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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 April 2002, Volume 34 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    MAKE NEW CONTRIBUTIONS FOR CHINESE PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE MOVING TOWARDS THE 21~(TH)CENTURY
    Chen Yongming ( Chinese Psychological Society,Beijing 100101 )
    2002, 34 (02):  4-10. 
    Abstract ( 877 )  
    This is a working report at the Eighth Representative Conference of the Chinese Psychological Society which summarized the work of the Seventh Council of the Society from 1997-2001. It included 4 parts: (1) Launch more academic exchange activities, promote the development of psychology; (2) Spread knowledge of psychological science and improve the academic level of psychological journals; (3) Strengthen international exchange and cooperate for overall preparation for 2004 Beijing International Conference of Psychology; (4) Attach great importance to construction of the Society-self and enhance effective power of the Society.
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    THE INHIBITION MECHANISM OF DIFFERENT SKILLED LANGUAGE COMPREHENDERS
    Yang Lixia, Chen Yongming, Cui Yao, Zhou Zhijin (Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2002, 34 (02):  11-16. 
    Abstract ( 965 )  
    Based on Multi-Media Language Comprehension Test, two groups of subjects who were high-and low-skilled Chinese comprehenders were selected for this investigation. Two experiments were conducted to test the inhibition mechanism of the two groups of subjects in processing Chinese two-character words and two-clause sentences. An experimental paradigm combining force-paced Moving Window and probe recognition task was used. The subjects were required to read the word sequences or sentences in which some irrelevant double-character words or pseudo-words were inserted as distractors. Each group of words or sentence was followed by a probe recognition task. The results showed: Inhibition was influenced by the meaningfulness of the distractors. The more meaningful distractors were more difficult to be inhibited. Low-skilled comprehenders inhibited less efficiently the distracting information during lexical and sentence comprehension. So, less skilled comprehenders suffered from a less efficient inhibition mechanism, which we suggest is an important component of language comprehension skill.
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    THE PROCESSING OF AMBIGUOUS PHRASES IN REFERENTIAL DISCOURSE CONTEXT IN CHINESE
    Zhang Yaxu 1, 2 , Shu Hua 2 , Zhang Houcan 2 , Zhou Xiaolin 1 ( 1 Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing100871) ( 2 Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing100875)
    2002, 34 (02):  17-25. 
    Abstract ( 881 )  
    In Chinese language, there are some phrases, which are orderly composed of one verb (VP), one noun (N1), one auxiliary, and another noun (N2). They are temporarily ambiguous between modifier-noun construction (MNC) and narrative-object structure (NOS). Some of them are balanced between MNC and NOS (named Balanced Phrases). The others bias towards either MNC (named MNC-biased Phrases) or NOS (named NOS-biased Phrases). Both balanced and NOS-biased phrases were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of referential discourse context on the parsing of these ambiguous phrases. Twenty undergraduate students participated in Experiment 1, they were asked to read short passages word-by-word as quickly as possible, without sacrificing their comprehension of each passage. Another sixteen undergraduate students participated in Experiment 2, where their eye movements were recorded when they read the same passages. It was found that the referential discourse context, in both experiments, had its influenced on the parsing of the ambiguous phrases even at the very beginning of these phrases. These results indicate that the specific mechanism that drives the contextual influence may not be attributable solely to referential presuppositions. In other words, informational or conceptual expectations can be, at least partly, responsible for the referential contextual effects observed. In addition, very early influence of discourse context was found in Experiment 2, which was not predicted by garden-path models that suppose initial parsing decision is context-independent.
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    MEMORY EFFECTS OF PICTURE NAMING DIFFICULTIES UNDER DIFFERENT KINDS OF REHEARSAL
    Ding JinhongLin Zhongxian (Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing,100037) (Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100101)
    2002, 34 (02):  26-31. 
    Abstract ( 944 )  
    Study test paradigm was used to investigate differences of memory performance among free rehearsal, visual rehearsal and verbal rehearsal. The results indicated that (1)degree of difficulty effect was observed, memory performance of hard named pictures was better than easy named pictures; (2)hard named features were more likely selected to be rehearsed so as to remember the whole picture. (3) the recognition accuracies of the easy named pictures rather than the hard named after the verbal rehearsal was better than the visual rehearsal.
