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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 34 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Semantic Processing of Phonetic Radicals in Reading Chinese Characters
    Zhou Xiaolin (Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences,and Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871) William Marslen Wilson (MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 2-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 354 )
    Most complex Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right, which may provide information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. A semantic judgement task was used to investigate whether sublexical processing of phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters is purely a phonological event, involving activation of phonological information associated with the phonetic radicals, or whether it is also a semantic event, involving activation of semantic properties related to the radicals, which are meaningful characters on their own. Significant inhibitory effects was found for complex characters whose phonetic radicals were semantically related to the other member of the consecutively presented pair of characters. The magnitude of the inhibitory effects was generally not influenced by the regularity of phonetic radicals in providing phonological information for the whole characters, nor by the presentation order of complex characters and semantic associates of the phonetic radicals. It is argued that, in reading Chinese, phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters are decomposed from visual input and used to activate their own phonological and semantic properties, in parallel to the processing of whole characters.
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    THE INHIBITORY MECHANISM IN PROCESSING VISUAL-AUDITORY CROSS-MODEL CHINESE WORDS
    Yang Lixia, Fu Xiaolan (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 11-16.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    The inhibitory mechanism in processing visual-auditory cross-modal and visual single-modal information during Chinese lexical processing was investigated in this study The selective recognition task was used The subjects were required to selectively process visually presented target words and simultaneously to inhibit the accompanying distractors that were semantically relevant (same category) or irrelevant (different category) to targets in experimental conditions In the control condition, the target was presented without distractor Two modalities, visual or auditory modalities, were administered to distractors Each group of stimuli was followed by one probe The subjects were asked to recognize whether the probe was one of the targets just presented in the group The inhibitory efficiency was evaluated by subtracting the response performance in control condition from that in experimental conditions The results showed that: During visual Chinese lexical processing, the'no'recognition responses in the single-modal distracting condition (visual distractors) was better than that in the cross-modal distracting condition(auditory distractors) The modality of distractors had no effect on the inhibitory efficiency in visual lexical processing The inhibitory efficiency was not significantly different between the two modalities of distractors, visual and auditory The semantic relevance of the distracting materials had influence on inhibitory efficiency The more semantic relevant (same category) to the target materials the distractors are, the more difficult they will be inhibited
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    VISUAL PERCEPTUAL SKILLS AND READING ABILITIES IN CHINESE SPEAKING CHILDREN
    Meng Xiangzhi,Zhou Xiaolin,Zeng Biao,Kong Ruifen,Zhuang Jie (Laboratory of Developmental Psychology,Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 17-23.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 199 )
    Many studies have shown that developmental dyslexia in alphabetic languages is related to (visual and auditory) perceptual processes Reading impairment originates from deficits in representation and processing both at the linguistic level and at the more basic perceptual level To investigate the relations between Chinese school children′s visual perception and their abilities in reading Chinese characters, the present study used tasks that measure the coherent motion detection threshold, the number of Chinese characters known, reading fluency, phonological awareness, and other tasks including picture naming, and orthographic similarity judgement The correlation analyses found that the dynamic motion detection threshold correlated with error rate in picture naming, the reaction time and error rate in orthographic similarity judgement, static motion detection threshold correlated only with error rate in picture naming When the amount of characters known to children was controlled, correlations between the dynamic motion detection threshold and other variables were stable, but the correlation between the static motion detection threshold and error rate in picture naming disappeared Regression analyses found that the dynamic motion detection threshold accounted for 7%, 25% and 56% for reading fluency, orthographic similarity judgement and error rate in picture naming respectively, after the number of characters known to children and phonological awareness were controlled Phonological awareness accounted for 9% and 10% of character known to children and reading fluency respectively The static motion detection threshold could not account for any variables significantly Further analyses of the performance of poor readers found large individual differences in visual perceptual skills and phonological awareness It was concluded that the development of reading skills is affected by the development of visual perceptual skills and the effects can be localized to specific processes in reading Chinese characters
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    THE EFFECT OF WORD LEARNING AGE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S VISUAL CHINESE CHARACTER RECOGNITION(II)
    Guan Yijie,Fang Fuxi (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 24-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 163 )
    The study was to explore the effect of word learning age in primary school children's Chinese character recognition. Three groups of characters which were selected from the Chinese textbooks of grades 1,3,5 respectively were used as stimuli. The subjects were primary school children from grades 1,3,5 who were required to read the characters loudly. The result showed a strong effect of word learning age in primary school children  naming of Chinese characters.
