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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 34 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    NEGATIVE PRIMING UNDER THE GLOBAL-LOCAL PARADIGM
    Wang Su,Li Li (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 3-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 293 )
    Negative priming for the global and local features was examined in an experiment with standard prime probe method. The Arabic numerals consisting of small numerals were used as stimuli with global local hierarchy. College students were tested. Their task was to name the target numeral (global or local) they attended to. In one compound numeral condition, an Arabic numeral was displayed in the prime and the probe and the global or local feature were served as the target. The ignored feature of the prime was repeated in the probe as the target and had been transmitted to that level in the hierarchy as the target of the prime. Negative priming appeared only when the participants attended to the global feature; and no negative priming was found when they attended to the local feature. In two compound numeral conditions, two Arabic numerals were displayed in the prime and the probe, one as the target and the other as the distractor. The ignored prime distractor was repeated in the probe as the target. Negative priming appeared not only when the participants attended to the global feature but also when they attended to the local one. The results implied that negative priming effect under global local paradigm had hierarchical organization as object perception and that within object and between object selection had different effects on negative priming.
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    COGNITIVE PROCESSING MECHANISM OF LEARNING DIFFICULTIES OF STUDENTS
    Jin Zhicheng (Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631) Zhang Yu, Gai Xiaosong (Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 9-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 280 )
    Under strictly controlled conditions, Stroop color naming task was used in the present research to explore whether the facilitation effect of distractor repetition was caused by habituation or by the continuous inhibitory mechanism of the distractor. This study further compared the differences between the stroop interference effect, the facilitation effect of distractor repetition, and the negative priming effect between students with and without learning difficulties. The results showed that the facilitation effect of distractor repetition was caused by habituation. Because habituation functioned merely in the condition that distractors were repeated, its effectiveness was not general. Whereas the distractor inhibitory mechanism referred by negative priming effect was a mechanism with general effectiveness. Furthermore, significant facilitation effect of distractor repetition was found both in students with and without learning difficulties, but due to poorer negative priming effect of the former, their Stroop interference effect was more significant than that of the students without learning difficulties.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON IMPLICIT REPRESENTATION OF TIME
    Huang Xiting (Department of Psychology, Southwest Normal University, Chongqing 400715) Liang Jianchun (Trade and Law College, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400044)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 15-21.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 109 )
    Using two experiments, the characteristics of implicit representation of time on representation momentum were investigated. In operation 1 of the experiment one, the orientation of implicit time was examined; In operation 2, the succession of implicit time by changing the order of the motoring figure was examined; In operation 3, the continuity of implicit time was examined by dividing the temporal duration and the departure between the test figure and the memorial figure into 9 levels. In experiment two, the cognitive penetrability of the representation of time in representation momentum was investigated. The results showed that the implicit representation of time has characteristics of orientation,succession,continuity, and inpenetrability. It also implied that the representation of time on representation momentum is one kind of implicit representation of time.
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    PHONOLOGICAL ACTIVATION OF DISYLLABIC COMPOUND WORDS IN THE SPEECH PRODUCTION OF CHINESE
    Zhou Xiaolin, Zhuang Jie, Yu Miao (Center for Brain and Cognitive Science, and Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 22-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 132 )
    A homophone judgment task (Experiment 1) and a syllable monitoring task were used to investigate the sequentiality of phonological activation in the speech production of Chinese disyllabic compound words. In these tasks, a picture with a disyllabic compound name was presented, followed (Experiment 1) or preceded (Experiment 2) by a Chinese character homophonic to one of the constituent morphemes. The SOA between presentation of the picture and of the character was 50 ms for Experiment 1 and 1300 ms for Experiment 2. Subjects were asked to judge whether a morpheme in the picture name was homophonic to the character. If phonological activation of compound names is conducted sequentially, from left to right, the reaction time for the first constituent morphemes should be shorter than the time for the second morphemes. In both experiments, however, the reaction time for the second constituents was shorter than for the first constituent, and the response error rate was also lower for the first than for the second, in contradiction to predictions of most existing theories of speech production. These findings were interpreted as reflecting the effect of semantic activation of constituent morphemes on phonological activation. Critical compound words used here had a structure in which the first constituents modify the second constituents, with the second constituents as lexical head and determining the semantic and syntactic properties of the whole words. We propose that phonological activation of constituent morphemes in the speech production of Chinese compound words depends on the efficiency of semantic activation of constituent morphemes, but not on the fixed order between morphemes.