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    RETROGRADE AMNESIA, FRONTAL LOBE, AND REMOTE MEMORY ORGANIZATION
    Yang Jiongjiong, Zhou Xiaolin, Zhang Yaxu (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing,100871) Yin Ling (Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing,100853)
    2002, 34 (02):  32-38. 
    Abstract ( 1009 )  
    This case study was to explore the role of frontal lobe in the organization of remote memory. The performance of a 64 year old patient (QCY) in various tasks, including famous person test, famous event test, general knowledge test, and autobiographical memory interview, was compared with the performance of five normal control subjects. MRI and PET imaging demonstrated that the lesions of QCY were in the bilateral frontal lobe, left diencephalon, and left parahippocampus. The Wisconsin card sorting test showed that QCY had higher response and preservative errors than the controls. Results in other tests showed that he had extensive anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. QCY had deficits in recalling and recognizing the famous person and famous events. His episodic and semantic parts of autobiographical memory were impaired as well. The patterns of the retrograde amnesia of QCY were(1) his retrograde amnesia did not show a temporal gradient, but a flat gradient; (2) his memory of his childhood was impaired. These two characteristics were different from patterns shown by patients with lesions in the medial temporal lobe diencephalon system, indicating that the frontal lobe participated in the retrieval process of remote memory.
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    COMPARISON AMONG THEORIES OF EXPERTISE EFFECTS IN MEMORY RECALL
    Du Jianzheng (Education Science College, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050091)
    2002, 34 (02):  39-45. 
    Abstract ( 901 )  
    This present paper, after reviewing the theoretical development and controversy on the expertise effects in memory recall, examined the three principle theories, template theory, long term working memory framework, constraint attunement hypothesis, with 2×2×2×2 mixed design. The result showed (a)that in inclusion test, the subjects recall more accurately in memory condition than in move selection condition; (b)that the Position×Expertise interaction is not statistically significant; (c)that the Position×Awareness interaction is statistically significant, that is, the explicit process has greater effect on actual game position than that on artificial game position, and the implicit process has no significant different effects on this two kinds of position. The author concluded that the long term working memory framework, compared with the other two, can explain the experimental phenomena more reasonably.
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    A SIMULATED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIGNIFICANCE T-TEST AND META-ANALYSIS
    Guo Chunyan 1, Zhu Ying 2 , Wang Quanzhen 3 ( 1Institute of Educational Sciences,Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037 , 2Department of Psychology, Beijing University,Beijing 100871, 3English Department , Beijing Administrative College,Be
    2002, 34 (02):  46-50. 
    Abstract ( 949 )  
    Computer programs were used to construct overall population and simulated experimental procedures were applied to conduct sampled studies in order to probe into the differences between the methods of significance t testing and meta analysis in testing the data of an experimental result and its practical application. The simulated experimental results showed that significance t testing is highly related to population distribution effect size and sample capacities, yet rarely related to the numbers of randomly selected samples; mean value of the selected samples effect size can be used as an estimated value of population effect size, and it is closely related to sample capacities and numbers of selected samples; the data result of practical application provided in this study can be used as a basic reference for researchers who are engaged in an experimental study of meta analysis method.
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    ATHLETES' LIFE SATISFACTION: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL SELF-ESTEEM AND COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM
    Zang Liwei (Beijing University of Physical Education,Beijing 10084) Leung Jinpang ( Chinese University of Hong Kong,Hong Kong)
    2002, 34 (02):  51-58. 
    Abstract ( 1047 )  
    Relative importance of individual self esteem versus collective self esteem for judgments of general life satisfaction and career satisfaction (i.e., training and competition satisfaction) was compared. The participants were 139 Chinese athletes with an average age of 19.64 years. Among them 68 were males and 71 were females. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that collective self esteem added 13% explained variance to career satisfaction although it failed to add new explained variance to general life satisfaction beyond demographic variables, individual self esteem and social support. Dominant analyses further indicated that when predicting general life satisfaction, 57% of the predicted variance was attributed to individual self esteem. When predicting career satisfaction 67% of the predicted variance was attributed to collective self esteem. These results suggested that different self esteems are needed to predict different satisfactions.
