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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 37 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    CHOICE REVERSALS ACROSS CERTAINTY, UNCERTAINTY AND RISK: THE EQUATE-TO-DIFFERENTIATE INTERPRETATION
    Li Shu
    . 2005, 37 (04): 427-433.  
    Abstract   PDF (465KB) ( 1564 )
    A generalized weak dominance approach is used to test choice reversals across certainty, uncertainty and risk. In the case of pairwise choice where each alternative is generally better than the other on a single dimension, this approach models much human choice behavior as a process in which people seek to equate smaller difference between alternatives on one dimension, thus leaving the greater one-dimensional difference to be differentiated as the determinant of the final choice. The choice reversals are therefore seen as a consequence of the fact that what is seen as the greatest one-dimensional difference on one trial is no longer seen as the greatest on another trial. A “matching” task was designed to examine whether the knowledge of the value difference of the paired outcomes along each dimension will permit prediction of preferential choice. The overall test-retest results for various choosing tasks favor the equate-to-differentiate explanation. The finding supports the claim that the repeated choices can be consistent not because the chosen alternative is always of the greatest overall worth but because final choice is consistently based on a single fixed dimension on each trial.
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    THE ROLE OF CHINESE CHARACTERS’ YIFU IN COGNITION OF CHINESE ACTION VERBS’ MEANING
    Zhang Jijia, Chen Xinkui
    . 2005, 37 (04): 434-441.  
    Abstract   PDF (732KB) ( 1631 )
    Using a revised reaction time technique,four experiments were conducted to probe into the role of Chinese characters’ Yifu in cognition of Chinese action verbs’ meaning. Experiment 1 explored the effects of Yifu on the cognition of action organ’s meaning of action verbs. The results showed that the Yifu which is in consistent with action organs promoted the cognition of the verbs’ meaning of action organs,while the Yifu which is in inconsistent with action organs inhabited the cognition of the verbs’ meaning of action organs. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of Yifu on recognizing of the meaning of action verb’s action tools.The results showed that when Yifu is in consistent with action tools would advance the cognition of the meaning of action verbs’ action tools; while they were inconsistent with each other would inhabited the cognition of the meaning of action verbs’ action tools. Experiment 3 probed into whether or not the role of Yifu varied with frequencies of the words. The results showed that when Yifu is in consistent with the action organs,there weren’t notable differences between the cognition of high frequency words and that of low frequency words; while they were in inconsistent with each other, the cognition of the action organ’s meaning of high frequency words were speeder than that of low frequency words. Experiment 4 explored the effects of whether or not Yifu is consistent with action organs on the cognition of action organ’s meaning of action verbs which were different in concreteness. The results showed that when Yifu is in consistent with the action organs,there weren’t remarkable differences between the cognition of high concrete words and that of low concrete words; when they were in inconsistent with each other, the cognition of action organ’s meaning of high concrete words was faster than that of low concrete words. The whole study indicated the structure characteristics of Chinese words affected the cognition of the meaning of action organs or tools.
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    Feeling-of-knowing (FOK) and feeling-of-not-knowing (FOnK): An experimental disassociation
    Wang Peipei,Luo Jing
    . 2005, 37 (04): 442-449.  
    Abstract   PDF (671KB) ( 1288 )
    Recent neuroimaging studies implied that feeling-of-knowing (FOK) and feeling-of-not-knowing (FOnK) might be subserved by different cognitive and neural processes (Chinese Science Bulletin 2002, 47:1876-9;Progress in Natural Science 2003, 13: 263-8;Acta Psychologica Sinica 2004, 36: 426-33). Although this hypothesis challenged the traditional view that regarded FOK as a continuum, the neuroimaging study cannot provide causal inference given this kind of study is correlation in nature. In this behavioural study, we examined the effects of level-of-processing (LOP) on FOK and FOnK respectively. Our results showed deep LOP promoted the prediction accuracy of FOK but not that of FOnK, in fact, deep LOP deteriorated the accuracy of FOnK. This result was obtained in both of the within-subject design and the between-subject design; it was also tenable when we excluded the recognition that was realized through familiarity heuristic.
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    THE ROLE OF FEATURE TYPES IN CATEGORY EFFECT OF COMBINED CONCEPTS
    Liu Ye,Fu Xiaolan
    . 2005, 37 (04): 450-457.  
