buxin(Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2001, 33 (05):  22-26. 
    Abstract ( 900 )  
    Three experiments were conducted to explore the effects of cognitive supports on age differences in memory. In Experiment 1, encoding condition and semantic integration level were varied, while the combination of subject-performed (SPT) encoding and well-integrated (WI) items produced reduced age differences, applying these conditions alone did not affect age differences. In Experiment 2, cued recall task was used; for poorly-integrated (PI) items, using noun as retrieval cue had a greater supportive effect on younger subjects compared to older adults. In Experiment 3, structured list was used as memory material; a negative cueing effect of verb cue was found. In addition, combining SPT encoding with categorical cue resulted in larger age differences. It is suggested that the variances of age differences in memory reflect an interaction between encoding condition, memory materials and retrieval condition. The different patterns are discussed in terms of the strategic nature of encoding, self-initiated processing and encoding-specificity principle.
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    THE EFFECTS OF WORD SPLITTING AND CHARACTER-SPACE ON COMPREHENSION OF CHINESE TEXT PRESENTED IN LEADING FORMAT
    Shen Mowei Li Zhongping Zhang Guangqiang (Department of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    2001, 33 (05):  27-32. 
    Abstract ( 884 )  
    The effects of two factors named word splittings and character-spaces on Chinese text reading comprehension were respectively tested in two experiments. The results showed:(1) that moving steps caused statistically significant difference on the reading comprehension: reading comprehension in 3-character per step was better than in 2-and 1-character per step, but the text moving in the speed of a word per step (both in appearing and disappearing condition) failed to facilitate the reading processes; (2) that character-spaces caused significantly different performances on Chinese reading, but the effects of character-spaces that larger than 1 character were still hanging in doubts; (3) that the effects of moving steps and character-spaces both were statistically significant in 10-character window, but insignificant in 20-charater window. Finally the causes of these findings on the bases of eye-movement researches on static text were discussed.
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    THE EFFECTS OF EVENT PROTOTYPES WITH DIFFERENT GENERALIZATIONDEGREE ON PROBLEM CATEGORIZING AND SOLVING
    Mo Lei Wu Sina (South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    2001, 33 (05):  33-41. 
    Abstract ( 779 )  
    This study mainly explored the effects of event prototypes with different generalization degrees formed during the course of the principle study on solving problems. In Experiment 1, the effects of event prototypes with different generalization degrees in solving problem with different concrete contents were investigated. Experiment 2 focused on the forms and the mechanisms of the information processing in solving problems by which the subjects who had formed the different event prototypes in generalization degrees in problem solving. Experiment 3 probed further into the result and the mechanisms of the subjects with the different event prototypes in generalization degrees in solving complex problems. The results suggested: (a) Having formed the event prototypes of higher generalization degree facilitated the subjects to solve the problems with the inappropriate superficial contents. (b) The subjects who had formed the event prototypes with higher generalization degree could quickly activate the event prototype and access the principle schema, as a result, to use the schema-based method to solve both the problems with the appropriate concrete contents and the problems with the inappropriate contents. (c) Having formed the event prototypes of higher generalization degree enabled the subjects to remove quickly the influence of the irrelevant information in solving the complex problems.
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    THE EFFECT OF WORD LEARNING AGE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'SVISUAL CHINESE CHARACTER RECOGNITION (I)
    Guan Yijie 1,2 Fang Fuxi 2(1Institute of Mental Health and Education,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875)(2Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2001, 33 (05):  42-47. 
    Abstract ( 913 )  
    The study was to explore the effect of word learning age in primary school children's Chinese character recognition. Real characters and pseudo-characters were used as stimuli. Three groups of real characters were used which were selected in the Chinese textbooks of grade 1,3,5 respectively as real characters. The subjects were primary school children from grade 1,3,5 who were required to judge whether a stimulus was a legal character or not. The result showed a strong effect of word learning age in primary school children's LDT of Chinese character.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S HYPOTHESIS-TESTING THINKING STRATEGIES
    Zhang Qinglin Si Jiwei Wang Weihong (Department of Psychology,Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing 400715)
    2001, 33 (05):  48-53. 
    Abstract ( 1012 )  
    This study examined the development of hypothesis-testing thinking strategies of elementary school children. In a sample of 550 children representing different grades,we obtained the following results. First,Task 1 with multiple probable solutions was more difficult than Tast Ⅱ that contained definite solutions. Second,the development of these children's probability thinking,which was a linear function of age,also differed depending on the probability tasks provided to them. Third,the interaction between probability thinking development and task complexity also applied to the use of successful and unsuccessful problem solving strategies. Finally,to conduct our research,we developed and used a fixed-example procedure. We believe this new procedure is better suited for assessing hypothesis-testing strategies than the variable-example procedure that had been used in the past.
