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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 May 2005, Volume 37 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    INFLUENCE OF INCONSISTENT ACCENTUATION ON ACTIVATION OF INFORMATION DURING SPOKEN DISCOURSE PROCESSING
    Li Xiaoqing,Yang Yufang
    2005, 37 (03):  285-290. 
    Abstract ( 2452 )   PDF (494KB) ( 1377 )  
    Using cross-model word recognition task, this study explored the effect of inconsistent accentuation on activation of new information and correspondent old information in discourse representation, during on-line spoken discourse processing. The results showed that: compared to control condition, although inconsistent accentuation enhanced old information’s activation in discourse representation, it inhibited the activation of new information; the facilitating and inhibiting effect occurred about 500 ms after the offset of old word which was accented. Therefore, with respect to new information which was important to language processing, inconsistent accentuation impeded spoken discourse comprehension; meanwhile, inconsistent accentuation indeed influenced on-line discourse processing.
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    FEATURE SEARCH WAS STILL PARALLEL UNDER TASK-SWITCH CONDITION
    Shen Mowei,Gao Tao,Shui Rende,Zhang Feng
    2005, 37 (03):  291-297. 
    Abstract ( 1757 )   PDF (622KB) ( 1531 )  
    With two experiments, using the dual-task paradigm, this paper discussed the influence of matching degree of task-set and stimuli's property towards the pattern of feature search. Participants were required to identify the unique letter in the stream of Arabic numerals (T1), and then completed a feature search task (T2). In experiment 1, T2 was to detect a red dot among grey distractors. In experiment 2, grey distractors were replayed by multiple colored dots. The results reveal that the pattern of feature search cannot be influenced by the matching degree of task-set and stimuli's property, no matter the feature search is primarily guided by bottom-up information or top-down information. According to these results, it is suggested that detection of a specific feature is executed in a parallel pattern with high efficiency after task-switch is completed, rather then in a serial pattern with low efficiency while task-switch was uncompleted.
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    THE CARDINAL DIRECTION JUDGMENTS IN INTEGRATING ENVIROMENTAL AND EGOCENTRIC REFERENCE FRAMES
    Zhou Ronggang,Zhang Kan
    2005, 37 (03):  298-307. 
    Abstract ( 1641 )   PDF (876KB) ( 1374 )  
    Effects of reference frame on cardinal direction judgments were tested by three experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that imaginary orientation of target object relative to reference object was one of factors contributed to cardinal direction judgments (CDJ). Experiment 2 indicated the patterns of camera heading and imaginary orientation effect on cardinal direction judgments can not be influenced in another cardinal direction task. Experiment 3 showed there existed large differences between two different types of cardinal direction judgments: CDJ based on judgment of two objects relative location is more difficult than CDJ based on camera heading judgment. For camera heading in all experiments, north-advantage effect and cardinal direction effect were found. For imaginary orientation, the pattern of process time was: front-back axis < right-left axis < others. The results were discussed by means of canonical axis and canonical direction.
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    ORIENTATION SPECIFICITY OF SPATIAL REPRESENTATION IN MULTI-VIEW LEARNING
    Zhao Mintao,Mou Weimin
    2005, 37 (03):  308-313. 
    Abstract ( 1873 )   PDF (471KB) ( 1261 )  
    The experiment was designed to test the orientation specificity of the spatial representation under multi-view learning condition without any cues of external reference frame. Participants learned the layout in the cylinder room from three viewpoints (0, 90 and 225, respectively), and then were tested in another room using the partial scene recognition tasks. The results showed that all headings aligned with the symmetric axis of the layout were represented, supporting the orientation-specific theory, against the orientation-free spatial representation or multiple view-dependent visual memory representation. The intrinsic property of the layout (e.g. symmetry) might play an important role in selecting a spatial reference frame to represent the location of objects in the layout.
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    ITEM HIGHLIGHTING INFLUENCE ON VISUAL SEARCHING STRATEGIES IN PAGE LAYOUT
    Hu Fengpei,Ge Liezhong,Xu Weidan
    2005, 37 (03):  314-319. 
    Abstract ( 2449 )   PDF (495KB) ( 1400 )  
    Searching strategy is a direct cognitive control process that guides the visual focus to the target object. This study use eye tracking technique, visual searching time, and separation of mouse clicking time. The goal is to understand visual searching, searching strategies, and Item Highlighting. The conclusions are as follows: (1)In the process of searching item, Participants employed different searching strategies, Participants used directive strategy when provided with item highlighting, use serial search strategy when no provided with item highlighting; (2) When participants employed directive strategy ,the percent of the number of first fixation in the first area of interest is less than 58.3%, and when employed serial strategy ,the percent is more than 58.3%; (3) When employed directive strategy in the process of searching ,the number of fixation ,scan track and fixation time are salience less than when employed serial strategy. (4) Participants used directive strategy can salience shorten participants’ visual search time, improve visual search performance , but can’t shorten the time spending on mouse clicking; (5) Item highlighting changed the visual search strategy, and so improve the visual search performance.
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    THE EFFECT OF COGNITIVE STYLE AND CUE CHARACTERISTICS ON PROSPECTIVE MEMORY
    Li Shouxin,Ding Zhaoye,Zhang Lizeng
    2005, 37 (03):  320-327. 
    Abstract ( 1773 )   PDF (723KB) ( 2070 )  
    Following the experiment paradigm and employing Chinese double-word phrases, the research investigated the effect of Field dependence- independence (FDI), type of task, and cue characteristics on prospective memory (Prom). The results indicated that: (1) Field-independent subjects performed significantly better than Field-dependent subjects,while there was no distinct difference in their performances of retrospective memory. (2) The performance of the event-based Prom was significantly better than that of the time-based Prom. (3) Performance was facilitated when the cue was unfamiliar and/or distinctive; in addition, the interaction between cue familiarity and cue distinctiveness was very significant.
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    HEURISTIC FACTORS IN CHOOSING POSITIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND NEGATIVE DIAGNOSTIC TEST
    Liu Zhiya,Mo Lei,Tong Xiuli
    2005, 37 (03):  328-334. 
    Abstract ( 2173 )   PDF (609KB) ( 1350 )  
    Studied the heuristic factors in choosing positive diagnostic and negative diagnostic Test. 592 Xinhai Conservatory of Music students participated in 4 experiments. Experiment 1 tests the tendency on choosing positive, negative, diagnostic and nondiagnostic questions. Experiment 2 focus the same tendency on double optional questions. Experiment 3 explores the improvement of negative diagnostic test when offer the falsify sample. Experiment 4 researches the same improvement when the difficulty of positive test is enhanced. The results show that (1) participants are significantly more likely to prefer positive tests over negative tests, and prefer diagnostic tests over nondiagnostic test. (2)participants are tended to choose negative tests question between the positive nondiagnostic and negative diagnostic test question. (3)offering falsify sample or enhancing positive test complexity promotes negative diagnostic test. The result consisted with the predicting by mental model theory. A conversion-mechanism provides a complemented explanation for the model theory.
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    CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING OF AGING
    Zhu Liqi, Fang Fuxi
    2005, 37 (03):  335-340. 
    Abstract ( 1743 )   PDF (474KB) ( 1478 )  
    Two studies investigated children’s understanding of aging. Study one was to explore whether children could distinguish living from non-living things in terms of aging and whether they could give non-intentional explanation of it. Study two investigated how children understood the traits of aging, i.e. irreversibility and universality. The results showed that children’s performance improved with age. They never used intentional explanation and their understanding of aging was closely related with their understanding of growth. It could be concluded that 6-year-old children possess a separate naïve theory of biology in terms of aging.
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    A STUDY ON GENDER CODES TENDENCY OF THE PUPILS ON NEUTRAL THINGS
    Zhang Jijia,Liu Lihong,Zeng Dan
    2005, 37 (03):  341-350. 
    Abstract ( 2154 )   PDF (857KB) ( 1545 )  
    The study explored the gender code tendency of the pupils on neutral things by dubbing the neutral objects and evaluating the gender tendency of the adjectives. The results showed that:(1)the pupils had stable gender code tendency on the neutral things. This tendency emerged in 1-grade pupils already,and life experiences and traditional culture reinforced it;(2)the trends of the gender tendency of the pupils on neutral things were identical,but there were some differences among grades. Along with the grade increased,the ratio of classifying things which possessed female features as female increased,the ratio of classifying things which possessed male features as male increased also.(3)there were sexual differences in gender coding on neutral things. Boy students and girl students showed the self-gender-centered tendency .Boy students noticed more male characteristics of neutral things than girl students,girl students noticed more female characteristics of neutral things than boy students. Compare with the boy students,the gender code tendency of girl students were stronger.