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    AN EXPERIMENT ON FORGETTING OF IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT MEMORY
    Guo Liping (Department of Early Childhood Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 30-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 525 )
    According to the experimental dissociation paradigm, employing process dissociation procedure, an experiment was designed to investigate the forgetting characters of implicit and explicit memory through comparing the delayed performance of the two processing mechanisms of recognition The results showed that automaticity and recollection functionally differed from each other during the delays of 0, 6 minutes, 15 minutes, 1 hours and 7 days Especially from 0 to 15 minutes, recollection declined significantly, whereas automaticity declined unsignificantly It implied that implicit memory and explicit memory have different forgetting characters The results also showed that the effects of processing level on automaticity and recollection performance were different
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    FRONTAL LOBE PARTICIPATED IN PRIMING FOR NEW ASSOCIATIONS --AN EVIDENCE FROM FRONTAL LESIONED PATIENTS
    Yang Jiongjiong 1 ,Weng Xuchu 2 ,Guan Linchu 2 ,Kuang Peizi 2 Zhang Maozhi 3 ,Sun Weijian 4 ,Yu Shengyuan 5 (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, ( 2 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy
    . 2002, 34 (01): 37-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 140 )
    This study used perceptual identification task to explore the role of frontal lobe in priming for new associations 25 frontal lobe lesioned patients and 18 normal subjects who matched in age and education were tested In the study session, subjects were presented a series of unrelated word pairs and asked to make a meaningful sentence with the two words In the test session, perceptual identification task was performed Subjects were asked to read the old, recombined and new pairs of Chinese words as quickly as possible The patients failed to identify the old unrelated word pairs more than the recombined ones Their associative priming effect was lower than that of the control subjects Moreover, the recognition performance of the patients with mild memory deficit was similar with that of the control subjects, but their associative priming was lower than that of the normal controls also The phenomenon of comparable normal recognition but impaired associative priming manifested the dissociation between implicit memory and explicit memory The correlation between associative priming and preservative response, preservative errors, conceptual level responses and word fluency test was significant It indicated the mechanisms underlying the frontal lobe participating in associative priming were semantic processing, sorting, inhibition, word fluency, and so on In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that the patients with focal lesions in the frontal lobe did not show priming for new associations It suggested that frontal lobe may play a role in priming for new associations with unrelated word pairs as material
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    THE READABILITY OF CHINESE TEXT PRESENTED IN GLIDING LEADING FORMAT AND RSVP WITH SELF-PACED SPEED
    Shen Mowei,Fu Dejiang, Zhang Guangqiang,Chen Xin (Psychology and Behavior Sciences Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 44-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 141 )
    Based on Chinese text reading, permitting the subjects to control the display rate,this study examined the influences on reading comprehension of factors such as window size(10 vs. 20 Chinese characters), initiated rate (300 vs. 600 characters /minute) and display format (gliding leading format vs. RSVP). Compared with the results of the computer-controlling display rate experiment, the results were as follows: (1) the gliding leading format resulted in higher comprehension performance and was preferred by the subjects; (2) there was a trade-off between reading speed and comprehension; (3) if the subjects were permitted to control the display rate, the reading comprehension of different initiated rate depended on the particular combination of window size and display format; (4) the computer-controlled display rate surpassed the self-paced display rate in reading efficiency.