    Abstract   PDF (758KB) ( 1239 )
    Category effect of combined concept is defined that the interpretations of interpret combined concepts from different category are different. The present study justified the role of feature types of sub-concepts in category effect of combined concept by using feature listing experiment and path model. The results of feature listing experiment showed that living things had more entity features, whereas artifacts had more situation features. The results of path analysis showed that: (a) Entity features of modifiers influenced property interpretation rates significantly, (b) but situation features of head nouns had no significant influence on relation interpretation rates, and (c) category still significantly influenced interpretation rates after feature types entered the path model. The difference between feature types of living things and artifacts might not be the only factor that causes category effect on interpretation of conceptual combination, and more factors should be investigated in future.
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    THE EFFECTS OF RELATIONAL MATCHES OF ENTITIES AND FORS REFOR TO THE SEPARATION AND COMBINATION ON THE ACCESS OF STORY ANALOGS
    Tong Xiuli,Mo Lei,Zhe Chen
    . 2005, 37 (04): 458-468.  
    Abstract   PDF (1067KB) ( 953 )
    Using moving window display technique to investigate the effects of relational matches between entities and FORs refers to the separation and combination on the access of story analogs and thus to test the effects of surface and structural feature matches on the access of story analogs. Experiment 1 was designed to examine whether a systematic variation in the number of entity matches and relational matches of entities and FORs between a target story and cue story would affect the likelihood of a person being reminded of the target while reading the cue. Experiment 2 manipulated the numbers of FORs and relational matches of entities and FORs between target story and cue story to test the effects of these factors on the access of target story. Experiment 3 was conducted to investigate the effects of the relational matches of entities and FORs and HOR match or no HOR match on the access of target story. The results showed: the entities seem to be independent of FOR during influencing the access of story analogs. The relational matches of entities and FORs also affect the likelihood of the access of story analogs. And the HOR matches were necessary to the relational matches of entities and FORs affecting the access.
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    THE EFFECT OF SPATIAL LANGUAGE HABITS ON PEOPLE’S SPATIAL COGNITION
    Liu Lihong,Zhang Jijia,Wang Huiping
    . 2005, 37 (04): 469-475.  
    Abstract   PDF (668KB) ( 1367 )
    The study adopted the paradigm of the viewer’s rotation initiated by Levinson, explored the effects of spatial expression habits on people’s non-linguistic spatial cognition. The subjects were the undergraduates from both south and north China. The results showed a great difference between the south and the north that Southerners incline to use relative egocentric frame (left, right, front, back) while Northerners use absolute reference frame (east, west, north, south) as spatial reference in the same non-linguistic spatial cognitive task. The difference of reference frames is consistent with the habits of spatial expression. It suggested that spatial language habits do affect non-linguistic spatial cognition.
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    SELF AND DIRECTED FORGETTING EFFECT
    Li Wenjuan,Wu Yanhong,Jia Yunying
    . 2005, 37 (04): 476-481.  
    Abstract   PDF (492KB) ( 1558 )
    This research employs the self-reference effect paradigm and the list method of directed forgetting, to study the directed forgetting under self- referential processing and other-referential processing conditions. The results show that: (1) there is no significant difference in the general recall performance between the two processing conditions in the paradigm of directed forgetting. (2) Within the list method of directed forgetting, the difference between the two processing conditions is revealed that the effect of directed forgetting appears under the self-referential processing condition, whereas not under other-referential processing condition. This may suggest that the effect of inhibition due to the instruction of directed forgetting is strong enough for memory materials with high distinctness under the self-referential processing to produce the directed forgetting effect.
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    AN OVERALL CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY MODEL OF FEATURE REASONING IN UNCERTAIN CATEGORIZATION
    Wang Moyun,Mo Lei
    . 2005, 37 (04): 482-490.  
    Abstract   PDF (799KB) ( 1390 )
    Three experiments with participants of college students were done to investigate feature reasoning in uncertain categorization in the concentrative presentation of samples of category members. The results showed that it is the overall conditional probability of the prediction feature relative to the target feature rather than category uncertainty and representativeness of target features that affects participants’ feature reasoning, and that feature reasoning is direct reasoning based on the overall conditional probability of feature relevancy rather than indirect reasoning based on categories. The results supported the authors’ overall conditional probability model of prediction features.
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    Academic Delay of Gratification of Middle School Students
    Li Xiaodong
    . 2005, 37 (04): 491-496.  
