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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 September 2004, Volume 36 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Hemisphere Asymmetry in the Processing of Global and Local Properties
    Zhang Xin, Han Shihui
    2004, 36 (05):  507-514. 
    Abstract ( 4570 )   PDF (1126KB) ( 2170 )  
    The current study examined hemisphere asymmetry in selective processing of global and local properties and whether the two hemispheres are able to select simultaneously the global property of one compound stimulus and the local property of another compound stimulus. We presented one compound stimulus randomly in the left or right visual fields or two compound stimuli simultaneously in the left and right visual fields, respectively. Experiment 1 showed that reaction times (RTs) to global or local targets did not differ between the left and right visual field stimuli in the unilateral presentation condition. However, RTs to local targets were shorter to the right than left visual field stimuli in the bilateral presentation condition. In Experiment 2 subjects detected global or local targets that appeared in both hemifields. We found that RTs were shorter when targets appeared at the same than different levels of compound stimuli presented simultaneously in both hemifields. The results suggest a left hemisphere advantage in local processing in the bilateral presentation condition. Moreover, it is easier to select targets at the same than different levels of two compound stimuli presented bilaterally.
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    WHAT ARE REALLY MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN LEXICAL PROCESSING? EVIDENCE FROM THE UYGHUR LANGUAGE
    Mahire Yakup,Zhou Xiaolin
    2004, 36 (05):  515-524. 
    Abstract ( 943 )   PDF (1639KB) ( 1701 )  
    What is nature of morphological effects in lexical processing? Can they be reduced to lexical form effects, semantic effects, or the interaction between form and semantic processing? Are there explicit representations of morphological structures in the mental lexicon? These questions were investigated in two experiments on the Uyghur language, which is spoken in China’s Xinjiang area and is an agglutinate language with rich morphological structures. Experiment 1 used the visual-visual priming and cross-modal priming lexical decision tasks and manipulated the morphological relations between primes and targets. In both tasks, significant priming effects were observed for prime-target pairs that shared root morphemes and were semantically related as wholes, whether the targets were derived words (+m+o+s / D, or free-root morphemes (+m+o+s / R). [Here “m” denotes the morphological relation between primes and target, “o” orthographic relation, “s” semantic relation; and “+” denotes having the relation between primes and targets in the relevant dimension and “-“ having no relation.] Priming effects with similar magnitudes were also observed for words that were only semantically related (-m-o+s / D). In contrast, no significant effect was observed for prime-target pairs that were morphologically related but not semantically related (+m+o-s / D) or that were only formally related (-m+o-s / R). Experiment 2 took advantage of the fact that in Uyghur many words are borrowed from other languages and some of these words are morphologically related in the original languages but only semantically and formally related in Uyghur. Using the delayed repetition priming technique, this experiment compared the priming effects between Uyghur morphologically related words (+m+o+s / D) , borrowed words (-m+o+s / D) and pure semantically related words (-m+o+s / D). The same pattern of priming effects were found for the three types of words in the short and long lag repetition conditions. These findings were interpreted as supporting the connectionist argument that morphological structure does not need to be represented explicitly in the lexicon and morphological effects in lexical processing can be seen as the result of interaction between semantic processing and form processing.
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    THE EFFECTS OF TYPE AND FEATURE OF KNOWLEDGE ON IMPLICIT SEQUENCE LEARNING
    Fu Qiufang, Liu Yongfang, Fu Xiaolan
    2004, 36 (05):  525-533. 
    Abstract ( 2830 )  
    This study used the number of errors and reaction times as the indicator of implicit knowledge and recognition and generation performance as the indicator of explicit knowledge to test the effects of type and feature of knowledge on implicit sequence learning. The findings indicated that: (1) implicit learning and explicit learning respectively depended on different learning systems which didn’t interfere with each other; (2) when stimuli in implicit sequence learning involved both motor and perceptual knowledge, the type and feature of knowledge influenced the acquirement of sequence knowledge, and motor knowledge was more readily acquired than perceptual knowledge; and (3) the amount of training with a sequence also contributed to the degree of sequence learning, and sequence learning was a dynamic process.
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    EFFECTS OF STRUCTURE, TASK TYPE AND NAVIGATION ON PERFORMANCE IN SEARCHING HYPERTEXT INFORMATION
    Zhang Zhijun, Ren Yanju, Su Fang
    2004, 36 (05):  534-539. 
