Loading...
  Office Online
    Online Submission
    Office Work
    Peer Review
    Editor Work
    Editor-in-chief
  Journal Online
    Forthcoming Articles
    Current Issue
    Advanced Search
    Archive
    TOP Read
    TOP Download
    Email Alert
    
  • Table of Content
       , Volume 8 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    FURTHER STUDIES ON THE SEMANTIC NOISE IN CODING FLASH SIGNALS
    LI CHIA-CHIH
    . 1964, 8 (02): 3-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 121 )
    Field experiments, in which locomotive enginemen and college students served as subjects, were conducted for further study on the semantic noise in coding flash signals. The results confirmed our previous findings that the best coding system is the one in which higher rate of speed was coded by flashes of higher frequency, and lower speed by that of lower frequency, and that the reaction time and the semantic noise level were linearly related.The results also indicated that in different coding systems there exist different logical orders which have some relationship with the subject's habit of thinking, and these are important factors that influence the semantic noise level. Contrary to our expectations, no significant difference has been found between the habit of thinking of the enginemen and that of the college students. It seems probable that daily life experience is a more dominant factor than professional experience in the formation of habit of thinking relevant to our experimental conditions.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE INFLUENCE OF PHASE DIFFERENCES ON THE DISCRIMINATION OF FLASH SIGNALS AND APPARENT MOVEMENT HO PAO-YUAN
    Ho Pao-yuan
    . 1964, 8 (02): 11-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    The influence of various phase differences from 0 to 180 degrees on the discrimination of two intermittent light signals and their effect upon apparent movement were studied experimentally. Results revealed that the influence varied with different combinations of frequency, colour and position of the flash signals. The conditions for the occurrence of apparent movement with intermittent lights found in this experiment differed from some of former studies. This suggested that the use of intermittent lights with phase differences might be a new approach to the investigation of the problem of apparent movement. It was further indicated that under all combinations of frequency, colour, position, phase differences and coding as used in this experiment, two closely located intermittent lights should not be used simultaneously as signals.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    INTERFERENCE AND DOMINANCE IN SIMULTANEOUS MEMORIZATION OF DIFFERENT VISUALLY AND AURALLY PRESENTED MATERIALS
    YEH HSAN, TSAO JIH-CHANG
    . 1964, 8 (02): 21-32.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    Lists of 8 words each were presented by means of a tape-recorder. Different lists of words were printed on the back of the tapes. The presentations of the visual and the auditory materials were practically synchronized, and for 4 trials the Ss had to memorize the two different lists simultaneously. Control tests with only visually or aurally presented materials were also carried out.The results indicated that, in comparison with control tests, the efficiency of simultaneous memorization of different visually and aurally presented materials is much lower. The Ss could hardly discover the meaningful connection between the visually, and the aurally presented words. Both the reaction time and the recall time were lengthened and more errors were made. In the first trial, aurally presented materials were remembered better than the visually presented; in the second and the third trial, the dominance was shifted to the visual materials; and in the fourth trial very marked dominance was on the visual side.It is conjectured that when two sense organs are stimulated simultaneously, two centres of excitation may take place on the cerebral cortex. The two centres inhibit each other, so that the general efficiency of memorization is low and there may be a temporary dominance of the one centre over the other. With more practice materials of different modalities may be thoroughly mastered and the two centres of excitation may fuse with each other.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    DIE WIRKUNG DER VERWANDTEN ELEMENTE IN DER REIZREIHE AUF DIE REPRODUKTIONEN BEI MOMENTANER EXPOSITION
    TCHEN SCHU-JUNG, WANG SCHU-MAU
    . 1964, 8 (02): 33-41.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 56 )
    Der Zweck dieses Experimentes besteht darin, dass die Wirkung der fünf Gruppen von verwandten chinesischen Schriftzeichen in der Reizreihe auf die Reproduktionen festgestellt wird. Jede Reizreihe wird aus fünf chinesischen Schriftzeichen zusammengesetzt. In jeder Reihe sind zwei von den fünf Schriftzeichen verwandt. Die fünf Gruppen von verwandten chinesischen Schriftzeichen bestehen je aus gleichen Schriftzeichen, aus morphologisch hnlichen Schriftzeichen, aus Schriftzeichen mit gleicher Aussprache, aus sinnverwandten Schriftzeichen und aus Schriftzeichen vom entgegengesetzten Sinne. Die Reizreihen werden am Tachistoskop Weinlandes dargestellt. Die Dauer der Exposition ist3/10 Sekunde. In Bezug auf die Wirkung auf die Reproduktionen wurden die fūnf Gruppen der Reizreihe von verwandten Schriftzeichen mit der Reizreihe yon unverwandten Schriftzeichen verglichen. Daraus ergibt sich, class das Hemmen oder Erleichtern der Reproduktionen durch die verwandten Schriftzeichen in der Reizreihe von der Art, in der die Schriftzeichen verwandt sind, und von ihrer Stellung in der Reizreihe abhngig ist. Die verwandten Schriftzeichen bedingen nicht nur die Reproduktionen von sich selbst, sondern auch von der unverwandten Schriftzeichen in derselben Reizreihe.In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Ursache, aus der die verwandten Schriftzeichen verschiedene Einflüsse auf die Reproduktionen ausüben, behandelt.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE INFLUENCE OF THE DIRECTION OF CONVERGENCE ON THE VISUAL VERTICAL JUDGEMENT