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    MEASURE OF STROKE DISTANCE IN CHINESE CHARACTERS AND ITS APPLICATION TO EXPLAIN STRUCTURE EFFECT
    Zhou Xinlin Zeng Jieying (Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) (Beijing Materials College, Beijing 100149)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 28-33.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 80 )
    In previous studies, we proposed hypothesis that stroke distance accounted for the influences of various Chinese character forms on visual perception of Chinese characters. Stroke distance was measured in horizontal and vertical dimensions and represented with the two quantities: horizontal and vertical distance. In fact, the two quantities might be integrated in some way. A new algorithm aiming to integrate horizontal and vertical distance was proposed in this present paper. When a character was presented on a monitor controlled by a computer, the stroke distance was measured in pixel. The new algorithm could be represented with the following formula: D=(∑d i )/n,in which n referred to the number of two pixels that could be directly connected with a line in horizontal or vertical dimension and d referred to the distance between the two pixels. The new algorithm was advisable for analyzing characters used in previous experiments. It was also applied to analyze all the paired horizontally and vertically structured characters that were selected from the Basic Chinese Character Set (6724 characters). The results showed that, generally, the horizontally structured characters had larger stroke distance than the vertically structured characters regardless of the number of radical. Structure effect refers that people responded to the horizontally structured characters with less time and greater accuracy than the vertically structured characters. In previous studies, we presented the explanation based on stroke distance. The Present study further tested the hypothesis. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a group of paired horizontally and vertically structured characters with statistically equal stroke distance were selected by applying the new algorithm. Participants in a dimmed room were asked to identify the characters presented on the computer monitor as quickly and accurately as possible. The results showed that the influence of Chinese character structure on visual identification disappeared. In experiment 2, the algorithm was applied to a selected group of paired characters in which the distance of vertically structured characters was larger than that of horizontally structured characters. Under this condition, we found that the structure effect was reversed. Vertically structured characters were easier to identify than horizontally structured characters. The results obtained from these two experiments were compatible with the hypothesis that stroke distance contributed to the structure effect. Meanwhile, the new algorithm for measuring stroke distance of Chinese characters was found to be helpful.
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    CAN EXPERTISE EFFECTS IN MEMORY RECALL BE SHOWN ON RANDOM POSITION
    Du Jianzheng, Yang Zhiliang (Education Science College, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, 050091, Psychology Department,East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 34-38.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    Memory recall performance on meaningful stimuli was found to be correlated with domain expertise. However, it was not clear whether the expert had superior performance on random stimuli. This present paper, using Chinese chess games, probed into the question. The results showed that there was no expertise effect on random stimuli. The authors compared the template theory with the constraint attunement hypothesis, and concluded that the former was better than the latter.
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    INFLUENCE FACTORS OF MONITORING JUDGMENT OF METAMEMORY UNDER THE RECOGNITION CONDITION
    Han Kai 1,2 , Shi Xiaobin 1,2 , Bai Xuejun 2 ( 1Study Center of Mind and Behavior of Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074) ( 2Department of Psychology,Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 39-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 72 )
    This experiment investigated the factors influencing the monitoring judgment of metamemory under recognition condition. Subjects were 18 undergraduates (9 women, 9 men). Chinese word pairs were used as experimental materials. It was a 2×3 within subjects factorial design. The first factor was presentation time (500 ms and 1000 ms); the second factor was the number of study trials (0, 1 and 2). The experiment included four phases: (1) Pre memorization phase: presenting 80 words on a computer screen randomly for different presentation time (40 words by 500ms, 40 words by 1000ms. Subjects were not instructed to memorize them. (2) Memorizing phase. (3) Monitoring judgment of metamemory phase: subjects were instructed to rank monitoring judgment on the rating scale (0~100) to predict that how likely that they were able to recognize a word that they had or had not memorized. (4) A criterion test (forced choice recognition test with four items). Results (ratio of correct responses and response time) of the test were recorded by computer. The results showed that the ratings of monitoring judgment of metamemory under the condition of longer presentation time were higher than the ratings under the condition of shorter presentation time. The ratings under the condition of more study trials were higher than those under the condition of fewer study trials. The ratings under condition in which there was instruction to memorize were higher than those under the condition in which no such instruction was given. It was shown that the ratings of monitoring judgment of metamemory were correlated with the strength of the memory trace (or strength of activation of items) in recognition memory.
