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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 33 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE PERCEPTION OF PROSODIC WORD STRESS IN STANDARD CHINESE
    Zhong Xiaobo Wang Bei Yang Yufang(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)Lu Shinan(Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080)]
    . 2001, 33 (06): 2-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 106 )
    In this research, two perceptual experiments were completed. In the first exper iment, the acoustic cues of stress in prosodic word of Standard Chinese were stu d ied, and the extents to which these acoustic cues contribute to the perception o f stress were investigated. The results showed that, according to the weight of contri bution to stressed word perception, the acoustic cues were duration, pitch, spec t ral tilt, and energy. In the second experiment, the influences of non acoustic factors on the perception of the prosodic word stress were investigated. The res u lts showed that listeners' linguistic knowledge of stress in prosodic word signi ficantly influences the result of stress perception.AbstractIn this research, two perceptual experiments were completed. In the first exper iment, the acoustic cues of stress in prosodic word of Standard Chinese were stu d ied, and the extents to which these acoustic cues contribute to the perception o f stress were investigated. The results showed that, according to the weight of contri bution to stressed word perception, the acoustic cues were duration, pitch, spec t ral tilt, and energy. In the second experiment, the influences of non acoustic factors on the perception of the prosodic word stress were investigated. The res u lts showed that listeners' linguistic knowledge of stress in prosodic word signi ficantly influences the result of stress perception.
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    ERP EFFECTS OF RECOGNITION OF CHINESE SPOKEN AND WRITTENWORDS AND NEURAL MECHANISM OF RETRIEVAL
    Luo Yuejia Wei Jinghan Weng Xuchu Wei Xing(Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 10-15.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 133 )
    Event related potentials were recorded while 13 normal young subject s (age range 23 32 years) were recognizing Chinese words presented in either aud i tory or visual modality. The "sustained central negativity" (SCN) elicited by sp oken words and the "late positive component" (LPC) evoked by written ones were observed, this suggested different retrieval mechanism between them. The old/new effect was significant for both recognition of written and spoken Chines e characters, that is, the old items yielded more positive going ERP components than did the new items. However, the effect in the sound recalling is dominant o ver the right hemisphere and that for the written words distributes at the left parietal , po sterior temporal scalp and right occipital area. The result of the present exper imen t proposes the concept that the "dominant hemisphere" is hard to conclude the mu ltidimensional and dynamic relationship between hemispheres and it is necessary to be modified.
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    INFLUENCE OF THE MECHANISMS OF DISTRACTOR PROCESSING OFSELECTIVE ATTENTION ON WORKING MEMORY
    Jin Zhicheng(Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzho u, 510631)Chen Caiqi(Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 16-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 268 )
    By screening subjects strictly in experimental approach, the present re search explored the influence of the mechanisms of distractor processing of sele ctive attention (the distractor inhibition mechanism and the habituation mechani sm) on working memory, under the condition of exiting and unexiting distractor i nterference. The results showed that the distractor inhibition mechanism had an impact on both the storage and the processing of working memory while the habitu ation mechanism had an influence only on the storage aspect, not on processing.