    PENG TAN-LING
    . 1964, 8 (02): 42-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    To study the influence of the direction of convergence on the judgement of the visual vertical, Ss were required to gaze straight forward binocularly at a vertical line, and also to gaze askew, starting from this primary position (0°), to the extent of 60° on either side of the body. Binocular observations were compared with monocular observations. The results showed that: (1) the amount of error in vertical judgement is proportional to the increase of the degree of looking askew (0—60°); (2) under both conditions, when looking askew or looking straight forward, the error in vertical judgement with one eye is always much more marked than that with both eyes. On the basis of these results, the author holds that the normal convergence of two eyes and their coordinate movements are necessary conditions for the visual vertical orientation.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S ABILITY OF PICTURE OBSERVATION
    TING TSU-YIN
    . 1964, 8 (02): 51-59.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    This report is based on an experimental study of 120 children observing 3 pictures of different contents; the results show:1. The. level of the children's ability of observing pictures is influenced by the contents of the picture and the instruction. The results do not confirm Binet's contention that it is solely determined by the innate intelligence or "age".2. The development of the children's ability of picture observation may be considered as consisting of the following stages: (1) recognition of "individual objects"; (2) recognition of "spatial relation"; (3) recognition of "causal relation"; (4) recognition of "content as a' whole".
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMORY FOR PICTORIAL AND VERBAL MATERIALS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    LIU SUN-CHU, CHAO CHN-CHIEH, LI SHAN-CHUAN, KUO CHENG-YING, TAI CHIEN-LUN, MUO HAO-HS(?)NG
    . 1964, 8 (02): 60-67.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 119 )
    The subjects of this experiment consisted of primary school children from the 1st, 3rd and 5th grades, aged 7—8, 9—10 and 11—12 years respectively, with 45 children in each grade. The children's memory for pictorial and verbal materials showed the following characteristics:1. For both pictorial and verbal materials, the quantity and accuracy of retention improve with the age levels.2. With all class levels, memory for pictorial materials is always superior to that for verbal materials. The lower the class level, the more striking is this difference.3. Scores for memorizing concrete verbal materials are higher than that for memorizing abstract verbal materials, this difference decreasing with the advancing class levels.4. Only a small portion of the 1st grade pupils can make use of "attempt to recall" as a method for memorization, while some children of the 3rd grade use associations and classifications as methods for memorization. Children of the 5th grade are capable of consciously employing all the above-mentioned methods in memorizing the test materials.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE IN LOWER GRADE SCHOOL CHILDREN
    TANG TZ-CHIEH
    . 1964, 8 (02): 75-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    Three experiments were carried out to investigate the development of written and spoken language in primary school children of the second grade. The results indicated:1. In the period of the second grade, the quantity and other characteristics of the children's vocabulary in written and spoken language do not show much difference. The children can use the written language to express their ideas mastered orally.2. Training the oral expressions of children through group discussion, helps to raise the quality and quantity of their written language.3. Children of the second grade are not capable of correcting their written language, but this ability is beginning to develop at this age.Based on these results, the author proposed some suggestions to improve the quality of children's composition.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN THE FORMATION OF CHILDREN'S SENSE OF DUTY IN SCHOOL WORK
    CHANG CHIH-KUANG, CHU WEN-BING
    . 1964, 8 (02): 84-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    In an educational experiment, the authors studied the following problems:1) The relationship between children's sense of duty in school work and their achievement scores.2) The relationship between motivation and habitual behaviour in the psychological structure of the sense of duty in school work.3) The role of explanation, demonstration, supervision and children's self-evaluation in the formation of the sense of duty in school work.4) The transference of the sense of duty in school work to other activities and the development of moral traits in the sense of duty in general among children.
    Related Articles | Metrics
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech