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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1966, Volume 10 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ILLUMINATION REQUIREMENTS FOR READING DESKS IN ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL CLASSROOMS
    PENG JUI-HSIANG,LO SHENG-TE,YU PO--LIN,WANG SHU-NA,LIN JO-T'ZU,LUNG YUAN--CHING
    1966, 10 (02):  3-11. 
    Abstract ( 505 )  
    Critical flicker fusion frequency, recognition time on the Snellen Chart, and brightnessdiscrimination were employed as measures of visual fatigue of pupils resulting from con-tinuous reading for an hour under various levels of illumination of sun light and artificiallight. Results indicated that 80 lux may be recommended as the necessary illuminationlevel and 180 lux as the comfortable level required for pupils' desks in daylight. A com-parison of the effects of the two artificial light sources showed that under low illumina-tion the incandescent lamps were better than flourescent lamps. It was suggested that60-70 lux for incandescent lamps and 90-100 lux for flourescent lamps may satisfy thedesk illumination requirements for visual tasks in elementary and middle schools.
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    THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS INTENSITIES OF ILLUMINATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF STUDY AND VISUAL ACUITY
    HU JUI--JUNG
    1966, 10 (02):  12-20. 
    Abstract ( 835 )  
    Six 100 W light bulbs were set in a classroom. They were controlled with a trans-former to give the needed illuminating intensity. 42 boys and 38 girls aged 14-16 withnormal vision were choosen as subjects. Two visual scales had been used: a Snellen scale for far-vision test, calculated ac-cording to their distance from the scale (V=d/D) and a special visual scale with the sizeof its alphabets identical to that of the symbols in 1.2 line of the near-vision scale. Sswere asked to pick up within 2 minutes the assigned alphabets which were about 30 cmaway from them. The speed of reading and the proportion of errors were calculated by the number ofalphabets found correct or wrong. Experiments were carried out successively under 25,45, 55, 75 and 95 lux of average illuminating intensity falling on the desk. Only one ex-periment was done each night. Results showed that: (1) The number of alphabets picked up (speed of reading)was in direct ratio with the illumination levels, least under 25 lux with the mean 9.4(before self-study time), 6.98 (in the middle) and 2.9 (at the end), when 55 or 75 luxwas used, the speed of reading improved more rapidly, and most under 95 lux, with themean at 3 different times being 30.13, 28.82, and 26.78. Besides 25 lux, there was nosignificant difference between the time before and in the middle of study (P<0.05)among these various light levels, but there was marked difference between the middle andthe end of the study time (P<0.001). (2) Error percentage was in reverse ratio with the intensity of illumination. Errorswere most frequent under 45 lux or less, being 61.14-86.50% (limits of 95%=58.61-88.08%), about 50% under 75 lux (limits of 95%=38.62-61.88%), and only 4.01-8.58% under 95 lux. (3) Visual acuity changed with illumination levels. It is rather stable under 75 luxor more. Ss all felt very well under 95 lux, with slight discomfort under 45 lux, mostuncomfortable and inefficient under 25 lux. Some pupils complained with blurring ofvision, vertigo, eye fatigue etc., especially from the middle to the end of the study period. According to the results, it is clear that illumination of 25-45 lux causes eye fatigueand strain, while 55-75 lux is suitable for ordinary reading. Thus, 75 lux may be takenas the minimal, and 95 lux the optimal level of illumination for study.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF COMPARISON METHOD IN TEACHING FRACTION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
    KAN YUAN-YING
    1966, 10 (02):  21-28. 
    Abstract ( 462 )  
    The teaching of fraction is an old and difficult problem in elementary schools. Themethod of comparison was used in teaching verbal problems of fraction in an experimentalclass, and the achievement of the children was compared with that of a matched classwhich was slightly superior. The results showed that the experimental class had caughtup and exceeded the compared class. The comparison method of teaching helps the chil-dren to solve the contradiction between the old and the new knowledge, stimulates theiractive thinking and thus improves their ability of problem solving in arithmetic.
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    EFFICIENT WAY OF LEARNING ENGLISH WORDS IN FIRST GRADE JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS
    YAO HSIU-HUA
    1966, 10 (02):  29-35. 
    Abstract ( 726 )  
    The learning of English words consists of the mastery of the three highly interrelatedcomponents: pronounciation, spelling and meaning. At the beginning, the principal aspectsof the contradiction in learning are the pronounciation and the spelling of words. Themore effective method for solving the contradiction is to teach spelling by the aid ofrules of pronounciation.
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    COMPARISON OF 3 CRITERIA OF CHARACTER RECOGNITION BY PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    CHU TSO-JEN
    1966, 10 (02):  36-41. 
    Abstract ( 449 )  
    The three different criteria of character recognition (dictation, reading and iden-tification) which are often used in teaching were compared. 1. In immediate tests, given rightaway after learning, dictation was the easiest, andreading the most difficult. In delayed tests, identification was the easiest and dictationthe most difficult. 2. Reminiscence was observed, which seemed to depend on the time elapsed afterlearning, the level of difficulty of the tests and other factors.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE ABSTRACTION AND GENERALIZATION PROCESSES IN SCHIZOPHRENICS (CONTINUED)
    KUNG YAO-HSIEN
    1966, 10 (02):  42-47. 
    Abstract ( 716 )  
    As reported in the last papet, a sorting test was applied to 100 normals and 128schizophrenics and distinct difference was found between the two groups as to the per-centages of correct classification, test time and the quality of classification. The same test was again applied to 127 patients with the following diagnoses: schizo-phrenics atypical 22; psychotics reactive 21; psychoneurotics 21; manics 13; depressives8; general paretics 20 and other organics 22. Percentage of correct classification and totalresponse scores are used as parameters for indicating similarities or dissimilarities amongthe different groups of patients. The main results are as follows: 1. There is marked similarity within each diagnostic group in all the tests. 2. Similarities are also found between the following groups: manics and depres-sives; general paretics and other organics; schizophrenics, typical and atypical. 3. There is remarkable difference between schizophrenic and the following groups:manics, depressives, general paretics and other organics. Differences are also presentamong the three groups of schizophrenics, psychotics reactive and psychoneurotics.
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