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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 37 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    ATTENTIONAL EFFECT ON PERCEPTUAL LEARNING OF FEATURE LEVEL
    Hu Ping,Jiao Shulan
    . 2005, 37 (01): 1-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (1229KB) ( 4276 )
    Many theories have their inconsistent view on attentional effect on perceptual learning of feature level and feedback effect. The present study explored attentional effect in perceptual learning by distributing attention with cue’s different validity, and explored feedback effect by four different subject groups that got different feedback. The task required the subjects to search target word “L” from the presented distracter words. The study was divided into two experiments: experiment 1 explored whether there was attentional effect in features’ search, experiment 2 explored whether there was attentional effect in features’ perceptual learning and the feedback effect. The results indicated: There was attentional effect in perceptual learning of feature level; the different feedback subjects got different acuity, which was relative with the strategy which the subjects used in learning. The possible reasons were discussed.
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    VERIFICATION OF THE DISSOCIATION BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND ACTION IN THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL TITCHENER ILLUSION EXPERIMENTS
    Zhang Zhijun, Tang Rixin
    . 2005, 37 (01): 9-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (918KB) ( 1925 )
    Two-dimensional Titchener illusion pictures were used to examine the phenomena of the dissociation between perception and action in one-hand grasping and two-hand grasping situations. The effects of some important factors such as attention driven on the dissociation were explored. There were perception tasks and action tasks included in the present study. The former measured the size of the perceptual illusion, while the latter verified if the dissociation existed and its related factors were examined. During action tasks, the subjects’ action indexes, maximum grip apertures between their thumbs and index fingers, were recorded when the size of center circles were in fact the same or by perception. It was found that the actions of the left hand and right hand appeared dissociated with perception though they were all influenced by illusion to some extent in one-hand situation. The right hand was less influenced by illusion and clearly appeared dissociated while the results of the left hand were confused in two-hand situation. It was concluded that the dissociation existed, but it might be influenced by attention driven, attention-sharing strategies and the cooperative characteristics of the two hands.
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    TASK DIFFICULTY IN PERCEPTUAL IDENTIFICATION OF STIMULUS AND DISTRIBUTING PROCESSING ACROSS TWO HEMISPHERES
    Cai Houde
    . 2005, 37 (01): 14-18.  
    Abstract   PDF (844KB) ( 1990 )
    Tachistoscopic visual half-field test was used to examine effects of an early perceptual factor of stimuli on the distributing processing across two hemispheres. An odd-even conceptual decision task on pairs of numerals in capitals of Chinese characters was given to subjects involving three different eccentricities( 3.5°, 5° and 6.5° ) of comparative numerals in order to vary the perceptual processing demands of the stimuli. The results showed that the reaction times were slower and the percentage of errors higher while increasing eccentricity of the comparative stimuli. There was a superiority of correct reaction speed for RVF(LH) presentation, regardless of eccentricities and responding hands. A comparasion of the left and the right hand indicated that response with the left hand was more rapid than with the right hand at 6.5°, and response with the right hand was more rapid than with the left hand at 3.5° and 5°. These results suggest that the stimulus and response processing for this task tend to be distributed across the two hemispheres at 6.5°, and operated at 3.5° and 5° by the left hemisphere independently. The effect of distributing processing appeared at 6.5° could result from more difficult perceptual and attentional demands of the comparative stimuli.
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    THE ERP EFFECTS OF INSIGHT IN A RIDDLE GUESSING TASK
    Mai Xiaoqin,Luo Jing,Wu Jianhui,Luo Yuejia
    . 2005, 37 (01): 19-25.  
    Abstract   PDF (1174KB) ( 2529 )
    In the present study, the event-related potential (ERP) was used to investigate the neural correlates of insight in problem solving. According to the responses of the subjects in the riddle guessing task, the answer was classified as “Insight” or “Non-insight”. The ERP waves under two conditions were obtained after the ERP elicited by the two types of answers were overlapped and averaged respectively. The difference wave was obtained through subtracting the averaged ERP of the Non-insight answer from the Averaged ERP of the Insight answer. Insight answers elicited a more negative ERP deflection than Non-insight answers in the time window from 250 to 500 ms after onset of the answer. The ERP difference wave (Insight minus Non-Insight) showed the peak latency of the component at about 380 ms (N380). Voltage and current density maps of the difference wave showed strong activity and current density in the fronto-central region. Dipole analysis localized the generator of the N380 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Therefore, N380 might reflect the breaking of mental set in insight problem solving.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF RETRIEVAL FORMAT ON SUBSEQUENT MEMORY EFFECT
    Qu Nan,Guo Chunyan,Nie Aiqing,Ding Jinhong
    . 2005, 37 (01): 26-33.  