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    A GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF KEYBOARD TIMING ACCURACY
    Liu Zuxiang 1,2Zhu Ying 1(1 Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871) (2 Beijing Lab of Cognitive Science, Graduate School (Beijing), Universi ty of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100039)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 21-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    A graphical analysis method (Myors, 1998) was used in 4 experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the keypad of PES psychological experiment system had good t iming accuracy. Experiment 2 showed that the timing accuracy of different keyboa rds varied from 1 to about 40 msec. Those PS2 keyboards had poor performance, es pecially. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the PS2 to Normal and Normal to PS2 converter and the main processor frequency didn't affect keyboard timing accura cy. In experiment 4,3 operators were used and demonstrated that individual's dif ference didn't affect the power of this method. This study demonstrated the use of graphical analysis of timing accuracy, showed that in specific experiment, ti ming accuracy should be checked, in order to decide which kind of keyboard or ke ypad should be used, according to the timing accuracy of the experiment design. A small software named KBTST was provided for the timing accuracy checking.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF FEATURES OF ANTECEDENT INFORMATION ON ITS ACCE SSDURING DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION
    Wang Suiping Mo Lei(Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzh ou 510631)Xiao Xin(Department of Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 30-38.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    Using an on-line window display technique, the present study investigated how tw o features of antecedent information (the relationship and the distance with cur r ent information) affected the access of antecedent information, which was inform ed appropriately or inappropriately in the previous text. In Experiment 1, parti cipants read passages sentence by sentence at their own pace and made judgments about probe words that were either appropriate or inappropriate anaphoric refere nts. The probe words were presented in the normal text through changing the colo r of the words. The data demonstrated that the inappropriate information remained a c andidate antecedent despite the presence of a strong exclusionary statement that indicated it was incorrect. In Experiment 2, we varied the relative lags betwee n different antecedent information and the test anaphor. Participants read passa ges word by word and named the probe words. The results showed that the appropri ate anaphoric referents were accessed faster than the inappropriate ones, while the factor of distance had no effect on the activation level of the anaphoric re ferents.
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    THE MENTAL MODELS OF THE SOLVING OF THREE TERM SERIES PROBLEM BY INDIVIDUALS
    Li Hong(Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chon gqing 400715)Lin Chongde(Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 39-46.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 120 )
    Two experiment conditions had been designed to explore the mental models of the solving of three term series problem making of 360 children and adolescents ag ed 6 to 19. The results showed: (1) The development of transitive inference abilit y solving the logical necessity items were relatively regular; (2) The ability a bout logical necessity items were prior to that about logical non necessity ite ms. The rapid of the development of ability of 6 9 children about logical non nec es sity items was lower to that of the 10 years of age and above; (3) It is proved with exp eriment that Spatial Model, Linguistic Spatial Mixed Model, Linguistic Model an d Pivot Comparative Model are essential mental models in the solving of three t erm series problem. A new theoretical model (compound mental model, CMM) of the development of mental models of the solving of three term series problem has be en developed.
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    A STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POWERENCEPHALOFLUCTUOGRAPH AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THESPEED OF CALCULATION IN CHILDREN AGED FROM 6 TO 12
    Wo Jianzhong Lin Chongde Liu Jun(Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 47-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    In the present study, 76 normal subjects (aged 6-12 years) were exam ined by ET. We focused on the speed of calculation and age related characteristics o f encephalofluctuograph. The results obtained were as follows: (1) In the group with fast performance of calculation test and the group with slow performance of calculation test, there were low power in the frontal area and high power in th e occiput area in the configuration of dominant power encephalofluctuograph in a ll age groups. The reverse percent in the group with slow performance was highe r than in the group with fast performance. (2) In all the groups of different ag e, the reverse percent in the group with fast performance was apparently lower t h an in the group with slow performance. The difference of the percent of the ante rior posterior reverse between the group with fast performance and the group wi t h slow performance was concentrated on the right brain hemisphere. (3) Both in t h e group with fast performance and in the group with slow performance, the power of the left hemisphere was fewer than that of the right hemisphere of dom inan t power in encephalofluctuograph between the two groups is concentrated on the p osterior area.
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    SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT AND SOCIAL BEHAVIORS: ACROSS-LAGGED REGRESSION ANALYSES
    Chen Huichang 1Wang Quihu 1Chen Xinyin 2 (1 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal Univers ity, Beijing 100875)(2 Western Ontario University, Canada)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 53-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 405 )
    The relationships between school achievement and social behaviors of elementary school pupils and high school students in the time of 21 months were analyzed by using multivariable cross lagged regression. Results show that there were sign i ficant positive relationships between school achievement and social leadership,f rustration toleration, assertive social skills and positive peer nomination scor e of elementary school pupils and high school students in simultaneous tests, an d there were negative relationships between school achievement and aggressive le a rning problem behaviors, maladjustments in elementary school pupils and high sch ool students, and negative peer nomination scores in elementary school pupils. T he multivariable cross lagged regression showed that social leadership, aggress iv e learning problem behaviors, frustration toleration, learning muladjustment, as sertive social skills and positive and negative peer nomination scores could sig ni ficantly predict school achievement 21 months later for elementary school pup ils, however, for high school students, this prediction can only be made in aggr essive learning problem behavior and frustration toleration. There were no simu ltaneous relationship as well as prediction relationship between shy inhibition and anxiety depression and school achievement of children and adolescents.
