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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 March 1980, Volume 12 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE BASIC THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Pan Shu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  3-10. 
    Abstract ( 466 )  
    The importance and necessity of the investigation into the basic theoreticalproblems of psychology are discussed. Some approaches to such investigation aresuggested.
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    THIRTY YEARS’DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Lin Zhong-xian,Fang Zhi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  11-17. 
    Abstract ( 551 )  
    This is a summary of the research work of Chinese psychologists withrespect to the experimental psychology in the last thirty years. The authorsdescribe briefly the development of the experimental psychology in China,summarize the results of the research work and experiences in the past years,and point out the way in developing this field in future.
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    THIRTY YEARS OF INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA
    Peng Rui-xiang Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  18-23. 
    Abstract ( 428 )  
    This paper gives a brief survey of the advance in industrial psychology inChina since liberation. The main results obtained by Chinese psychologicalworkers duririg the past 30 years, concerning the aspects of railway lightsignal display, signal design of control room of electric power station andilluminatidn requirements for various types of visual tasks are described.Finally, future prospects for industrial psychology in China are brieflydiscussed.
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    THIRTY YEARS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA:A HISTORICAL RETROSPECTION AND SOME BASIC PROBLEMS
    Chen Da--rou Insititute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  24-31. 
    Abstract ( 398 )  
    Reviews the research of physiological psychology in new China: 1949-1979.Emphasis on the importance of this field both in basic and applied research forthe modernization of psychology as a science. Some basic problems, such as theviewpoint of naturalism about psychological research in the new historical periodof China, are commented.
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    ON THE MODERNIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA:FUNDAMENTAL THEORETICAL VIEWPOINT AND METHODOLOGY
    Wang Ji--sheng Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  32-38. 
    Abstract ( 421 )  
    First of all, the author makes some analysis and summary on thefundamental theoretical viewpoint appearing in the last thirty years of ourpsychological works. He suggests that we must establish a completely newsystem of psychology possessing 5 distinguishing traits as follows: (1)basicthoeries guided by the dialectic materialism, (2)national peculiarities, (3)important features of our age, (4)integrating intently the natural aspectswith the social ones of the mind, and (5)combining theory with practice. Secondly, the author gives comments on the methods of our research undertakenin the last three decades, viz. those methods of conditioned reflex, of classanalysis and of experiment. He also proposes that both methods of naturalscience and of social science be embodied in the psychological research and thatnew methodologies as well as new means of investigation more suitable to thespecial characteristics of psychology be created.
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    AN INVESTIGATION IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENI OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PART AND WHOLE IN CHILDREN Ⅰ. Experimental studies on the concept of class inclusion and number inclusion in children of 4—7 years
    Zhang Mei--ling Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  39-47. 
    Abstract ( 483 )  
    A study was made among kindergarden children of 4-7 years in Beijing.Each child was asked to do some tasks on class inclusion and number inclusion.The results show that: 1. In general, the successful performance rises with increasing age for thethree different tasks. 2. Variations are shown in different age groups. In class inclusion, thegreatest development is shown in the age group 5, 5-6, while in number inclusionit is around tbe age of 4-5. 3. Children's responses shown in the course of experiment can be classifiedas of three different levels. At the first level, children can not see the relationbetween part and whole. During the second level, they make increasing correctresponses through representation. At the third level, they perform the tasknearly without mistake, showing full comprehension and some understanding oflogical relationship.
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    VISUAL DISCRIMINATION UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT SOURCES
    P. L. Yu,S. L. Chiao,C. C. Ching,W. T. Chang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  48-58. 
    Abstract ( 469 )  
    Four experiments are reporfed in which natural daylight and threeartificial sources were compared as to their visual effects under equalilluminance in a diffuse lighting environment. The criteria used were discrimi-nations of size, contrast, probability for accuracy of detection and visual fatiguemeasurements. The results indicated that natural daylight shoed better visualeffects than artificial light sources, while there is no significant difference forincandescent, fluorescent and high pressure mercury lamps. It is concluded thatin prescribing illumination standards a unified value should be specified fordifferent light sources.
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    A SERIAL STUDY ON THE RELATIVE SPECTRAL LUMINOSITY AMONG CHINESE PEOPLE Ⅱ.SCOTOPIC RELATIVE SPECTRAL LUMINOSITY
    Xu Zong--hui,He Bao--yuan Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  59-64. 
    Abstract ( 528 )  
    Scotopic relative spectral luminous efficiency functions have been determinedwith brightness matching method at 8.8×10~(-4)(cd)/m~2. There was a dim redfixation point on the upper edge of a visual field which had a diameter subtending20°at the eye, and was divided vertically into two equal parts, one was thestandard, and the other illuminated with various comparison lights. Two agegroups of subjects were used, one below 30 and the other above 30 years,including 13 and 11 normal vision subjects respectively. 14 points were selectedfor measurement in wavelength ranging from 420 to 640 nm. The results indicated: 1) The average maximum spectral sensitivity of the subjects equals to 515nm. It is slightly higher than that of CIE V′_λ which occurs at about 507 nm 2) The comparison between two age groups shows that V′_λ values decreasein the short wave side of spectrum with the increase of age.