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    THE EFFECT OF PSYCHO-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONON THE EMOTIONAL REACTION AND IMMUNE FUNCTIONIN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS UNDERGOING RADIOTHERAPY
    Liu Yan Lin Wenjuan(Brain Behavior Research Center, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) Liu Xinfan Zhang Jigang(The Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021) Erika M Hardy Meg Mountainbear(Mi
    2001, 33 (05):  54-58. 
    Abstract ( 1040 )  
    Matched on a series of demographic and medical treatment variables, forty hospitalized breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy were randomly assigned to either a psycho-behavioral intervention group or a control group. The 4-week intervention primarily consisted of multiple sessions of muscle relaxation exercises and guided imagery treatment. The results showed that the level of NK cell activity of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The number of patients in the intervention group who had to use medicines to increase white blood cells during radiotherapy was significantly fewer than that of the control groups. No significant differences were found between these two groups in a set of emotional adjustment questionnaires. These results suggest that the intervention helped in strengthening patients' immune functioning but not in changing their emotional state..
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAPPINESS AND SOCIAL SUPPORT
    Xin Ziqiang Chi Liping (The Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    2001, 33 (05):  59-64. 
    Abstract ( 1665 )  
    The relationship between happiness and social support was examined in a survey of 304 men and women using questionnaires. Several gender effects were obtained. (1) Men had significantly more social support and showed more positive affect than women. (2) Women's utilization of social support was higher than that of men. (3) There were no gender differences in happiness, negative affect, or interpersonal support. (4) Regression analyses showed that both interpersonal support (including that from spouses, parents, friends, neighbors, and colleagues) and support utilization were significant predictors of happiness and positive and negative affect.
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    THE EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT EXPOSURE AND BRAND MATURITY ON THE MODE OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
    Chen Ning (School of Management, FuDan University, Shanghai 200433)
    2001, 33 (05):  65-69. 
    Abstract ( 980 )  
    We used the process dissociation procedure to examine consumers' information processing in relation to brand maturity and ad exposure frequency. The results showed that, under the divided-attention condition, mature brands elicited more automatic processing than new brands. The controlled processing did not vary significantly across different brand maturity levels. Under the low-involvement-learning condition, repetition was found to facilitate both automatic and controlled processing. One implication for marketing managers is that, even under a non-attending condition, consumers may retain ad information through automatic processing.
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    THE CONSTRUCTION OF "BASIC COGNITIVE CAPACITY TEST" AND ITSSTANDARDIZATION
    Li Deming Liu Chang Li Guiyun(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2001, 33 (05):  70-77. 
    Abstract ( 959 )  
    A battery of basic cognitive capacity tests and its software was designed and constructed on the bases of our researches for many years. The test consisted of 7 subtests: digit discrimination, mental arithmetic, Chinese character rotation, digit working memory, recognition of dual words, recognition of tri-digits and recognition of meaningless figure, and its software was programed by using C language. For standardization of the test and obtaining the representative normal data, a sample with 2443 subjects was taken in 6 administrative areas in China. The scope of application of the test were children and adults of 10 to 90 years of age with over 4 years of education. The two conversion tables of the scores for each age group were constructed for students and adults. All of the distinctiveness, the reliability, the internal identity and the validity for the test were good.
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    PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS OF NATUREAND HABIT DURING HAN DYNASTY
    Yan Liangshi(Psychology Department, Education Science Institute, Changsha, Hunan 410081)
    2001, 33 (05):  78-83. 
    Abstract ( 860 )  
    The psychological thoughts of nature and habit which represent the course of history over 200 years of Han Dynasty can be summarized as: the theory of "following the natural law and going back to nature" in Huai Nanzi, Dong Zhongshu's thoughts of "nature needs instruction to become goodness" and Wang Chong's ideas of "men are born good or evil, who may be reversed by practice". These ideas were not only the culmination of all those good at that age, but also possess the values of enlightening and being used for reference for modern psychological research.
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    MODEL SELECTIONS, VARIANCE COMPONENT EXPLANATIONS AND INDEXCOMPARISONS IN THE APPLICATION OF GENERALIZABILITYTHEORY:COMMENTS ON LIU AND ZHANG (1998,1999)
    Li Weiming Yan Fang(Department of psychology, East-China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)
    2001, 33 (05):  84-87. 
    Abstract ( 858 )  
    In this essay, we commented on two applications of generalizability theory by Liu and Zhang (1998, 1999). We believe these authors were erroneous in the selection of models, the comparison of generalizability indices, and the explanation of variance components, we provided our recommendations on these and other issues.
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    STUDY ON LEARNING AND MEMORY OF TRANSGENIC MICE
    Li Xinwang(Department of Psychology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001) Xiao Jian(Department of Psychology, Beijing University, Beijing 100871)
    2001, 33 (05):  90-94. 
    Abstract ( 840 )  
    This paper reviews recent researches on learning and memory of transgenic mice. It also analyses the acting mechanism of some proteins in learning and memory. These proteins are NMDA receptor, nociceptin receptor, TPK, CaMK II, PKC, PKA, CREB, N-CAM and NGF, the paper also explores into the relations between LTP and learning memory.
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