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    PROGRAMMING RESPONSE IN SELECTION RESPONSE TASKS
    Li Yongjian, Zhong Yongxiang, Wei Yukui (College of Management, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031) Zhu Zuxiang (Department of Psychology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 44-48.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    It was found that there were no effects of responses complexity within 2 selections task, but markedly without 2 selections tasks, as the response programming was examined by the complexity dissymmetry of 2 responses in 2 selections tasks and complexity of selecting responses. This hints that responses have been programmed before going to response, and not responding while programming. The concept on actions chunks was introduced, namely responses programming was the process of selecting actions chunks. The results confirmed if one expects to raise performance of an overt response R i (R∈R i | i=1,2,...,n)in alternative responses R, then it is necessary to reduce the average complexity of the operation of the group R. If one reduces only the complexity of R i ,there is little hope in raising the performance.
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    A STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING FEATURE SEARCH ON QUANTITATIVE DIMENSION
    Ma Yanyun, Shui Rende, Shen Mowei(Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 49-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 88 )
    According to some previous studies, slope (a function of reaction time to set size) was decided by the difference between a target and the distractors on feature search of quantitative dimension. However, the difference was confined to specific experimental situations. A hypothesis was that slope was decided by the ratio ( C ) of the difference between a target value ( T) and the distractor values ( D ) to the distractor values according to Weber's law. Slopes between stimuli of different geometrical shapes were not significantly different when corresponding C values were equal. Therefore, circles and triangles were used as stimuli in experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Results supported the above hypothesis. Moreover, a function of slopes to C values was a monotonic decreasing function when target values were bigger than distractor values.
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    INFLUENCE OF CONTENT CATEGORY AND REPRESENTATION FORM ON SOLVING THOG PROBLEM
    Hu Zhujing, Yu Daxiang, Dai Haiqi (College of Educational Science, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330027)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 55-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    This paper used the method of two factor randomized experiment ANOVA to studythe influence of content category and representation form on solving THOG problem. The result showed that it was the representation form but not the content category that accounted for the better performance on concrete than abstract THOG problem solving.
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHONOLOGICAL SKILL AND READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY AMONG POOR ENGLISH LEARNERS
    Wang Yan, Lin Chongde (Institute of Developmental Psychology , Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875) Yu Guoliang (The National Institute of Educational Research, Beijing 100088)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 59-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 158 )
    This research examined the development of phonological skills among poor English learners and also analyzed the relationship between phonological skills, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension ability. The results showed that although measures of pseudoword reading and syntactic awareness successfully discriminated between average and poor readers, no significant difference was found in their performance in phonological awareness, auditory verbal working memory, and visual verbal working memory. The result of stepwise regression indicated that pseudoword reading, syntactic awareness, phonological awareness and auditory verbal working memory were the stronger predictors of English reading comprehension.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METAWORRY OF MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS AND GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
    Zheng Xifu (Department of Psychology, SouthChina Normal University ,GuangZhou 510631)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 64-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 309 )
    Studied the relationship between generalized anxiety disorder(GAD) and metaworry of 636 middle school students from 2 middle schools in Guangzhou. The results showed that the degree of metaworry in students from senior high school was higher than that from junior high school. There was no notable difference between gender. There was a positive relationship between GAD and metaworry. On regression analyses, the metaworryfactors that had notable effects were: examination, family, psychological health , appearance, and physiological health.
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    DEVELOPING MODEL OF TRAIT ANXIETY AND INFLUENCING FACTORS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Li Yan 1,2 , Zhang Shitong 2 , Wang Jisheng 1 ( 1 Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) ( 2 Department of Education, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 69-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 623 )
    The objective of the study was to establish relation model between trait anxiety and its influencing factors. Three latent variables were formed, which were personality, schoolwork pressure and environment. Personality included two indicator variables self abased and introversion; school pressure included two indicator variables schoolwork pressure and interrelationship; environment included four indicator variables bad school adaptation and poor health, bad influence of the environment and bad raising style of parents. Results showed that personality and school pressure directly affected trait anxiety, while environment as an object variable affected trait anxiety indirectly by personality and school pressure. Furthermore, personality also affected school pressure.
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    CONDITIONED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION TO RABBIT ANTI-RAT LYMPHOCYTE SERUM IN RATS
    Lin Wenjuan, Chen Jihuan (Brain Behavior Research Center, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) Alan Husband (Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 75-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 78 )
    Conditioned immunosupression of rabbit anti rat lymphocyte serum (ALS), a biological immunosuppressant, was assessed in the experiment using a two bottle preference drinking procedure. The data showed that ovalbumine (OVA) immunized rats conditioned by pairing a novel saccharin solution (CS) with an ip injection of ALS (UCS) showed conditioned immunosuppression in vitro PWM induced spleen proliferation and in total anti OVA Ig antibody production as well as in anti OVA containing cells in spleen, but did not show conditioned taste aversion. These results suggested that there was no association between the conditioned taste aversion and the conditioned immunosuppressive responses and that the conditioned immunosuppression was not the concomitant of behavioral suppression, but the result of the CS UCS associative learning mediated by the central nervous system.