    Abstract   PDF (1298KB) ( 2102 )
    An experiment was conducted to examine the subsequent memory (Dm) effect of pictures. Fourteen graduates engaged in our experiment. In the present experiment, subjects viewed pictures of common objects under incidental learning conditions in which each picture required a two-choice decision based on semantic criteria (animal/nonanimal). Memory for those pictures was subsequently assessed by a free recall test and then a recognition test. Subjects were asked to recall the name of the pictures as many as possible in the free recall test. In recognition test, old pictures were mixed with new ones and subjects judged whether each picture was new or old. Data analysis indicated that:(1)Mean percent correct on recognition test was higher than on free recall test.(2)During encoding phase, Over the 400~700ms latency range, responses to remembered pictures were positive relative to responses of forgotten pictures. This Dm primarily distributed at frontal for free recall test and at central for recognition test. As a result, for Dm effect retrieval format is an important influence factor, and it was possible free recall and recognition rely on the different neurocognitive system.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN ACCENT AND INFORMATION STRUCTURE ON DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION
    Li Xiaoqing, Yang Yufang
    . 2005, 37 (01): 34-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (1293KB) ( 1819 )
    Using auditory moving window technique and double-task paradigm, this study explored the effect of correspondence between accent and information structure on discourse comprehension and the mechanism of this effect. The results showed that: compared to control condition, inappropriate accentuation impeded discourse comprehension, but the facilitating effect of appropriate accentuate was not apparent during discourse processing; accentuation facilitated the processing of focal words, whereas deaccentuation facilitated the processing of nonfocal words, which suggested that the effect of accent in discourse processing came not only from its influence on attention allocation but also from its signaling different ways of information processing.
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    CONSTRUCTION AND INTEGRATION OF GOAL INFORMATION UNDER CONTROL OF GOAL-FOCUS
    Mo Lei,Leng Ying
    . 2005, 37 (01): 41-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (1810KB) ( 1574 )
    Moving window display technique was used to investigate the construction and integration of goal information under the control of the goal-focus. Readers read 24 paragraphs, which conveyed two characters’ attempts to accomplish independent subgoals to achieve a joint main goal. In all conditions, the success of the first subgoal was manipulated. It was varied by changing the last one or two sentences of Subgoal 1 section. The next subgoal was always completed, and a subsequent target region described the second character attempting to execute the main goal. In E. Richard & M. Singer(2001) research, post-target sentence reading time was longer in the completed condition than in the uncompleted condition. The results suggested that the target sentence severed as signal primed the integration of goal information. Experiment 1 tested E. Richard & M. Singer(2001) study by changing directly competed condition into indirectly completed condition. The result indicated that the post-target sentence reading time was longer in the indirectly completed condition than in the uncompleted condition. The results suggested that the target sentence severed as signal did prime the integration of goal information. Experiment 2 explored whether readers constructed goal information under control of goal-focus in a here-and-now way. The result demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the post-target sentence reading time in the indirectly completed condition and in the directly completed condition. It was safe to say readers would construct goal information under control of goal-focus in the course of reading comprehension. This research generally indicated activation and integration of information was different with the changing of narration. Under control of goal-focus, the construction of information in reading would be a here-and-now way. Thus either the constructionist theory or memory-based text processing view only stated one facet of information processing in text reading.
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    CAUSAL JUDGMENTS IN THE TRIAL-BY-TRIAL PRESENTATION
    Wang Moyun, Fu Xiaolan
    . 2005, 37 (01): 51-61.  
    Abstract   PDF (1632KB) ( 1619 )
    An experiment was conducted to investigate human causal judgments in the trial-by-trial presentation, and to test the associative theory, the power PC theory, the probabilistic contrast model, the weighted DP model, and the pCI rule. The participants were 65 college students. It was found that causal judgments had three characteristics: (a) Causal judgments were in accord with the weighted DP model in generative causes, (b) more causal judgments were in accord with the power PC theory in preventive causes, and (c) causal judgments were difficult to be described and generalized with a uniform pattern.