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    Unconditioned and Conditioned Behavioral Sensitization of Repeated Morphine Administration: An Individual Difference Study in Rats
    Zheng Xigeng,Li Yonghui,Luo Xiaojing,Xiao Lin,Yang Xiaoyan,Sui Nan
    2005, 37 (03):  351-356. 
    Abstract ( 971 )   PDF (492KB) ( 1386 )  
    Behavioral sensitization has been defined as progressive increase of the rewarding and reinforcing effect of drugs of abuse, which has been considered to underlie the etiology of drug craving and relapse. Aim: To explore morphine behavioral sensitization and its conditioned effect, with further investigation into potential individual difference manifestation. Method: Rats were characterized as high and low responders (HR vs. LR) via initial motor activity developed in an inescapable chamber. By using computer-interfaced monitoring system, the locomotor activities of rats were observed under 5-day successive drug treatment to test the development of morphine sensitization. Then a saline challenge was given on day 6 to test its conditioned effect. Results: 1: LR rats expressed increased locomotor activities while HR rats were without this effect upon repeated morphine exposure. 2: Rats successively with drug treatment in the test chamber (paired group) expressed heightened motor activity compared with unpaired and control group upon saline challenge. This effect existed in both HR and LR group. 3: Locomotor activity from toward drug to saline treatment significantly decreased in LR but not in HR rats. Conclusion: 1: Under successive drug treatment, LR, other than HR rats developed morphine behavior sensitization. 2: Both HR and LR rats possessed the capability to develop conditioned behavioral sensitization toward morphine. 3: LR rats responded more strongly than HR rats to drug treatment.
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    EFFECT OF NALOXONE AND DIZOCILPINE ON FOOD CRAVING IN RATS
    Li Yonghui,Zheng Xigeng,Wang Dongmei,Liu Caiyi,Bai Yunjing,Yang Xiaoyan,Sui Nan
    2005, 37 (03):  357-361. 
    Abstract ( 1454 )   PDF (416KB) ( 1085 )  
    Ingestive behavior was evolutionarily important for survival in animals. A serial of studies demonstrated that dizocilpine (MK-801) increased but naloxone decreased the food intake in rats. However, it was elusive how they mediated ingestive behavior in rats. Food craving was one of the most important factors to impact food intake. In the present experiment, the effects of naloxone and dizocilpine on food craving of the rats were investigated with conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. After received 3 conditioning sessions with food, the rats were injected with saline, naloxone (1.0 mg˙kg -1) and MK-801 (0.1 mg˙kg -1) during the expression of CPP test, and the time spent in the food-associated compartment were observed. The results showed the rats developed significant preference for food-paired side, and MK-801 potentiated the expression of food-induced CPP, but naloxone had no effect on the expression of food CPP. The present data suggested that the enhancement of food craving was one of the possibilities of MK-801-induced increase of food intake, but it might not be the reduction of food craving that led to the naloxone-induced decrease of food intake. The psychological mechanism of ingestive behavior meditated by naloxone and MK-801 may be disassociated.
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    PHYSOSTIGMINE BLOCKS BEHAVIORAL LOCOMOTOR SENSITIZATION INDUCED BY MORPHINE IN RATS
    Li Xinwang,Xu Aihong,Zhang Bin,Yu Ping,Guo Chunyan
    2005, 37 (03):  362-365. 
    Abstract ( 2157 )   PDF (338KB) ( 1653 )  
    The long-term effects of repeated exposure to drugs of abuse are one of the central themes in drug addiction research. This study investigates the relationship between the behavioral locomotor sensitization induced by morphine and neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Rats were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group receiving pretreatment, which were given four 10.0-mg/kg injections (i.p.) of morphine alone or with 0.2-mg/kg physostigmine or of saline alone over a 36 h period. At week 1 after pretreatment, all rats were challenged with 4.0-mg/kg morphine. Saline-pretreated rats received injection of physostigmine (0.2mg/kg) at week 2. Rats pretreated with morphine alone were challenged with 4.0-mg/kg morphine and 0.2-mg/kg physostigmine at week 2, and were challenged with 4.0-mg/kg morphine again at week 3. The results of this study showed that physostigmine could inhibit both development and expression of behavioral locomotor sensitization induced by morphine. In conclusion, these findings suggest that behavioral sensitization induced by morphine is related to inhibition of the central neurotransmitter acetylcholine release.