    Abstract   PDF (510KB) ( 2717 )
    This study investigated academic delay of gratification from a perspective of self-regulated learning. 208 middle school students responded to a questionnaire. The results showed different goal orientation had different influence on academic delay of gratification, task orientation could positively predict academic delay of gratification, while ego-approach orientation had negative effect on it. Academic delay of gratification could predict metacognition strategies, but had no relation to academic achievement.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACCULTURATION AND INTELLIGENCE OF JUNIOR STUDENTS OF BAIMA TIBET
    Hu Xingwang,Cai Xiaoyue,Wu Ruiming,Li Hong,Zhang Zhijie
    . 2005, 37 (04): 497-501.  
    Abstract   PDF (442KB) ( 1548 )
    The study discusses the relations between acculturation and intelligence of Junior students of Baima Tibet . The result reveals that the three dimensions included in the survey (main-stream culture identity, school education identity, familiarity with Chinese) significantly correlate with intelligence and academic achievement. Precluding the influence of intelligence on the academic achievement, we find acculturation can help to predict the intelligence of Baima Tibet junior students. It’s helpful for us to get to the nature of intelligence. And it provides the theory basis for developing national education and advancing the course of national modernization.
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    THE STRUCTURE OF SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING THE SOCIAL COMPETENCE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
    Liu Yan,Zou Hong
    . 2005, 37 (04): 502-510.  
    Abstract   PDF (774KB) ( 2423 )
    Lists of major developmental tasks in the period of undergraduate life implied three aspects of undergraduate students’ social competence: the ability to solve social problems, the ability to acquire general social acceptance, and the ability to develop friendship. Basing on the analysis of relevant literature and undergraduate students’ opinion, the structures of these three abilities were suggested. Totally, 1048 students in Wuhan Region (China) completed the social competence questionnaire for undergraduate students. The result of confirmatory analysis supported the four-factor structure of the ability to solve social problems, the five-factor structures of both the ability to acquire general social acceptance and the ability to develop friendship. Validity and reliability analyses showed that the psychometric qualities of the social competence questionnaire for undergraduate students are acceptable.
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    THE MODEL OF EDUCATIONAL EFFECT ON OLD ADULT’S COGNITION
    Wang Dahua,Shen Jiliang,Peng Huamao,Tang Dan,Zhang Ling
    . 2005, 37 (04): 511-516.  
    Abstract   PDF (500KB) ( 2037 )
    217 old people, from three communities of Beijing, participated the study of the aging of primary mental ability. They were required to complete five cognitive tests, namely inductive reasoning, number computing, mental rotation, verbal meaning, and word fluency. Also working memory, processing speed and sensory function were examined for all subjects. Results indicated that age and educational level could influence the cognitive function independently. Educational level was an important and widespread supportive factor for old adults’ cognition. Working memory and processing speed were the mediating variables for the positive effects of educational level on cognitive function.
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    THE COMPARE OF EMOTION REGULATION TYPES AMONG DIFFERENT INTERPERSONAL COLONY
    Li Mei,Lu Jiamei
    . 2005, 37 (04): 517-523.  
    Abstract   PDF (619KB) ( 8425 )
    Studied the gender difference of eight emotion regulation types (emotion expression, seeking emotional help, relax, cognition coping, oppression, cry, emotion displace, avoidance) in high school students. And compared the difference in using emotion regulation types between well interpersonal relationship students and bad relationship students. Through the study, we tried to acquire the status of emotion regulation types and provide the effect reference for constructing well interpersonal relationship. The results suggested: There was significant sex difference in the emotion expression\seeking help of emotion, relax and cry, and females use more often than males. The popular students used seeking help in emotion, cognition coping and emotion expression more than other types. The rejected students and the neglected students usually use oppression to regulation their emotions.
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    THE HALO EFFECT IN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT
    Lu Qibin, Zhao Ping, Wang Gao, Huang Jinsong
    . 2005, 37 (04): 524-534.  
    Abstract   PDF (919KB) ( 1706 )
    This study utilized Chinese railway customer service as researching object, demonstrated that halo effect is an objective phenomenon, and analyzed General Impression halo effect and Salient Dimension halo effect deeply. As the results presented, the halo effect be transformed through those dimensions that influence the customer satisfaction stronger directly whatever what type of halo effect happened. Therefore, when corporations make a decision to improve their customer satisfaction, they could utilize the halo effect to supply the gap of the other dimensions which process lower quality in nature by improving the salient dimensions.
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    SOCIAL EXCHANGES IN ORGANIZATIONS: FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT EXCHANGES
    Zhou Mingjian,Bao Gongmin
    . 2005, 37 (04): 535-541.  