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    THE RESPONSES OF TERM FETUSES TO DIFFERENT ACOUSTIC STIMULATIONS
    Ye Haihui, Wang Zhengping, Xie Xing
    . 2005, 37 (01): 62-66.  
    Abstract   PDF (713KB) ( 1592 )
    Objective To explore the characteristic fetal movement and FHR response elicited by acoustic stimulation and whether acoustic stimulation can induce fetal sensation. Methods Ninety-four pregnant women were recruited from Woman’s hospital, Medical School, Zhejiang University. All fetuses were at term. Stimuli-evoked fetal movements and FHR responses to acoustic stimulation with five different intensities at 95,100,105,110,115dB were observed. Results ⑴The percentage of fetal movement evoked by 95dB airborne sound was 15% and was not significantly different from that of the controls. These percentages of fetal movement evoked by 100,105,110,115dB airborne sound were 89%, 83%, 83%, 95% respectively and were significantly higher than those in controls. ⑵The percentage of FHR deceleration evoked by 95dB airborne sound was 60% and significantly higher than that of control. These percentages of FHR acceleration evoked by 100,105,110 and 115dB airborne sound were 72%, 78%, 89%and 95% respectively and significantly higher than these of controls. ⑶These peak FHR amplitudes evoked by 95,100,105,110and115dB airborne sound were –4.5bpm, 12bpm, 17bpm, 14bpm and 20.5bpm respectively. Conclusion A subtle FHR deceleration and no fetal movement are evoked by 95dB airborne sound. FHR acceleration and fetal movement are evoked by 100~115dB airborne sound. It is suggested that 95dB airborne sound may induce fetal orientation reflex and 100~115dB may induce fetal defence reflex. These unconditional reflex of infant root from prenatal period.
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    STRUCTURE OF CHILDREN’S TEMPERAMENT AGED 3 TO 9 BASED ON TEACHERS’ DESCRIPTIONS
    Liu Wen,Yang Lizhu
    . 2005, 37 (01): 67-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (1124KB) ( 2252 )
    Temperament is often regarded as biologically based psychological tendencies with intrinsic paths of development. The existing research findings reveal that the development of temperament plays a unique role in protesting and understanding children’s personality and socialization in the future. With emphasis on the enhancement of people’s quality in the 21st century, research on children’s temperament will be of much value in developing developmental theories and promoting children’s healthy personality development. Since the 1980s, developmental psychologists outside China have conducted a large quantity of research, both empirical and theoretical, in this area of children’s temperament. This has made it one of the most active and important research areas in child psychology. In contrast, systematic research efforts have been rare in China’s developmental psychology, and the general tendencies of the development of children’s temperament in Chinese culture remain a big area to be explored. A comprehensive literature review is made with regard to the important empirical findings, major theoretical models as well as the research deficiency. The purpose of this study is to reveal the Structure of Chinese children's temperament aged 3 to 9, to develop indigenous instrument. Based on the open questionnaires that Chinese teachers provided on their students’ characteristics, one temperament questionnaires for ages 3 to 9 was developed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted using AMOS and SPSS in attempt to testify the temperament structure of Chinese children. The major findings in the above five studies are as follows: 1) The questionnaire of children’s temperament has high reliability and validity so that it can be used by teachers and researchers to evaluate children’s temperament. 2) The structure of Chinese children aged 3-9 is a multifactor, which involves five aspects: emotionality, activity, reaction, social inhibition and attention.