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    THE EFFECT OF FORCED COLD-WATER SWIMMING STRESS ON BEHAVIOR AND NEUROGRANIN LEVEL OF BRAIN IN RATS
    Li Huanhuan,Li Wenjuan,Li Juanfa
    2005, 37 (03):  366-372. 
    Abstract ( 1663 )   PDF (764KB) ( 1295 )  
    To explore the effects of stress on the hippocampal protein and phosphorylation levels of neurogranin, and the possible role of neurogranin involving in the brain mechanisms underlying stress-induced behavioral changes, in this present study, the forced cold-water swimming was used as a stressor, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed four groups: swimming group, apparatus controls and two cage control groups in the present study. Behavioral changes in rats after stress were observed by open-field test, and neurogranin level of hippocampus was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that neurogranin level of hippocampus in swimming rats was significantly lower than that in apparatus controls or cage controls although changes in phosphorylation of neurogranin on hippocampus was not detected. Moreover, activity of swimming group also was significantly increased. Almost all the behaviors observed were negatively correlated with the level of neurogranin of hippocampus. These results suggested that neurogranin may play a role in stress-induced anxious behaviors, and could be a sensitive predictor of anxiogenic effect of stress.
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    EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE PROCESS OF DECISION MAKING AND STRATEGIC CHOICE
    Zhang Wenhui,Zhang Zhixue,Liu Xuefeng
    2005, 37 (03):  373-381. 
    Abstract ( 1949 )   PDF (805KB) ( 1759 )  
    Under uncertain environments, decision makers’ personal characteristics and behavior take important roles in making strategic decisions in an enterprise. This study was designed to examine the relationships between the cognitive characteristics of decision makers, the process of decision making and the final strategic choice for an enterprise. The scenario-based experiment was conducted to achieve this purpose. A business case that was developed from the business practices of a real company in China and rich information was included to create uncertainty. 148 students from a management school were required to analyze the case and to present their answers to some questions relating to the case on behalf of the company’s CEO. Participants were also asked to complete other scales in a questionnaire. Before the case analysis, the cognitive complexity of the sample was measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed the following results: both need for cognition and cognitive complexity are positively related to strategic orientation, which reflects a “rational” approach in scanning and analyzing the company’s external environment; strategic orientation is positively related to participants’ judgments of the opportunities and threats in the environments, and these judgments significantly influence participants’ decision on whether the company should enter into a new business. The findings of this study suggest that top managers in enterprises should both develop their motivation and ability to engage in rational thinking when they are making decisions under uncertainty.
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    THE EFFECT OF MORALITY REPUTATION ON EVALUATIONS TO CELEBRITY ENDORSER AND ENDORSEMENT
    Ding Xiaqi,Wang Huaiming,Ma Mouchao
    2005, 37 (03):  382-389. 
    Abstract ( 2524 )   PDF (575KB) ( 2416 )  
    Most researches on celebrity endorsement based on the Source Credibility Model, Source Attractiveness Model, Match-Up Hypothesis and Meaning Transfer Model and concentrated on the endorser’s credibility (including expertise and trustworthiness), attractiveness and congruence. In the investigation of Chinese consumers’ evaluation on celebrity endorsement of the present study, a new factor named as “morality reputation” was found. The influence of this factor on the effectiveness of endorsement was also examined and this influence was mediated by trustworthiness. Identification and internalization can be used to explain why and how the factor has the effect.
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    MECHANISM OF FAR-EXTENSION EVALUATION IN LOW-EVOLVEMENT CONTEXT
    Lei Li,Wang Yong,Ding Xiaqi,Ma Mouchao
    2005, 37 (03):  390-396. 
    Abstract ( 2321 )   PDF (654KB) ( 1995 )  
    This research investigated the significance of factors affecting consumer evaluations of far brand extensions. Different from prior researches focusing on the brand affect, brand perception, brand attributes and fit between the extensions and parent brand, this empirical study paid attention to the brand-related variables. Three important variables were put forward to explain the success of far-extension existing in the real market. They are brand category stickiness, the brand’s abstract and functional character, and brand reputation. Accordingly, three experiments were set to examine their effects on the far-extension evaluation. The results showed that a brand with less brand stickiness, higher abstract character and higher reputation is of more possibility to be successful in a far-extension.
