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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 September 2005, Volume 37 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE TEMPORAL COURSE OF SEMANTIC AND PHONOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN CHINESE WORD PRODUCTION:AN ERP STUDY
    Guo Taomei, Peng Danling, Lu Chunming, Liu Hongyan
    2005, 37 (05):  569-574. 
    Abstract ( 2453 )   PDF (521KB) ( 1719 )  
    The temporal course of semantic and phonological retrieval in Chinese word production was investigated using ERP technique. Participants were shown pictures and required to carry out a dual choice GO/NOGO task based on the semantic information (i.e., whether the picture was of an object or an animal) and phonological information (e.g., whether the picture’s Chinese name starts with the letter Y or S). The N200 data indicated that semantic retrieval preceded phonological retrieval during Chinese word production, which was consistent with many previous findings. These data are discussed based on the related theory of speech production.
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    Time Course of Phonological and Semantic Activation: Perceiving Chinese Words without Initial syllable in Sentence Context(Ⅰ)
    Chen Xuqian,Zhang Jijia
    2005, 37 (05):  575-581. 
    Abstract ( 2089 )   PDF (673KB) ( 1441 )  
    The course of phonological and semantic activation of spoken words was hot issue of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. Recently two hypotheses emerged:exhaustive access theory and context-dependency hypothesis. In this paper,Chinese words without initial syllables were used as target words to address the process of the phonological and the semantic activation of Chinese spoken words interpretation. Two experiments are included: In Experiment 1,the factors that influenced the comprehension of the spoken words were investigated;In Experiment 2,the context-dependency effects in the early phase of the comprehension is addressed. The results showed that:(1) the interpretation of Chinese spoken words without initial syllables were affected by both the phonology of spoken words and semantic contexts of sentences;(2) the sentence semantic contexts acted on the beginning of the interpretation of Chinese spoken words without initial syllables and affected the interpretation all along.
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    TIME COURSE OF PHONOLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC ACTIVATION: PERCEIVING CHINESE WORDS WITHOUT INITIAL SYLLABLE IN SENTENCE CONTEXT (Ⅱ)
    Zhang Jijia,Chen Xuqian
    2005, 37 (05):  582-589. 
    Abstract ( 1483 )   PDF (711KB) ( 1300 )  
    Using the Chinese two-character words without initial syllables as materials, the study investigated the activation process of phonology and semantics of Chinese spoken words. Experiment 1 addressed whether the sounds of spoken words could activate many phonological and semantic nodes which sounded similar with spoken words. Experiment 2 probed into whether there were phonological activation in the later phase of the comprehension process. The results showed that: ⑴the sounds of Chinese spoken words could activate the phonological and semantic nodes that sounded similar with spoken words, this kind of activation became low level at the point that ISI=400ms;⑵the phonology would be activated twice after the present of spoken words;⑶in the later phase of interpretation of Chinese words without initial syllables, the target words would be renovated by the guide from the interaction between semantic activation and the second phonological activation. Based on the experimental results mention above, the authors proposed the dynamic activation-spreading model of Chinese spoken words interpretation.
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    FEELING-OF-KNOWING AND FEELING-OF-NOT-KNOWING ARE DIFFERENT COGNITIVE PROCESSES: AN EVIDENCE FROM BEHAVIOR RESEARCH
    Liu Yan,Su Yanjie,Xu Guoqing
    2005, 37 (05):  590-597. 
    Abstract ( 2012 )   PDF (792KB) ( 1362 )  
    Research from brain imaging showed that accurate FOK was composed of feeling-of-knowing and feeling-of-not-knowing, which might rely on different brain mechanism. This research examined the influence of the cue and the target on the accuracy of FOK, and the hypothesis on “it was possible that feeling-of-knowing and feeling-of-not-knowing were different cognitive processes” in two experiments. Results of the first experiment showed that the frequency of the target impacted on the accuracy of FOK judgments, that is, when the target was a low-frequency word, FOK judgments were inaccurate. And meanwhile the frequency of the cue and the target had no influence on Feeling-of-knowing and Feeling-of-not-knowing. Results of the second experiment showed that cue-familiarity affected on the accurate feeling-of- not-knowing, while partial access of the target had influence on accurate feeling-of- knowing. So we concluded that the frequency of the target impacted on the accuracy of FOK judgment, and provided evidence that Feeling-of-knowing and Feeling-of -not-knowing were different cognitive processes through behavior experiments.
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    Role of Inhibitory Control in Infants’ Executive Function and Theory of Mind
    Wei Yonggang Wu Ruiming Li Hong Feng Tingyong Philip David Zelazo
    2005, 37 (05):  598-605. 