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    SUBJECTIVE CONTOUR AND DEPTH CUE
    Zhang Hou-can,Peng Tan-ling Beijing Normal University
    1980, 12 (01):  65-69. 
    Abstract ( 555 )  
    An experiment is designed to study the influence of such factors as depthcue and completion tendency on the formation of subjective contour. The figureused is adapted from G. Kanizsa. By varying the length of the broken edges ofthe triangle the guthors provide depth cues of four different levels, and foundthe subjective contour is a function of the obviousness of depth cue. From thisexperiment, authors suggested that subjective contour, in analogy to otherillusions, is dependent upon the complex interaction between a series of objectiveand subjective factors.
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    A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON THE AROUSAL LEVEL OF PARANOID AND NONPARANOID SCHIZOPHRENICS
    Chen Zhong-keng,Zhang Bo-yuan Beijing University
    1980, 12 (01):  70-76. 
    Abstract ( 855 )  
    The present study, utilizing electrodermal activity as an index of arousallevel, has the purpose to examine the inconsistency of many previous works onthe psychophysiological deficit of schizophrenia. 20 schizophrenics and 10 normal adults were used as subjects. After a 10minutes "rest" period, 2 series of tones were presented successively as stimulationfor habituation test. The results showed that schizophrenics as a group were overaroused incomparing with normal adults. There were also some difference between thetwo clinical types of schizophrenia: nonparanoid schizophrenics gave the tendencyto show higher basal level, greater frequencies of spontaneous electrodermalfluctuations, and slower habituation of response amplitude during repeatedstimulations. The concept of arousal continuum was discussed, and furtherresearch suggested.
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    A SKETCH ON THE METHODS OF MENTAL TESTING IN ANCIENT CHINA
    Lin Chuan--ting Institute of Pedagogical Sciences, Beijing Normal College
    1980, 12 (01):  77-82. 
    Abstract ( 524 )  
    The author found that the interest and effort in diagnosing personality andconduct for the appointment of men on their merits had already prevailed inChina about the beginning of the Christian era. At that time Chinese scholarstended to advocate that, being the voice and picture of one's mind, our speech(word) and handwriting should be used in mental testing. Hence the speed ofspeaking and writing was used as an index of intelligence, and method ofinterrogation as important means in personality assessment. The procedures usedat the end of 1920s by H. Hartshorne and M. A. May in their CEI Tests formeasuring honesty, service and self-control had been proposed in Cnina aboutthe 20s of the third century. Completion tests were widely used in the imperialexaminations since 8th century. Various methods of paired antithetical phrasessimilar to the opposite analogies in Stanford-Binet scale were devised by Chinesepoets later on. Ever since the middle of 6th century, some kinds of sensori-motor tests similar to the Buhler's and Gesell's had been applied to the babiesat their first birthday in south part of China as a traditional practice untilrecently. Long before the appearance of Seguin's form board, a 7-piece puzzleanalogous to and much more difficult than the Kempf's diagonal form board,had been developed as a non-verbal intelligence test. not yet standardized. Theso-called shape analysis tests now used elsewhere abroad are only a simplifiedform and the paper-pencil type of this puzzle. It is mentioned in this sketch that the first distraction test of the world wasconducted thirteen centuries ago by a well-known Chinese literary critic. In thistest subjects were asked to draw a square with left hand and a circle withright one simultaneously. Also noted are the rudimental data from historicaltimes concerning the predictive value of test results, the method for rating thevividness of auditory imagery and the interpretation of achievement in termsof group reference.
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    A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON GENETICS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Carl Ratner Humboldt State College, California
    1980, 12 (01):  83-92. 
    Abstract ( 678 )  
    The paper is a review of the psychological literature that is offered insupport of the genetic theory of schizophrenia. Four areas of research arereviewed: physiological aspects of schizophrenia, incidence of schizophrenia in thegeneral population, incidence of schizophrenia among family members, andstudies which control for environmental influences on schizophrenia. Theliterature is not found to support the genetic theory, and is better explained bya social model of psycho-pathology.
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT METHODS IN KILLING ANIMALS AND THE CHANGES OF MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE BRAIN
    Lin Wen--juan,Tang Ci--mei Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1980, 12 (01):  110-114. 
    Abstract ( 504 )  
    In this paper the brain levels of NE, DA and 5-HT in rats killed bydecapitation or by being frozen in liquid nitrogen were compared. Furthermore,the changes of these transmitters contents in the brain were determined afterthe brain was placed in a-6℃ refrigerator for 2 and 5 days after being frozenin liquid nitrogen. It was found that rio significant difference between decapita-tion and being frozen in liquid nitrogen was detected in neurotransmittercontents. But the longer the samples were placed in the refrigerator, themore loss in monoamine neurotransmitters was observed.
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