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    USING IAT TO STUDY THE STRUCTURE OF GENDER SELF-CONCEPT
    Cai Huajian, Yang Zhiliang (Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)
    2002, 34 (02):  59-65. 
    Abstract ( 1493 )  
    One explicit self report scale and four implicit tests which were based on the Implicit Association Test were used to measure the gender self concept in the study. The result showed: (1) Implicit Association Test is valid, sensitive to the implicit gender self concept. (2) gender self concept shows significant gender difference on implicit measures, but on most explicit measures it does not show significant gender difference except explicit femininity measure. (3) gender self concept is a model of dual components which involves an implicit gender self concept and an explicit gender self concept. The former is an integrated structure, while the latter consists of two dimensions: one is positive male trait vs. negative female trait, the other is positive female trait vs. negative male trait, and the two are uncorrelated.
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JEALOUSY AND PERSONALITY
    Wang Xiaojun (Department of Education, Normal College, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060)
    2002, 34 (02):  66-73. 
    Abstract ( 2264 )  
    In this study, the relationship of jealousy and personality dimension, as well as jealousy and personality traits were examined. Four jealousy scales, such as the Bringle self report jealousy scale, the Hupka romantic jealousy scale, the White habit and relationship jealousy scale, the Buunk jealousy scale, and the NEO PI R has been administered to a sample of 231 student subjects. The correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis method were used to examine the relationship of the four jealousy assessment scales and NEO PI R scale. The result showed that a significant correlation had been found between jealousy and neuroticism dimension of NEO PI R; the relationship was not clear between jealousy and extroversion dimension of NEO PI R; but were irrelevant between jealousy and openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness dimension of NEO PI R. The result directed also which the significant correlation had showed between jealousy and anxiety, self consciousness, positive emotions and trust among thirty personality traits of NEO PI R; the relationships were not clear or were irrelevant between jealousy and other personality traits of NEO PI R. The results of this study pointed out which neuroticism personality dimension was an important influence factor to jealousy. The four personality traits namely anxiety, self consciousness, positive emotion and trust also served as significant factors with influence on jealousy psychology and behavior.
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    THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYEE'S CAREER MANAGEMENT IN CHINA
    Long Lirong 1,2 , Fang Liluo 2, Ling Wenquan 3( 1Central China Normal University,Wuhan,430079, 2Institute of Psychology, CAS, Beijing 100101, 3Jinan University, Guangzhou 510063)
    2002, 34 (02):  74-82. 
    Abstract ( 1320 )  
    The process of this research was divided into three stages. At stage 1,individual career management was identified by the in depth interview, open questionnaire, and literature review. After that, a pilot study was implemented using 177 subjects both to test the quality of questionnaire items and to find out the problems while investigating. At stage 2, revised career management questionnaires from stage 1 were completed in 13 different companies, and 449 valid questionnaires were collected. At stage 3, final questionnaires from stage 2 were completed in 11 companies and 399 valid questionnaires collected. Five component construct of individual career management(i.e. ICM) was determined by the analysis of 449 subjects from stage 2 using EFA, principal component extraction, and varimax rotation. The five dimensions were named as exploration, career goal setting and strategy identification, continuous learning, self nomination, and interpersonal relationship orientation. Then, the results indicated that the five parallel component construct was confirmed the best one compared with different kinds of hierarchical five component model by the analysis of 399 subjects using CFA, and that the five component construct had best fit index among one component model, two component model, three component model, and four component model. The study also found that the ICM questionnaire had suitable reliability and high validity.
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    ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE AND OPPORTUNITY-THREAT PERCEPTION
    Xie XiaofeiWang Xiaotian (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871) (Department of Psychology, University of South Dakota)
    2002, 34 (02):  83-90. 