    Abstract   PDF (518KB) ( 1688 )
    Two main social exchanges, POS (exchange between employees and their organizations) and LMX (exchange between employees and their immediate supervisors), have been researched in organizational behavior. But the present papers only focus on direct exchanges, namely from POS and LMX directly, without any mediator to employees’ work outcomes, such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance, organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intentions. In this paper, we test the effects of POS and LMX on above work outcomes mediated by organizational affective commitment and job satisfaction. Based on 919 valid data, we compare four structure equation models and find the effects of POS on employees’ outcomes are all indirect, while the effects of LMX on the outcomes are both direct and indirect. The theoretical and practical implications of the different findings and the limitations of the research are also discussed.
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    ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF SHARED MENTAL MODEL IN WORK TEAMS
    Wu Xin,Wu Zhiming
    . 2005, 37 (04): 542-549.  
    Abstract   PDF (608KB) ( 1571 )
    The present study is to examine some team process related antecedents of shared mental model and the relationship between shared mental model and team effectiveness. The antecedent variables include communication, free riding, and trust. The consequence variables include group efficacy, performance, satisfaction and friendship of team members. Data were collected from 158 MBA and graduate students, 35 teams in a university in Beijing. Two distinct methods were used to measure shared mental model: one was team members’ perceived similarity of their mental models; the other was intra-team consistency on task-specific critical strategies. Results showed that communication was positively related to shared mental model and free riding was negatively related to shared mental model. Shared mental model was positively related to team performance, satisfaction and friendship of team members, and group efficacy. Shared mental model mediated the relationship between team process variables and team effectiveness.
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    EFFECT OF BILATERAL ENTORHINAL CORTEX LESION ON STRESS RESPONSE TO IMMOBILIZATION STRESS IN RATS
    Zhu Waner, Li Ting, Hiroyuki Umegaki
    . 2005, 37 (04): 550-554.  
    Abstract   PDF (754KB) ( 905 )
    This study was designed to determine the effect of the entorhinal cortex on stress response to immobilization in rats. Neurons in the entorhinal cortex were lesioned by bilateral injection of the cell-selective neurotoxin, ibotenic acid (1.5 μg/μl of solution per side). Two weeks later, rats were subjected to immobilization stress. Rats in which ibotenic acid had been injected into the entorhinal cortex showed attenuated expression of c-Fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and blunted elevation of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) after immobilization stress compared with rats in which saline had been injected into the entorhinal cortex. The results of this study indicate that the entorhinal cortex is closely involved in the activation of the HPA axis during immobilization stress in rats.
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    THE STUDY ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED
    Yu Jiayuan
    . 2005, 37 (04): 555-560.  
    Abstract   PDF (487KB) ( 1171 )
    Because there were some shortcomings that validity argument was obtained with statistics. The artificial neural networks based validity argument obtain method was introduced. 21 Monte Carlo simulation experiments were conducted, including the relationship between single independent variable and dependent variable were linear or nonlinear, the relationship between multi- independent variable and dependent variable were linear or nonlinear, the relationship between independent and dependent variable were random, the relationship between variables were affected by random variable with different degrees. Both standard normal distribution and uniform distribution for the independent variables were in each experiment. The actual psychological measurement data were analyzed with statistics and artificial neural networks. The results showed that the neural networks method was better than the statistical method for obtain the validity argument, when the relationship between the test scores and criterion scores was nonlinear or the test scores and criterion scores were multi-variables.
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    VERIFICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY HYPOTHESIS ON HUMAN MATE SELECTION MECHANISM IN CROSS-CULTURE CONTEXT
    Yue Guoan,Chen Hao,Zhang Yanyan
    . 2005, 37 (04): 561-568.  
    Abstract   PDF (630KB) ( 3001 )
    After analyzing the personal advertisements of 404 Tianjin’s advertisers and 432 Boston’s ones, the findings show:(1)Male advertisers always paid more attention to female appearance and body-figure, and female advertisers think more of male own resources and commitments to the marriages, but Tianjin’s advertisers showed the traits of mate selection above more strongly;(2)As they got older, male advertisers preferred progressively younger partner than themselves, whereas female advertisers exhibited a more stable pattern of preference;(3)Boston advertisers’ choice range for potential partners’ age was larger than Tianjin’s;(4)Tianjin’s advertisers emphasized committed individual characteristic, whereas Boston’s advertisers regarded the ones concerning spiritual communication and life-enjoyment. It was proposed that evolutionary psychological hypothesis was verified concerning the differences between male and female relatively successfully, but explained cultural difference between Sino-America poorly.
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