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    THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES ON STRATEGIES OF COGNITIVE MATCH AND FORMAL MATCH
    Lu Jiamei(Education Science College, Shanghai Teachers University, Shanghai 200234)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 58-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 140 )
    Two field experiments were conducted with the application of the strategies of c ognitive match and formal match, two affective handling strategies of teaching m aterials to regulate learning sets of students, to Chinese teaching and foreign language teaching separately. The results showed that the application of the two strategies to affective handling of teaching materials separately was availab le to regulation of students learning sets and helpful to promotion of students cognitive and affective learning, and the improvement of classroom teaching qual ity.
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    TWO KINDS OF CONDITIONS INFLUENCE THE HUMORAL IMMUNOMODULATION INDUCED BY EMOTIONAL STRESS
    Shao Feng 1,2 Lin Wenjuan 1(1 Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Science,Beijing 100101) (2 Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 64-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    The effect of frequency of emotional stressor presenting and the order in which emotional stress and antigen immunization occurred on the humoral immunomodulati on of emotional stress was studied in adult male Wistar rats. Emotional stress w as induced by randomly giving empty water bottles to rats trained to drink water at two set times each day,the specific antigen Ovalbumin (OVA) was used to immu nize the rats. Results showed that before the antigen immunization,three times e motional stress,30 minutes each time,did not influence the level of anti OV A IgG antibody and spleen index (the primary humoral immunity);however,after ant igen immunnization,the same emotional stress decreased the level of antibody and spleen index;and ,14 times emotional stress after antigen immunization,10 minut es each time,suppressed significantly the primary humoral immune function. T aken together,these findings demonstrated that emotional stress can modulate the humoral immune response,but the effect is dependent upon the severity of emotion al stress and the order in which emotional stress and antigen immunization occur red,14 times emotional stress after antigen immunization suppressed the primary humoral immunity.
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    A METHOD OF EXAMINING THE EARLY MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Chen Xiangchuan 1Xie Hengge 2 Zhang Daren 1Wang Luning 2Chen Longlong 1 Tang Xiaowei 1,3,4(1 Center for Brain Science, Department of Neurobiology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026) (2 Department of Geriatric Neurology, C
    . 2001, 33 (06): 69-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 130 )
    The method of examining the early memory impairments of Alzheimer's di sease was investigated with word delayed recall, memory span, and dual task wor k ing memory tests. Four subject groups, including two normal youth groups, a norm al elder group, and a probable AD group, participated in this study. The results showed that: (1) the word delayed recall probability had no significant differe nce between two youth groups and between the young and the elderly subjects, how ever, it was significantly damaged in the PAD subjects; (2) two groups of young subjects had similar performance in the dual task working memory tests, and the elderly subjects showed some decrease in the performance, but the PAD had more i mpairment in this task; (3) all groups of subjects were different from each othe r in the memory span task. These results indicated that the word delayed recall and the dual task working memory tests may be useful in examining the early mem ory impairments of Alzheimer's disease.