    Abstract ( 1204 )  
    This research probed into the relationships among three variables, namely, motive of achievement, risk tendency in a risk situation, and the perception of opportunity and threat in a risk situation. The result of this research points to some distinct correlation between these three factors. Comparison to the motive of success, the motive of evading failure is a more sensitive factor in predicting an individual opportunity threat perception. Moreover, individuals with a high motive of achievement can see opportunities in a losing situation, while individuals with low achievement motive always have threatening factors in mind even in a promising situation. Individuals behavioral tendency and perceptional response in a risk situation are more complex. First of all, the frame effect, though not universal, really exists in some sort of risk situation. Variance analysis proves a considerable level of mutual effect between the frame and risk situations. This demonstrates that the subjectsconservative response is under the mutual influence of the situation and frame effect. Secondly, risk situations, that is, both "gaining" and "losing " situations, have produced a considerable impact on the subjects pattern of risk response. The subjects perception of situations has really affected the individuals choice making in a risk situation.
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    THE EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING IT ON CANCER PATIENTS
    Wang Jianping 1 , Lin Wenjuan 2, Sun Hongwei 3 ( 1 Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, 2 Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, 3 Shandong Weifang Medical Colle
    2002, 34 (02):  91-95. 
    Abstract ( 1099 )  
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of psychological intervention and the factors influencing it in a sample of cancer patients. 289 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: intervention group or control group. The data was analyzed by using regression statistic method. It was found that patients who received intervention reported significantly higher quality of life and performance status than did the control group. The main two factors impairing psychological intervention were the distant metastases and the ways of telling the diagnosis. Some factors influencing psychological intervention such as the other symptoms and its effect, psychological preparation before medical treatment, life events were notable in the chemotherapy group; others like medical fee, levels of education and the experience of treatment were marked in the radiotherapy group. These data clearly suggested that the use of psychological intervention was needed in the clinical oncology, and the influential way of factors was synthetic.
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    CLUASTER ANALYSIS ON DRUGPUSHER'S PERSONALITY CATEGORY
    Zhang Feng, Zhu Haiyan (College of Educational Science and management, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming,650092)
    2002, 34 (02):  96-102. 
    Abstract ( 1199 )  
    In order to establish some scientific bases for setting down the efficient measure for rebuilding and correcting this study tried to explore the categorisedmodel of the drugpusher's personality. 378 male drugpusher prisoners were tested using CPI and then using SPSS package to explore the drugpusher's categoryby cluster analysis. Results showed that 387 cases of drugpushers were divided into three groups by hierarchical cluster analysis, t scores of 19 CPI sub scale were remarkably different among the three groups. The typical personality characteristic of the first category was lack of self confidence, disliking competion, self suspicion, passiveness, dependence, sensitiveness, and trending to explain things from the individual eye. The second category was cleverer, responding quickly, independent, responsible and good self control. They had betterpsychological diathesis but could not consciously admit their guilty behavior or admit their mistake and often had conflictive mind with the manager.The third category was better socially, self confident, fawning and worldly wise. They could manage a good relationship with others and selected an appropriate behavior to act or to disguise. The three Categorieswere Coward immaturity, Independence immaturity and Control immaturity and these three categoriesmade up an effective categorised model which could established a stable scientific base for rebuilding and correcting the drugpusher's psychological state.
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    ON THE LEGALIST'S THEORY OF HUMAN NATURE & LEADERSHIP IN PRE-QIN DAYS
    Tao Xinhua, Zhu Yongxin (Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006)
    2002, 34 (02):  103-109. 
    Abstract ( 906 )  
    In pre-Qin days, the legalists held such basic standpoint about human nature, "Human nature is originally evil". The main content included: the human being's needs are motive force that push the development of human behaviors forward; and the starting point of management human beings violate the ceremony and propriety & moral principles; The desires of human beings are varied, and The pursuit of profit is the fundamental driving force, and the sole purse as well. The good or evil of human nature can be guided, the key is how the leaders initiate. The legalists combined law, tactic and momentum into integrity, and thus makes the leadership with characteristics of the legalists. The school also thought that those are the ones that are brilliant managers, good at management and wise and skilled at using law, tactic and momentum.
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