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    KINDERGARTNER’S ACTS OF LYING AND ITS RELATION TO THEORY OF MIND
    Xu Fen, Wang Weixing, Zhang Wenjing
    . 2005, 37 (01): 73-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (969KB) ( 4844 )
    The study examined kindergartener’s acts of lying in temptation resistance situation and its relation with their performance in false belief tasks. One hundred and nine of 3- and 4-year-olds in kindergarten participated in the study. The results showed that: (1) 59.3 percent of 3-year-olds lied, while a percentage of lying reached 75% in the group of 4-year-olds; (2) there was no significant difference in performance of false belief tasks between lying and truth-telling children; (3) there was significant positive correlation between different levels of lying and the achievement in false belief tasks, while children with tactic of lying did much better in the tasks of false belief than children with no tactic of lying
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    TEACHER COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AND IT’S MODERATING EFFECT ON THE FUNCTION OF TEACHERS’ SELF-EFFICACY
    Liu Hongyun,Chang Lei,Meng Qingmao
    . 2005, 37 (01): 79-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (1135KB) ( 2505 )
    Based on survey data collected from 1299 teachers representing 28 elementary schools, the important effects of collective efficacy as a school context characteristic variable were examined, including both as a predictor to explain the teachers’ mean difference among schools and as a moderator moderating the relations of self-efficacy and teachers’ characteristic variables, such as teachers’ job satisfaction, work devotion, internal motivation and the satisfaction of colleague relationship and demission tendency. Hierarchical Linear Model(HLM) results revealed that (1) teachers’ self-efficacy significantly predicted teachers’ job satisfaction, work devotion, internal motivation and the satisfaction of colleague relationship and demission tendency, but there were school level variations among these effects; (2) the higher the school’s collective efficacy, the school means of teachers’ job satisfaction, work devotion, internal motivation and the satisfaction of colleague relationship were higher, and demission tendency was lower; (3) School-level collective efficacy moderated the relationships between self-efficacy and other teachers’ characteristics, teachers in higher collective efficacy schools, the teachers’ self efficacy was more positively related to teachers’ job satisfaction, work devotion, internal motivation and the satisfaction of colleagues than did those in lower collective efficacy schools, but more negatively related to demission tendency
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    THE RELATIONSHIP OF COPING STYLES AND PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET USE OF MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Li Hongli,Lei Li
    . 2005, 37 (01): 87-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (795KB) ( 2551 )
    This paper investigated 589 middle school students aged from 12 to 18, exploring the relationship between coping styles and Pathological Internet use (PIU) of middle school students through questionnaires. The findings indicated that diverse coping styles, especially that of problem-solving, abreaction and fantasy, changed with PIU. Furthermore, the curve of problem-solving would ascent with descent of the score of PIU, and the curve of fantasy and abreaction would drop with descent of the score of PIU. It demonstrated that the increase of problem solving, diminution of fantasy, and abreaction may predict positive Internet use’s effect on middle school students
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    THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND PERSONALITY ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ STRESS
    Liu Yuxin, Zhang Jianwei, Jin Shenghua
    . 2005, 37 (01): 92-99.  
    Abstract   PDF (1438KB) ( 36945 )
    This study administered both cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire surveys on 660 university students. Results of the study indicated the following: Social support had significant main effect on concurrent stress; those having relatively higher level of social support experienced significantly less concurrent stress than those having lower level of social support. After controlling for earlier stress, earlier social support no longer had significant main effect on later stress. Change of types of social support (four types all together: those continuously having high level support; those continuously having low level support; those having high level support at the beginning but change to low level support two years later; those having low level support at the beginning but changed to high level support two years later) also had significant main effect on later stress. Two types of personality, “open-assertive” and “reserved-gentle”, had significant main effect on concurrent stress, with the “open-assertive” experiencing significantly less stress than the “reserved-gentle” on every corresponding stress types. Earlier personality types still had significant main effect on stress level two-years-later. Social support and personality had significant both main effects and interaction effect on stress; change of types of social support and personality had significant both main effects and interaction effect on stress
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    THE RELATION BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SELF-ESTEEM UNDER CHINESE CULTURE
    Zhou Fan, Wang Dengfeng
    . 2005, 37 (01): 100-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (1046KB) ( 9859 )
    Self-esteem is thought to be a stable evaluation toward self. A large number of studies found significant correlation between self-esteem and personality traits. In recent years scholars in social cognition studies have presented a structure called “implicit self-esteem”, which is regarded to be independent from “explicit self-esteem” measured by traditional self-report methods. In this study an attempt was made to disclose the relationship between personality traits and self-esteem, both explicit and implicit. Since previous studies have found a systematic discrepancy in personality structure from western Five-factor model (FFM) under Chinese culture -that is, Chinese personality is a seven-factor structure and the content of each factor is quite different from what in factor of FFM, an indigenous personality scale developed under Chinese culture based on verbal assumption, QZPS, was adopted to assess personality traits. Implicit self-esteem was measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results indicated that self relevant personality traits in QZPS predicted explicit self-esteem. However, no correlations were significant between implicit self-esteem and personality traits. Possible explanations for the results were discussed
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    THE MOOD STATE OF PAID BLOOD DONORS WITH HIV AND ITS RELATION TO STRESS AND COGNITIVE APPRAISAL
    Wang Jianping,Lin Xiuyun,Wu Hao,Qu Wenyan
    . 2005, 37 (01): 106-112.  