    Abstract ( 2122 )   PDF (957KB) ( 1264 )  
    Two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of hypertext structure, task type and navigation on information searching in network. In Experiment 1, 2(hypertext structure: hierarchical vs mixed)×2(task type: specific vs relational)within-subject factorial design was used to examine the effects of structure and task type on searching performance in hypertext information. Based on the Experiment 1, 2(hypertext structure: hierarchical vs mixed)×2 (navigation: with map vs without map)within-subject factorial design was employed to consider the effects of structure and navigation on searching performance in the relational task in Experiment 2. It was found that:(1)Hypertext structure and task type interactively influenced on searching performance. Mixed was better than hierarchical in the relational task, but not in the specific task.(2)Navigation improved searching behavior, especially for hierarchical hypertext.(3)There was somewhat similar among subjective indexes(time estimation, subjective satisfaction rating)and objective behavior responses(searching time, accuracy, total number of nodes visited and repeatedly visited).
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    A NEURAL BASIS OF DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION: ROLE OF NON-DOMINANT TEMPORAL LOBE IN DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION
    Jin Hua1, Chen Zhuoming, Mo Lei
    2004, 36 (05):  540-544. 
    Abstract ( 2290 )   PDF (1119KB) ( 1642 )  
    This experiment was designed to investigate the impairment of discourse comprehension subsequent to one hemisphere temporal lobe lesion and its possible mechanism, and the role of cooperation of left and right hemispheres. Patients with one temporal lobe lesion showed discourse comprehension difficulty and inference deficit. It indicated that temporal lobes of both right and left hemispheres were involved in a discourse processing and there may be relations between text comprehension and inference deficit resulted from the brain damage.
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    THE DURATION OF PRIMING EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EMOTION MODELS BY WORDS AND PHOTOS
    Zheng Xifu
    2004, 36 (05):  545-549. 
    Abstract ( 3091 )   PDF (841KB) ( 2239 )  
    Pleasure and sadness were primed by using photos and words through 2 experiments. Experimental group and the control one have 5 levels, the change in 5 levels was studied. Priming pleasure by photo or word varied lightly, and had a inclination of raising in 8 minutes. The priming pleasure persist at least 8 minutes. The priming sadness decreased sharply with time in the first two minutes, and the speed was close to that of the control one, but 4 minutes later, sadness becomes stable. The duration of priming sadness is 2 to 4 minutes.
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    EFFECT OF RULE DIMENSIONS AND REASONING DIRECTION ON CHILDREN’S CAUSAL REASONING
    Li Hong, Zheng Chijun, Gao Xuemei
    2004, 36 (05):  550-557. 
    Abstract ( 1186 )   PDF (1547KB) ( 1820 )  
    This experiment studied the development of causal reasoning in 66 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds using a ramp apparatus with two input holes and two output holes (Frye et al., 1995). Results revealed that (1) children performed better on cause-effect inferences than on effect-cause inferences; (2) there was an effect of rule complexity such that uni-dimensional causal inferences were easier than bi-dimensional inferences which, in turn, were easier than tri-dimensional causal inferences; and (3) children’s causal reasoning develops rapidly between the ages of age of 3.5 to 4 years.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIRECT INFERENCE ABILITY AND STRATEGIES OF CHILDREN
    Bi Hongyan1 Peng Danling2 Yu Haixia3,4
    2004, 36 (05):  558-562. 
    Abstract ( 3493 )   PDF (973KB) ( 1993 )  
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the development of children in direct inference and analyze the strategies children used during reasoning. The participants were 72 children randomly selected from a kindergarten and an elementary school including three groups aged 6, 7 and 8 with half boys and half girls in each group. The tests were carried out individually. The results showed that: (1) The 6- and 7-year-olds had preliminarily developed this kind of direct inference ability, the 8-year-olds had possessed this kind of inference ability. (2) There was no significant difference between affirmative premise and negative premise, and the same result was obtained when the semantic reverse between the premise and problem. (3) The capacity of creating effective strategy increased with ages, and nearly all 8-year-olds can use the effective strategy of “repeat or explain premise”.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF CLASSROOM NORMS ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN SOCIAL BEHAVIORS AND PEER VICTIMIZATION
    Lei Li, Wang Yan, Guo Boliang, Chang Lei
    2004, 36 (05):  563-567. 