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    COMPARISON BETWEEN MULTI ATTRIBUTE UTILITY AND UNSTRUCTUREDDISCUSSION ON THE QUALITY OF DECISION-MAKING OF GROUPS
    Zhu Huayan Zheng Quanquan(Department of Psychology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)]
    . 2001, 33 (06): 73-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 80 )
    In this study, laboratory experiments to compare the decision making p rocedure of MAU (multi attribute utility) with unstructured discussion on the e f fect of decision quality in the 33AbstractIn this study, laboratory experiments to compare the decision making p rocedure of MAU (multi attribute utility) with unstructured discussion on the e f fect of decision quality in the 33% information shared condition we re conducted, and the factors that affected decision quality were also preliminarily explored . Two kinds of materials for experiments were used in this study. One was the pr ofiles of three hypothetical candidates for student body president (less difficu lt decision level) and the other was the profiles of six hypothetical faculty ca ndidates (high difficult decision level). Subjects met in three person groups ( s mall size) or six person groups (large size) to decide which of the candidates was b est suited for the position of student body president or would be the best perso n to teach an English course. Each profile for candidate contained five positiv e items, three neutral items and one negative item. The actual items member in a group received were not identical. 33% of the total items was share d (each memb er received the same items) and the remaining items were unshared (only one memb er re ceived). There were 288 undergraduates of non psychological speciality particip a ting in these experiments who were divided according to three experimental cond i tions, i.e., size of the groups (3 person or 6 person), decision making proce dur es (MAU or unstructured discussion) and the levels of task difficulty (3 candid a tes or 6 candidates). So there were 8 groups of subjects under each condition. A ssignment to experimental conditions and to decision making groups within each condition was random. The results showed: (1) MAU procedure used by groups was more helpful to reduce some negative effects of group dynamic processes. The number of attributes (espe cially, unshared information) used in the MAU was more than that of unstructured condition. (2) Compared to groups under conditions of unstructured discussion, MAU groups did not show their superiority on attitudinal and interaction criteri a (such as self confidence, satisfaction with the final group decision). Under s ome conditions, even lower levels of those criteria were shown in MAU groups tha n those under conditions of unstructured discussion. (3) Much longer time of mak ing a decision could be seen in MAU groups than that in groups under conditions of unstructured discussion. (4) Under the MAU condition, group size had no e ffect on the pooling of shared and unshared information, while the effect of the complexity of the task was mediated by the group size. MAU procedure was suitab le to the tasks with comparatively lower level of complexity as the size of grou p increased (in this study it is 6 person groups). At the end of this paper, so m e suggestions were put forward. It might be a better strategy for a group to poo l information by using MAU procedure first and then to discuss and reach consens us by using unstructured discussion, for example.
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    DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF ABERRANT ITEM RESPONSE PATTERNSUSING PERSON FIT INDEX AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING
    Cao Yiwei(Shenzhen University Normal College, Shenzhen 518060)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 79-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    There were two main features of this paper: 1) the likelihood based p e rson fit index l z and the residual based caution index, Tatsuoka's ζ ha ve similar mathematical structure except the difference of weight. The wei ght of l z index is a logit of an item response function (IRF), while the weigh t of ζ is residual IRF and true score; 2) a degree of coincidence between any t wo aberrant subjects is defined as a similarity for multidimensional scaling (MD S):S j?k=∑gr=1p j?rp k?r+(1 p j?r)(1 p k?r) 1/2, where g is the number of item groups, p j?r is the proportion of subject j who answer correctl y in the item group r. The larger value of the S j?k, the more similar ity will be between the subject j and k. A dataset of Chinese vocabulary test wa s investigated using the l z index and MDS. The 3.5% of the abe rrant subjects were detected, and classified into 5 types. The result of MDS indicated that it is a useful and effective method for classification of aberra nt item response patterns. Suggestions for future research are provided.
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    REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS IN CHINA FOR THE PASTTWENTY YEARS
    Cui Lixia(Education Department, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhehaote 010022)
    . 2001, 33 (06): 85-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 193 )
    In this article by reviewing the psychological methodology in China for the past twenty years the researchers generalized the main psychological research method s (and statistical techniques) in China and assessed the trends of psychological re search methods (and statistical techniques) in China for the past twenty years. They chose three representative psychology journals published in China from 198 1_1998 and had the articles in these journals classified and counted according to research methods and data analysis/treatment. By the percentage of every met hod and treatment in each year they pictured the developmental trend of the main methods and showed the trend of psychological research methods (and statist ical techniques) in China for the past twenty years clearly. By further analysis they also pointed out the main problems and gave some helpful suggestions for i mproving psychological research in China. Especially suggestions about the limit ation of quantitative methods and the application of western scales in China is valuable for reference.
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