    Abstract   PDF (1367KB) ( 2055 )
    Objective: To investigate the mood state of Paid Blood Donors with HIV and the impaction of the HIV stress and cognitive appraisal on the mood state. Method: 185 objects responded to the questionnaires of Beck Depression Inventory, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, HIV/AIDS Stress Scale, Appraisal Questionnaire and some items of the demography and other information data. Results: (1) Paid Blood Donors with HIV have serious emotion disorder, and 92 percent of them are severe depression, and they are more anxious than patients of nervous and anxiety; (2) Stress can do some impaction on emotion disorder by cognitive appraisal, and also directly; (3) Cognitive appraisal serves as a media factor in the impaction of stress on emotion disorder. Conclusion: Paid Blood Donors with HIV have serious emotion disorder, and stress and cognitive appraisal can both do impaction on the emotion disorder
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    EFFECTS OF COPING ON HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, FINGER TEMPERATURE OF TYPE A AND B BEHAVIORAL UNDERGRADUATES
    Feng Wenbo, Zhang Ping, Yan Kele, Dai Jinghua
    . 2005, 37 (01): 113-121.  
    Abstract   PDF (1485KB) ( 1712 )
    To explore the effects of abdominal breathing and music relaxation on stress, and the differences due to personality. Ss were 72 undergraduates at Hebei Normal University. The subject’ physical stress reactivity was recorded in four phases. The results showed: The effects of different stress coping method on stress were different, and music relaxation was better. The effect of abdominal breathing was higher than natural, but it was difficult to master abdominal breathing. The heart rate of type-A behavior was higher than that of type-B behavior in baseline phase. The same was in the stress phase, but the difference extent was lower than the baseline phase. The effects of medi-variable and stress coping method were complex, and most exhibited in mutual ways. The gender difference of individual physical reactivity varied in different physical index. This indicated: The behavior pattern was inching variable, and had effect in natural or low stress level. The effect of behavior pattern fell significantly in higher stress level. The different stress coping methods fit different patterns of individuals
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    THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CHINESE GUANXI OF HONG KONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BY USING MULTI-DIMENSIONAL SCALING: AN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BY USING MULTI-DIMENSIONAL SCALING: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH
    Lau Ka Hing, Au Wing Tung,Lv Xiaowei, Jiang Yi
    . 2005, 37 (01): 122-125.  
    Abstract   PDF (2598KB) ( 3346 )
    The present study empirically verified the theoretical model of Chinese interpersonal relationships (guanxi) proposed by C. F. Yang (1995, 1999). Yang suggested that guanxi can be distinguished between ascribed guanxi and interactive guanxi; and interactive guanxi is consisted of the affective and instrumental dimensions. 20 respondents were interviewed to develop a comprehensive list of 34 guanxi in the education domain and 38 guanxi in the daily-life domain. 48 guanxi were theoretically derived in the family domain. 101 university students then sorted these guanxi in these three domains separately. They also rated these guanxi on nine attributes including level of obligations, expressiveness, instrumentality, etc. The data were analyzed by multidimensional scaling. Results showed that guanxi in the family domain consisted of three dimensions, namely affectiveness, perception of bei, and reciprocity. However, guanxi in the education domain consisted of affectiveness and perception of hierarchical difference, and guanxi in the daily domain consisted of affectiveness and instrumentality. In general, these results supported Yang’s model that affectiveness is a common factor in categorizing guanxi while different dimensions were used to categorize guanxi in different domains
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    EFFECTS OF GOAL ORIENTATION AND WORK EXPERIENCE ON PERFORMANCE
    Jin Yanghua
    . 2005, 37 (01): 136-141.  
    Abstract   PDF (901KB) ( 2750 )
    Based on confirmatory factor analysis of goal orientation and work experience, this study tested the effects of goal orientation and work experience on individual performance under working settings. Results demonstrated that learning goal orientation and qualitative work experience were moderately related to performance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis tested the interaction effects of learning goal orientation and qualitative work experience, controlling for demographic characteristics. The results indicated that the relationship between qualitative work experience and performance were stronger between employees low in learning goal orientation than high in learning goal orientation. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed
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