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    A STUDY ON PUTONGHUA TESTING BY MULTIVARIATE GENERALIZABILITY THEORY
    Yang Zhiming,Chang Lei (Department of Educational Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 51-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    In this study, we used Multivariate Generalizability Theory (MGT) to analyze the Putonghua Test conducted by the State Language Commission Random effect variance and covariance components were estimated in the G study Generalizability coefficients for each part of the test and composite generalizability coefficient for the whole test were estimated in the subsequent D study The results showed that the generalizability coefficient (reliability) is acceptable for the whole test but not for Part 3 (language use) of the test It is reasonable to combine the three part universe scores into a composite universe score in this test Since the generalizability coefficients of Part 1 and 2 in the test are large when employing three raters and 28 items for each part, therefore future test design can use fewer items
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DEVELEPMENT OF RECALL READINESS ASSESSMENT
    Liu Xiping 1,2 , Tang Weihai 1 ( 1 College of Educational Science,Tianjin Normal University , Tianjing 300073) ( 2 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 57-61.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 246 )
    The experimental study of recall readiness assessment adopted 3×3×2(age, material,sex)three factors mixed experimental design In terms of the performance of learning (good, medium, not good) selected at random the subjects from second grade elementary school, junior high school and college There were 18 subjects in every grade (male 9 and female 9 ) There were 3 groups ( 6 sheets ) of word tables They were diversed word couples , verb - noun word couples , artfical built word couples There were 3 sheets containing 15 couples in each one , as formal word couples , and the other 3 sheets containing 5 couples each for exercise The materials were all selected from Chinese books that the subjects of second grade elementary school had studied, memory equipment was used to assume the materials, the subjects were told to report the number of memory done after the materials had been assumed , then to report the word couples which had been memorized The experiment adopted alternative method to appoint the subjects The results are as follows: ①The number of recall readiness assessment in the second grade elementary school was 1 6225 , junior high school was 0 4096 , junior college was 0 2007 ; ②The level of difference conspicuous of 3 materials in recall readiness assessment was >0 05 ③ The level of difference conspicuous of sex was >0 05 ④The correlate between achievement of memory and recall readiness assessment was 0 6199 Conclusion : ①The achievement of recall readiness assessment rose with age ②The effect of material in recall readiness assessment was inconspicuous ③Sex effect was not conspicuous There was higher positive correlation between the level of recall readiness assessment and the performance of memory
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    DEVELOPMENT OF PROBLEM SOLVING BEHAVIOR DURING INFANCY
    Dong Qi, Tao Sha, Zhang Hua, Liu Yuxin, Li Beilei (Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 62-67.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 278 )
    This study examined the exploring behaviors, attention and their relationships with the effectiveness of problem solving among eighty 8~11 month old infants with standardized procedures in laboratory The results indicated that the effectiveness in infants′problem solving behaviors and strategies using increased with age 8~month old infants hardly explored and solved the problem successfully, while many of 11 month old infants could solve the problem with correct strategies In addition, infants kept their attention on task longer and decreased their inattention with their age increased, which was significantly associated with infants' performance
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    A CROSS CULTURAL STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING IN FRIENDSHIP IN WESTERN AND EASTERN CHILDREN AND ADOLECENTS
    Fang Fuxi, Fang Ge (Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) M. Keller, W. Edelstein, P.Shuster (Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berling 14195, Germany)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 68-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 335 )
    The purpose of the study was to investigate how children in Western and Eastern culture develop the understanding of friendship. Both 80 Icelandic and Chinese subjects were interviewed at ages of 7, 9, 12 and 15. They were presented with an interpersonal-moral conflict in which the protagonist had to decide whether she or he kept a promise to the best friend or accepted an interesting invitation from a third child. A categorical manual for scoring the content of socio-moral reasoning was developed. According to the manual the reasons for action choices as well as reasons for the moral judgments of these choices were analyzed. The results showed that the conflicts were interpreted differently in both cultures. For the Icelandic children promise keeping in close friendship conflicts with egoistic interests, however, the Chinese children interpreted the situation as a conflict between an old friendship and interpersonal responsibility toward the new child. The results also showed that at ago of 15, there were no more cultural differences in the use of the reasoning categories. It seems to be universal trend that adolescence is a period where close friendship is extremely important.
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    UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS AND MORAL EVALUATIONS OF WHITE-LIE AND TRUTH-TELLING
    Xu Fen ( Institute of the Study and Promotion of Mental Health, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) Jing Chunyan, Liu Yin, Bao Xuehua (Psychology Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 75-81.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 400 )
    The current study examined age differences in the participants' concept and moral evaluations of lying and truth telling. Three , 4 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 11 year olds, students from secondary school, and undergraduates were read scenarios about scenario characters making truthful or false statements in various conditions, and were asked to determine whether the characters lied and to make moral judgements on their statements. Results showed that: 1) most 4 year olds had ability to understand the concept of white lie and truth telling, while almost all 3 year olds could not. 2) all participants, except the 3 year olds, mainly relied on factuality to determine whether a statement was a lie;3) from primary school, the older the participants were, the more effect of communicative motivation or setting factors on the moral evaluation on different kinds of lie and truth telling had.