    Abstract ( 2367 )   PDF (710KB) ( 1950 )  
    On exploring the relation of infants’ Executive Function and Theory of Mind, the previous researches just view inhibitory control as one of their common components but seldom take the difficulty level of inhibitory control into consideration. The research divided the difficulty of inhibitory control into high, moderate and low these 3 levels, and explored the influences that inhibitory control with different difficulty levels had on the correlation of infants’ Executive Function and Theory of Mind, with 3 Day/Night tasks B1, B2 and B3 and 3 False Belief tasks A1, A2 and A3. In Experiment 1, 48 4-year olds were tested, and the result shows that the 3 difficulty levels divided into have significant difference and that inhibitory control indeed behaves high, moderate and low levels. In Experiment 2, with the tasks in Experiment 1 that have significant difference, 144 3-year, 4-year, 5-year and 6-year olds were tested, and the result shows that the difficulty level of inhibitory control plays an important and great role in the relation of infants’ Executive Function and Theory of Mind.
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    Preschooler’s understanding of relations among Reality, belief, desire and emotion
    Yang Xiaodong, Fang Ge
    2005, 37 (05):  606-612. 
    Abstract ( 1781 )   PDF (655KB) ( 1705 )  
    Preschooler’s understanding of relations among reality, belief, desire and emotion was investigated. Three-, 4- and 5-year-old children were required to answer the questions concerning reality-belief distinction, belief-based desire inference, and desire-based emotion inference. Results suggested that 4- and 5-year-olds were able to distinguish reality and belief correctly. It was difficult for 3-year-olds to understand the inconsistency between reality and belief. Both misreport of the reality and misreport of the belief were preschooler’s obvious errors in reality-belief distinction task, but not only “realism errors”. Most 4 and 5-year-olds were able to infer character’s desire based on belief cues. However, some 3-year-olds could not correctly infer character’s desire even if they had correctly reported character’s belief. Preschooler’s emotion understanding performance was influenced by their cognition development of belief and desire.
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    UNDERSTANDINGS OF NAÏVE THEORY OF BIOLOGY FOR ANIMAL REPRODUCTION IN 4-TO 7-YEAR-OLDS
    Zhang Lijin,Fang Fuxi
    2005, 37 (05):  613-622. 
    Abstract ( 2490 )   PDF (918KB) ( 1397 )  
    Understandings for animal reproduction from two sides of filial and parental generation were examined in 128 children aged 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-year-olds by the interview and the classifying task. The results indicated that 4 levels of the less understanding, the partial understanding, the general understanding, and completed understanding were identified. Children 6 years old could appreciate animal reproduction and distinguish animal with inanimate objects in terms of reproduction. In addition, there were intra-individual differences, for instance, first, children’s understanding for animal and inanimate objects was different on the different tasks; second, difference of task was only effective to 5- to 6-year-olds children who were in the period of relative rapid development; third, children had better performance for feature of reproducing-after-growing-up than that of generation-after-generation., and better performance for generation-reproducing-generation than that of tracing-to-derivation.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S STRATEGY ON ALLOCATION OF STUDY TIME
    Liu Xiping ,Fang Ge
    2005, 37 (05):  623-631. 
    Abstract ( 2501 )   PDF (791KB) ( 1741 )  
    Adopted three kinds of retrieving means(free recall, clue recall, recognition), the current research explored development of children’s strategy on allocation of study time, with G correlation between ease-of-learning judgment and amount of study time. 72 subjects were from Grade 2, Grade 4, Grade 6 of Elementary School, and 24 from Grade 2 of University (as control group). Let Ss have an ease-of-learning judgment by arrangement all the learning items for their difficulty. Then had a self-paced study. The last step was retrieving. The results: 1) there is a relationship between the order of ease-of-learning judgment and the amount of self-paced study time, for all grades. That implicates even the students in elementary school, they could show the ability on allocation of study time; 2) G correlation of Grade 6 is much higher than Grade 4, for free recall, implicates that there is a tendency the level grows fastest between 4 and 6 grade; 3) G correlation of Grade 4 is much higher than Grade 2, for cue recall, seems means that there is a tendency that the level goes up fastest between 2 and 4 grade; 4) there are no reliable different on G correlation among three grades, for recognition, shows that there is no progress during the period of elementary school; and 5) G correlation between ease-of-learning judgment and amount of self-paced study time for the first trail is reliable lower than G correlation between ease-of-learning judgment and amount of self-regulated study time for all trails, whatever the retrieving mean is. The level of allocation of study time of Grade 6 is almost the same with one of adults.
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL COMMITMENT AND LEARNING BURNOUT OF UNDERGRADUATES AND SCALES DEVELOPING
    Lian Rong Yang Lixian Wu Lanhua
    2005, 37 (05):  632-636. 