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    A COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON CONSUMER COMPLAINT BEHAVIOR
    Shen Yue,Zhao Ping
    2005, 37 (03):  397-402. 
    Abstract ( 2465 )   PDF (442KB) ( 1827 )  
    The consumers may make complaints by diversified ways after dissatisfying purchases. Based on the questionnaire survey data from 2966 consumers in the industries of refrigerator, air conditioner and washing machine, the present study made a comparative research on complaint behavior by ANOVA. It was found that the voicing consumers exhibit significantly higher brand image perception, satisfaction and repurchase intention than those who make negative word-of-mouth or boycott. The cognitive psychological theories were then employed to explain the decision and influence of different types of complaint behavior. Thus, the enterprises should encourage the consumers to make voice.
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    GROUP INTERVENTION FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA INPATIENT WITH ART AS MEDIUM
    Meng Peixin,Zheng Richang,Cai zhuoji,Cao Dahong,Ma Liang,Liu Jun,Liu Yu
    2005, 37 (03):  403-412. 
    Abstract ( 2680 )   PDF (826KB) ( 2199 )  
    The aim of this research is to explore the effect of group art therapy to the bio-psycho-social function with for schizophrenia. 86 schizophrenia inpatients, selected by the standard of ICD-10, are distributed randomly to the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group participates in psychological intervention with art medium. The control group just takes part in the other activities as arranged by the hospital. Both of the two groups are tested and re-tested by The Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), The General Assessment sale (GAS), The Tennessee Self-Concept Survey (TSCS), and The General Quality of Life Inventory-74 (GQOLI-74). The results show that the intervention group scores lower in PANSS, higher in GAS, higher in TSCS and higher in three dimensions of biological, psychological and social function in GQOLI-74, comparing to the control group. Group art therapy conducted in the research has been proved to remove the psychiatric syndromes and improve the self concept and quality of life of schizophrenia inpatients. Art therapy also helps to develop the group members’ function of emotion, cognition and social interaction.
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    DESIGNING OF COPING EFFICACY QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF THEORY MODEL
    Huge Tone
    2005, 37 (03):  413-419. 
    Abstract ( 2287 )   PDF (587KB) ( 1707 )  
    Selected 1806 university students as one sample to measure the coping efficacy, and compared with another sample, composed of 30 adults who were drug addicts. The confirmative research of structural equation modeling validated that the coping efficacy existed and played an important role: the coping efficacy was different from the general efficacy, which had more important effect on body symptom, depression and anxiety, and the stress of the critical incident (such as SARS). The effecting mechanism of the coping efficacy indicated it was an independent and steady variable. The coping efficacy questionnaire had favorable reliability and validity, The Cronbach α coefficient is 0.86, the split-half coefficient is 0.79, stability reliability of 63 Ss after two months is 0.71. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmative factor analysis discovered the coping efficacy was composed of three factors, which were self-confidence degree, cognition level, competence perception. Convergent validity and discriminate validity were confirmed too. 30 adult drug addicts were compared with the normal people. The result offered the evidence of confirmative validity. At the same time, the norm of the coping efficacy questionnaire was established in the research.
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    THE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE FOR JOB PERFORMANCE OF CHINESE MILITARY AVIATORS
    Xiao Wei,Wang Jianhui,Che Wenbo,Miao Danmin
    2005, 37 (03):  420-426. 
    Abstract ( 1573 )   PDF (536KB) ( 1481 )  
    This research explored the intra-structure of job performance of the military aviators by the confirmatory factor analysis on the basis of theoretical analysis, interview and questionnaire surveying. The results showed that job performance of military aviators in China consists of task performance and contextual performance. The task performance included four factors, which are:Factor1: flying performance. Factor2: performance in critical situations and the frequency of near-accident. Factor3: Theoretical level. Factor 4: physical status. The contextual performance consisted of six factors, which are: Factor5: compliance with or acceptance of authority. Factor6: go-aheadism. Factor7: Sense of responsibility. Factor8: settling down own job. Factor9: intensive studying Factor10: Cooperation.
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