    Abstract ( 4257 )   PDF (872KB) ( 3368 )  
    This study applies the social context model within which to examine the relations of antisocial and aggressive and social withdrawn behaviors to peer victimization as functions of the classroom norms of these behaviors. Based on a large sample of 4650 middle school students, the results support the hypotheses that the classroom norm of aggression and social withdrawal, respectively, attenuates the negative associations between these two behaviors at the student level and peer victimization.
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    JOB BURNOUT IN ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS: CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SOCIAL SUPPORT
    Wang Fang,Xu Yan
    2004, 36 (05):  568-574. 
    Abstract ( 4667 )   PDF (1337KB) ( 3994 )  
    This study developed “Chinese Teacher Job Burnout Inventory”, which is comprised with four dimensions, which are Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, Personal Accomplishment, and Cognitive Burnout. 679 teachers from elementary and high schools joined the survey. The reliability and validity of the inventory is satisfactory. With the inventory, we explored the status of teachers’ job burnout and it’s relationship with the social support they received. The results indicate that the status of male teachers’ burnout is more severe. Teachers who have worked for 11~20 years have the highest feeling of EE and DP. The support from each source has significantly positive correlation with the dimensions of EE, DP, PA and IB. Among all the sources, the most effective support is which offered by the students and school leaders. Emotional support can predict EE, DP negatively, and predict PA positively. Practical support can predict PA positively, and predict IB negatively.
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    THE REFERENCE POINTS AND MANAGER’S COGNITIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN RISKY SITUATIONS
    Xie Xiaofei, Wang Xiaotian
    2004, 36 (05):  575-585. 
    Abstract ( 371 )   PDF (2006KB) ( 1525 )  
    This study with the questionnaire methods probed into the influences towards the risk propensities by the risky situations and personalities. The results show: (1) the two components of achievement motives, namely achievement motive and avoidance motive, might predict the risk propensities and the cognitive characteristics of individuals in risky situations; the achievement motive would be more sensitive for measuring the opportunity perceptions, meanwhile the avoidance motive would be a better predictor for measuring the threat perception. (2)The avoidance motive is the key variable to distinguish the risk propensities of individuals, which depends on the intensity of the avoidance motive. (3) This study verified the individuals at low avoidance motives tendency would be more risk-seeking in gain situation while more risk-averse in loss one; by contraries, the individuals at high avoidance motives tendency would be more risk-seeking in loss and more risk-averse in gain, when the goal for success as the reference point. The study manifested to discuss the response model of the individual’s risk propensity combining two kinds of variables would describe the behavior tendency and the cognitive characteristic more accurately. The conclusion provided a thought to explain the dispute between the Prospect theory and the threat-rigidity-model. In addiction, the main tends on samples between the managers and the students were relative consistent, but the differences were still there. So drawing a conclusion from the sample of students should be cautious.
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGERIAL SELF-EFFICACY AND GENERAL SELF-EFFICACY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
    Lu Changqin,Ling Wenquan,Fang Liluo
    2004, 36 (05):  586-592. 
    Abstract ( 5259 )   PDF (1055KB) ( 3371 )  
    Self-efficacy, as presented in Bandura's social learning and social cognition theories is a construct, which refers mainly to beliefs about specific behaviors in specific situations (specific self-efficacy, SSE). Some researchers have expanded the construct to include a more trait-like variable dubbed general self-efficacy (GSE). Focused on managerial self-efficacy(MSE), the relationship between SSE and GSE was explored by in this research. The results showed that: ⑴both MSE and GSE were important variables to predict managers' job performance, but GSS didn't predict well job performance as MSE; ⑵MSE has significant correlations with work-related attitudes, but no relationships were found between GSE and work-related attitudes; ⑶MSE mediates the relationships between GSE and job performance, and relationships between GSE and work-related attitudes. The above findings support that self-efficacy may be conceptualized as both a state(SSE) and a trait(GSE), but SSE should be given a priority if the objective is to explain the motivational dynamics leading to performance in a specific situation or on a highly specific task..
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    Characteristics of Chinese Customers’ Price Tolerance
    Wang Xia, Zhao Ping, Wang Gao, Liu Jia
    2004, 36 (05):  593-600. 