    Abstract ( 3267 )   PDF (392KB) ( 3831 )  
    Based on the interviewing with undergraduate students about the commitment and burnout in the university learning situation, the undergraduates’ professional commitment scale and learning burnout scale were developed. The scales were validated by EFA and CFA. 672 students completed the scales. The results showed that the professional commitment was consisted of four components which are affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment and ideal commitment; the learning burnout was composed of three components that are dejection, improper behavior and reduced personal accomplishment. The regression analysis showed that affective commitment is the most significant predictor to undergraduate’s learning burnout.
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    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG DIFFERENT STRESS SOURCES, COPING STRATEGIES AND FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ NEGATIVE FEELINGS
    Liu Xia,Tao Sha
    2005, 37 (05):  637-649. 
    Abstract ( 2795 )   PDF (1141KB) ( 2946 )  
    The present study examined the relationships among different stress sources, coping strategies and female university students’ negative feelings by applying the structural equation modeling analysis. Two hundred and thirty-nine female university students were asked to fill out questionnaires on stress, coping, depression and anxiety. The results indicated that (1) the predictive effects of stress and coping strategies on negative feelings are significant. (2) The process models about stress, coping strategies and negative feelings are different across stress sources in several aspects. Academic stress not only has the direct effects on negative feelings, but also has the indirect effects through negative problem-solving strategies. Economic stress has only the indirect effects on negative feelings through negative problem-solving and support-seeking strategies. In addition to the direct effects on negative feelings, interpersonal stress also has the indirect effects on negative feelings through negative problem-solving and support-seeking strategies. (3) Whatever the stress is from the academic, economic or interpersonal situation, negative problem-solving and support-seeking strategies always have the significant effects on negative feelings.
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    THE STRUCTURE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS’ WORK VALUES: INTENTIONS AND INSTRUMENTS
    Jin Shenghua,Li Xue
    2005, 37 (05):  650-657. 
    Abstract ( 2918 )   PDF (567KB) ( 2887 )  
    College students’ work value is becoming a more important research area due to employment challenge. This study applied a series of studies consisted of reviews with 25, open questionnaire survey with 60, and questionnaire survey with 813 college students from different universities and cities. Based on the results from separate exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, a 4-factor SEM for intentional work value and a 6-factor SEM for instrumental work value was built and validated as very good models with high goodness of fit. The hypothesis on relationships between intentional and instrumental work values are well proved as well.
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    THE DIFFERENCE OF THE NOTION FORSEX ROLES AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Wang Daoyang, Zhang Gengli, Yao Benxian
    2005, 37 (05):  658-664. 
    Abstract ( 2317 )   PDF (519KB) ( 6220 )  
    Employing the questionnaire method and the word-grouping method for personalitical traits, have carried on research to 140 universities of undergraduate course new students' sex role's views. Findings showed that: (1) University students of men and women all place being bravely and kindheartedly on the primary importance of the specialties of positive price of sex roles of men and women; False selfish to place role, sex of men and women, on shoulder primary importance, price of speciality respectively. (2) Men and women university student in kindhearted to own positive price speciality in common role, sex of men and women, responsible for, it is male role positive price speciality to be sincere calm and steady kindhearted, it is positive price importance person who know respect of speciality, role of women, have gender differences of significance to be gentle and sincere. Girl student think brave strong sincere calm and steady it responsible for to be male main positive price specialitying of role only among male main positive price speciality of role that boy student think. Boy students think gentle positive price speciality, women of role, girl students think sincere positive price speciality, women of role even more even more. (3) Man girl student think snobbish selfish false unkind too talkative women role mainly shoulder the speciality of prices, but the boy student places being snobbish on the primary importance where the women role shoulders the speciality of prices, girl students place being selfish on women role's shouldering the primary importance of the speciality of prices; It is shouldering the speciality of prices mainly of male role that the man girl students all think it snobbish, conceited, selfish, rough, but girl student think than boy student conceited and cowardly to shoulder price speciality mainly male role even more, boy students think snobbish than mainly shouldering the speciality of prices of male role even more.
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    FERTILITY VALUES OF YOUNG PEOPLE:THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
    Zhang Jinfu,Tong Qi, Bi Chongzeng
    2005, 37 (05):  665-673. 
    Abstract ( 1633 )   PDF (655KB) ( 1670 )  
    Base on open-ended interviews, overviews of former studies, counseling of experts and a test of one small sample, the authors brought up a theoretical hypothesis about fertility values. Fertility values questionnaire was constructed according to the hypothesis. The researchers administered the questionnaire Confirmatory factor analysis found that fertility values was a multi-hierarchical and multi-dimensional construct which had nine first-hierarchy dimensions and three second-hierarchy dimensions. Our theoretical construct of fertility values is rational. The questionnaire needs to be revised. This study could be used as the basis of the future researches about fertility values.