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    IMPLICIT EFFECT OF STEREOTYPE IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL INFORMATION CATEGORIZATION
    Wang Pei (Academy of Educational Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 81-85.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 251 )
    Adopted signal detection method and indirect method, this study discussed the implicit effect of stereotype in the process of social information categorization. The results suggested: (1) Category priming can automatically activate the relevant content of stereotype, which illustrates to a certain extent stereotype may be a necessary consequence or outcome from the category process. (2) The activations of the stereotypes caused by the category priming and its corresponding construction respectively tend to bring forth the assimilation effect or the contrast effect. (3) On the individual level, it is very difficult to inhibit the automatic activation about stereotype by conscious inhibition, which manifests that the implicit processes are deeply involved in the stereotyping processing.
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    ASSESSMENT ON COMPETENCY MODEL OF SENIOR MANAGERS
    Shi Kan, Wang Jicheng, Li Chaoping (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 86-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 5714 )
    Behavior Event Interview was used to study a competency model on senior managers in Chinese Communication Enterprises. The results were as follows: a. No significant difference was found between the protocol length of outstanding and average managers. Frequencies of occurrence of most competencies was correlated significantly to protocol length; however few average scores and maximum scores were correlated significantly to protocol length. It seemed that using average score in coding was more suitable. b. G coefficient based on the Generalization Theory showed that the two coders coding were consistent. c. Study on the criterion sample showed that a competency model of senior managers in Chinese Communication Enterprises included: influence, organizational commitment, information seeking, leadership, achievement orientation, interpersonal understanding, initiative, customer service orientation, self confidence, and staff development.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT:AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON COMPANIES IN CHINESE CONTEXT
    Zhang Zhen, Ma Li, Ma Wenjing (School of Economics and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 92-98.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 401 )
    This paper explored the relationship between organizational climate and employee involvement in organizations in Mainland China. After clarifying the constructs of organizational climate and employee involvement, the study conducted one way ANOVA and regression analyses to examine how organizational climate influenced employee involvement in organizations. Data were collected through surveys that were administered to 148 organizations throughout Mainland China. The results showed that significant geographical difference was found in employee involvement. Non S.O.E.'s had significantly higher scores in employee involvement than those of the S. O. E.'s. Non bureaucratic, supportive and communicative climates were the strongest predictors of the employee involvement. The results of this empirical study helped the management of Chinese organizations in effectively implementing the employee involvement programs.
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    OPPORTUNITY-THREAT PERCEPTION IN RISK SITUATION
    Xie Xiaofei, Li Yuhui (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 99-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 213 )
    As economy is developing rapidly, people encountered more and more problems associated with risk situation. This research analyzed the relationships among three variables: the individual achievement motive, the behavioral reaction in risk situations, and the opportunity threat perception. The research used a questionnaire design, which was consisted of scales for measuring the achievement motive, behavioral reaction to a lottery game, and opportunity threat perception. The participants came from three universities in Beijing and Chongqing (N=262). The results showed that: a. The"evading failures" component in the achievement motive significantly influenced the individual reaction in risk situations and the opportunity threat perception ( p <0.05); b. Individuals at different levels of the opportunity threat perception behaved differently in risk situations ( p <0.01); The opportunity threat perception was significantly correlated with behavioral variables ( p <0.05); c. Four different patterns of perceptive combinations were found, e.g., high opportunity low threat and so on. So opportunity threat perception may be a two dimensional construct.
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    THREE APPROACHES TO MENTAL HEALTH IN TRADITINAL CHINESE CULTURE
    Jing Huaibin(Department of psychology, Department of philosophy, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275)
    . 2002, 34 (03): 107-112.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 260 )
    More and more psychologists are concerned about issues of Chinese culture and mental health. However few researches are on this issue as a whole. This paper highlights that there were mental problems in ancient Chinese society although not using the words like "mental health" in the meaning of modern psychology. In traditional Chinese culture there were three approaches to mental health: namely spirit or spirituality, mind and body, and superstitious belief or folk psychology. This paper shows how they have the function to deal with mental problems or mental disorders. The paper also discusses some issues related to them.
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