    Abstract ( 2500 )   PDF (1385KB) ( 1471 )  
    Using hierarchical linear model, this paper investigates the characteristics of Chinese customer’s price tolerance. The subjects were 26384 customers who had bought and used the products in the particular time of periods. The results shows that there was significant variation of the customer’s price tolerance on different products, and the effect of customer’s age and education level on price tolerance was negative, the price tolerance of male customers were much more than the female customers.
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    CHINESE ADOLESCENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISING AND INFLUENCING FACTORS
    Zhang Hongxia, Wang Chen, Li Ji
    2004, 36 (05):  601-607. 
    Abstract ( 3268 )   PDF (1232KB) ( 4500 )  
    This article studies Chinese adolescents’ attitude toward advertising and influencing factors. By surveying 730 students from 11 middle schools in Beijing, the results show that Chinese adolescents hold negative attitude toward advertising in general. Using factor analysis, we found four factors, which represent the attitude toward advertising. They are “information for decision”, “enjoyment”, “purchase experience” and “insult to individual”. The results show that most adolescents hold positive attitude to “information for decision”, but negative attitudes to “enjoyment”, “purchase experience” and “insult to individual”. Beside, demographic variables have multiple relationships with attitude toward advertising, such as males are more negative toward advertising than females. Males are more positive to “purchase experience”, but more negative to “enjoyment” than females. So, if marketers want to change adolescents’ attitude toward advertising, they have to concentrate on improving their products quality, advertisements performance and so on.
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    The Employment of Reaction-time Technique in Brand-structure Exploring
    Lei Li, Fan Chunlei, Wang Yong, Ma Mouchao
    2004, 36 (05):  608-613. 
    Abstract ( 2440 )   PDF (1053KB) ( 1893 )  
    Reaction-time technique was used to measure the relation strength between the brand name and its product category in prior researches. Base on the semantic network definition of the brand name, we employed the technique to explore the brand associations. Five brands in three categories were checked by free-recall method and reaction-time technique. The comparison of the results showed that the reaction-time technique is a more sensitive and objective tool to define the brand associations. The differences of reaction-times containing closely related versus distantly related ideas enable researchers to make inferences about the precise nature of the brand structure in long-term memory.
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    TESTING AND APPLICATION OF THE MEDIATING EFFECTS
    Wen Zhonglin,Chang Lei,Hau Kit-Tai,Liu Hongyun
    2004, 36 (05):  614-620. 
    Abstract ( 3287 )   PDF (1161KB) ( 7883 )  
    The concepts of mediator and related constructs, as well as the estimation of mediating effects were discussed. Based on the comparison of various testing methods, a procedure was proposed which was a composite test derived from two existing testing methods. The newly proposed procedure is likely to be better than any single testing method in terms of the sum of type 1 and type 2 error rates. Moreover, it can be used to test both partial and full mediating effects. As an illustration, the procedure was applied to an empirical study on students’ antisocial behaviors and their effects on peer relations.
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    UNDERSTANDING “THE LOST FOLLOWING BY WINNING”: A CHOKING PROCESS THEORY
    Wang Jin
    2004, 36 (05):  621-629. 
    Abstract ( 2500 )   PDF (1823KB) ( 1482 )  
    In sports, there is a frequent occurrence of that athletes lose following by winning. Psychologists infer it as “choking under pressure” defining as deterioration in the execution of habitual processes of performance under pressure. Research into choking started in early 1980s, and “distraction hypothesis” and “automatic execution hypothesis have been commonly accepted to explain choking under pressure. Due to the simplicity of the existed hypotheses explaining choking under pressure, there has been a lack of effective therapeutic technique for ameliorating choking. Based on the studies of choking, this article offers and discusses a choking process theory that explains choking as a process rather than a performance outcome. The article argues that the choking process includes stable and unstable causal factors, the perception of pressure, coping strategies, task characteristics, and skill levels. On the basis of the discussion, the author suggests possible techniques that allow athletes to avoid the occurrence of choking in sport.
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    On the Thought of Psychology in The Book of Changes
    Xu Yiming
    2004, 36 (05):  630-632. 
    Abstract ( 2284 )   PDF (749KB) ( 1583 )  
    Attentions are not sufficiently paid to the study of the thought of psychology in The Book of Changes. This paper aims at the general undertstanding of the thoughts of psychology through the study of "heart" and "thought" in the book,We also probe into the contributions of the book in the cognitive process and the level of thinking in the history of the Chinese thought of psychology, and the influenece it has made in the philosophers in the time of the Early Qin.
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