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    DO THOSE BELIEVE INTELLIGENCE TO BE UNCHANGEABLE ALSO THINK PERSONALITY IS NONMALLEABLE? UNIVERSALITY OF IMPLICIT THEORIES ACROSS PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES
    Cheng Zijuan, Hau Kit Tai (Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong) (Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 82-89.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    Are personality, intelligence and other personal attributes inherited and unchangeable?Or, are they greatly influenced by the environment and are changeable?Students' subjective belief will directly affect their learning and self perfecting behaviour Its influence depends on how universal this belief is For example, some students believe that intelligence is inherited from parents and is difficult to be changed Will these students also believe that personality, morality, etc are also inherited and are difficult to be changed? The present study attempts to understand whether there is a general belief that governs students′view of the changeability of intelligence, personality and other personal attributes The subjects in the research consisted of 555 Junior Secondary 1 students in Chang Chun Comparisons of a number of competitive models using structural equation modeling on the survey data were conducted Results tended to support a common and general students′ implicit theory across personality, intelligence and other personal attributes
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    THE MULTITRAIT MULTIRATER APPROACH TO ANALYSING RATING BIASES
    Li Feng, Wang Erping, Zhang Fusong (Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences ,Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 90-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 99 )
    This research used the multitrait multirater matrix to analyze two kinds of bias: halo effect and egocentric effect Professional football players were rated in this research The performance traits of four different positions were obtained using Critical Incident Technique The basic correlation coefficient was the correlation among position traits rated by 45 subjects after watching one football match Eight subjects who were divided into two groups watched part of one cassette while part of them changed their rating standard The correlation coefficients among the rating results of each trait were computed and then sorted into a multitrait multirater matrix The result showed that halo effect could be identified explicitly in multitrait multirater matrix, and the raters showed egocentric effect in some specific traits of different positions
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    ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER MANAGEMENT :MEASUREMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES' BEHAVIOR AND FEELING IN CHINA
    Long Lirong 1,2 Fang Liluo 1 ( 2Central China Normal University,Wuhan 430079) ( 1Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) Ling Wenquan (Institute of HRM, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510063)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 98-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 5922 )
    On the basis of the in-depth interview with the faculty related to HRM department and the open questionnaire to the employees in different kinds of enterprises, the original questionnaire on organizational career management was created. Pilot study was implemented with 177 managers,technicians, or MBA students, the result indicated that most of the items were accepted after deleting some items with too high frequency or too low correlation between the item and subscale. After the rearrangement of the questionnaire items , another 449managers or technicians from 13 companies completed the questionnaire, the data is factored by SPSS 8.0 using principal component analysis to extract and varimax to rotate . The results indicated that the organizational career management questionnaire(i.e. OCMQ) consisted of four components, which were justice, training, self recognition, and communication of job information, and 65.09% variance was explained. The Cronbach of each subscale, i.e. justice, training, self recognition, and spreading of job information was 0.87,0.76, 0.79 ,and 0.78 respectively. This research also used five other questionnaires which were career commitment, organizational commitment, job performance,career satisfaction and job involvement as dependent variables. Their Cronbach was 0.79, 0.80, 0.65, 0.70, and 0.81, and each questionnaires was valid, too. Finally,399 subjects from 11 enterprises accepted a revised OCMQ ,in which each subscale consisted of four items ,and career commitment, organizational commitment, job performance, career satisfaction, and job involvement. A measurement model was used to confirm the structure of organizational career management ,good fit index indicated that OCMQ had high construct validity. Using the LISREL8.30 to modeling the relation between the latent organizational career management and the latent dependent variables , the main fit index were over 0.90 .The result indicated that latent organizational career management has significant effects on latent dependent variable.
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    THE EFFECT OF CULTURE ON THINKING STYLE OF CHINESE PEOPLE
    Hou Yubo, Zhu Ying (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 34 (01): 107-112.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 789 )
    The concept of culture refers to aspects of life, including thinking? belief and behavioral style that are specific to particular societies. Culture casts influence on people who live in it by three facets:observable artifacts? values and underlying assumptions . In this article, on the basis of analyzingmethod and train of thought of cultural psychology, we attach importance on discussing the relationship between culture and the thinking style of Chinese people. By providing theoretical and experimental evidence, we can prove dialectical thinking and holistic thinking to be notable characteristics of Chinese people. Chinese used to consider a thing with principle of Change?Contradiction and Holism, when apprising a man, Chinese people are not dependent on a person's trait , but his or her social background. Those features not only determine the interpersonal action style of Chinese people , but also make our behavior different from western people. Using those different thinking styles, we can explain Yetes and Zhu's(1987)findings on possibility judgment as well as Joseph Needlham's paradox. This analysis is important to the understanding of Chinese people and future study.
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