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    A NEW EQUATING CRITERION AND ITS BEHAVIORS
    Ding Shuliang, Xiong Jianhua, Luo Fen, Wu Rui, Gan Xiaofang, Tu Bai
    2005, 37 (05):  674-680. 
    Abstract ( 2027 )   PDF (367KB) ( 1341 )  
    Motivated by Freeman-Tukey statistical test, a new equating criterion under item response theory, known as square root criterion (SQRcrit), is proposed. The new method has some features, such as the probabilities for correct response and error response appear simultaneously in the formula and they could not be replaced each other. It is easy to generalize from dichotomous version to polytomous version. It could be regarded as one of weighted versions of Haebara equating criterion. In term of the recovery of estimating the equating coefficients and based on Wilcoxon sign-rank test, the findings of Monte Carlo study show an interesting phenomenon that if the equating approaches are proper relates to the accuracy of the estimation of the item parameters (AEIP) and to the domain of the equating coefficient A, but not to the domain of B. When the AEIP is higher, the new equating criterion is proper for 0.9≤A≤1.3. And when the AEIP is lower, the new equating criterion is proper for 1≤A≤2.
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    THE PERFORMANCE PROCESS MODES UNDER DIFFERENT TASK CONDITIONS AMONG VIRTUAL TEAMS
    Wang Zhongming,Deng Jingsong
    2005, 37 (05):  681-686. 
    Abstract ( 1292 )   PDF (525KB) ( 1168 )  
    By manipulating task types and task interdependence, a simulated experiment was conducted to investigate the development of three performance process modes among virtual teams. The results showed that: (1) Three performance process modes had different effects on team’s task performance. Team members could set exact goals during the whole process. The method modes only had significant effects on team performance at stage 1 and stage 3 while the trust modes had significant effects at the first two stages. The effect on team performance was moderated by the team practice and learning at the last stages. (2) The task performance of different interdependent teams was not significant in behavioral tasks but significant in conceptual tasks. Moreover, the task interdependence had different effects on performance process modes on different types of tasks.
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    THE DIFFERENT OUTCOME OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE, PROCEDURAL JUSTICE AND INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE
    Zhou Hao,Long Lirong,Wang Yan1,Wang Zhongjun,Wu Yi, Ke Shanyu
    2005, 37 (05):  687-693. 
    Abstract ( 2316 )   PDF (533KB) ( 1791 )  
    This study examined the different outcome of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice in scholarship appraisal. 661 college students participated in the study, a 2×2×2completely randomized design was employed, and 8 scenarios which consisted of the information on distributive justice/injustice, procedural justice/injustice and interactional justice/injustice were used as research materials to analyze the influence of organizational justices on students’ learning attitude, class honourableness, class belongingness and relationship with life teacher. The result indicated that distributive justice had the most explanative effect on person-referenced outcomes, procedural justice had the most explanative effect on organization-referenced outcomes, and interactional justice had the most explanative effect on supervisor-referenced outcomes, respectively.
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    GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INFORMATION PROCESSING TO ADVERTISING
    Lin Shu
    2005, 37 (05):  694-701. 
    Abstract ( 2371 )   PDF (625KB) ( 2202 )  
    A process dissociation procedure was used to examine the gender differences in the controlled and automatic processing of the brands with the spokes-character of different gender. The results showed that: (1) male consumers elicited higher automatic processing level than female as to the brands with the male spokes-character, and (2) female consumers elicited significantly higher automatic processing level than male as to the brands with the female spokes-character. And no significant differences were found in the controlled processing of the brands between male and female consumer under both conditions. These findings are assumed to be of some value to the advertisement designing.
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    A REVIEW OF THREE NEW APPROACHES IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
    Kuang Zhihua,Ye Haosheng
    2005, 37 (05):  702-709. 
    Abstract ( 2242 )   PDF (773KB) ( 3088 )  
    Postmodern psychology, positive psychology and evolutionary psychology are three new research approaches emerged in western psychology in recent year. All of the three research approaches based on criticizing modernism of western psychology, and try to rebuild psychological concept and system. This paper reviewed their essential viewpoints and main characteristics, and discussed their positive influences to western psychology and their own limitations. In the author’s opinion, by criticizing modernism psychology, the purports of the three new research approaches are trying to search a way beyond confrontation and conflicts between the exogenic perspective and endogenic perspective, which have existed in modernism psychology after the establishment of Wundt’s experimental psychology. But it is impossible to replace modernism psychology with any one of the three research approaches at least in the near future. Since each of them has its own limitations and shortcomings, the attitude of the tolerance, co-operation and dialogue are beneficial to the purpose of the integration of psychology.
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