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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 March 1981, Volume 13 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    XUN ZI’S MATERIALISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS
    Luo Zhong-shu(Institute of Population, Sichuan University)
    1981, 13 (01):  5-12. 
    Abstract ( 466 )  
    Xun Zi (310-230BC) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. Studiedin this articles were his psychological thoughts about relationships betweenhuman and nature, human nature and false appearance, and mind and body(physique), and about some other problems, such as processes of recognition,cognition and behaviours, combined functions of a unitary man, moods anddesires, consciousness and personality, and learned behaviours and skills,etc. His states touched many aspects of psychological activities, and hada salient trend of materialism.
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    ON SOME PROBLEMS IN THE DIALECTICAL RESEARCH ORIENTATION IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
    Chen Da-rou(Institute of Psychollgy, Academia Sinica)
    1981, 13 (01):  13-17. 
    Abstract ( 442 )  
    An analysis of the psychological research direction of dialecticaltheories in the West indicates that, at present, there is an incorrectcurrent, which is characterized by the assumption that dialectics may beindependent of materialism. The author of this paper maintains thatdialectics and materialism are naturally unitary, and asserts thatmaterialistic dialectics is the one and only scientific dialectics forpsychological research, etc.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S COGNITION OF VELOCITY OF MOVING OBJECTS(Ⅰ)
    Fang Ge,Liu Fan(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1981, 13 (01):  23-31. 
    Abstract ( 444 )  
    The purpose of this study is to explore the levels and characteristicsof the development of children's cognition of velocity at different ages.The subjects were 140 children from four to ten years old. Individual testwas adopted. The subjects were asked to make comparison of the velocities of twotoycars simultaneously and uniformly moving at the same speed under fourexperimental conditions. After the child had finished each item of the experiment, theexperimenter demanded him to give the reason of his answer no matterwhether the answer was correct or not. In this paper, the experimentalresults are only partly reported. These results indicates that children's abilities tested with theexperimental items have a fair inter-correlation between them, andreactions of the same child to different items show a definite inter-consistency.
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    A RESEARCH ON THE LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY OF 4-9 YEARS OLD CHILDREN——Verifications of Some of Piaget's Experiments
    Lu Jing(Department of Psychology,Hangchou University)
    1981, 13 (01):  32-36. 
    Abstract ( 480 )  
    This paper seeks to verify Piaget's experiments in the acquisition ofconservation in children. The preliminary, results show (a) thedevelopmental process of the logical thinking in the acquisition ofconservation of the children from four to nine; and (b) that thedevelopmental levels of conservation of substance, weight and volumeof 4-9 years old children are almost similar, whereas in Piaget'sexperiments they were different.
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    SUMMARY OF A YEAR’S RESEARCH ON SUPERNORMAL CHILDREN
    The Cooperative Research Group of Supernormal Children
    1981, 13 (01):  37-43. 
    Abstract ( 442 )  
    This study has been a cooperative research work carried out withsimilar research program in fourteen distrects of our country. About 29subjects aged from 4 to 16 years old (18 boys and 11 girls)have beensurveyed. A variety of methods have been used, such as experiments,observations, interviews, personality inventory and performance rating etc. These children appear to be quite different from one another; someof them have read a lot in early age (often before their school age); someof them have showed special abilities in mathematics; and some have atalent for painting or poetry, etc. However, they still possess severalcommon characteristics, such as: (1) cognitive interests and strongintellectual curiosity; (2) keen perception and powers of observation; (3)a broad and high concentrated attention and unusual memory; (4) alertand initiative thinking) (5) self-confidence and perseverance, and so on.Because of such well-developed characteristics, some of these children havebeen allowed to start primary school learning earlier, at about 4-5 years;some of them skipped to junior high school at the age of 8-9 year andsome entered the university around fourteen. The preliminary results show: 1) It is clear that there are clearly intellectual deviations, and greatpotential for development among children. 2) It seems that almost all of these supernormal children have goodconditions for early-education. So we think supernormal is not simply aninnate, inherent endowment which only provides a possibility for develop-ment, and early-education transforms this possibility into actual supernormalresults. 3) It seems that some personality characteristics such as cognitiveinterests and perseverance etc. are very important factors which result insuperior achievement for these children. Some suggestions for further investigation has also been made in thispaper.
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    AN APPROACH TO THE OPTIMAL AGE OF THE RECOGNITIVE ABILITY——An Evaluation with the Signal Detection Theory
    Yang Zhi-liang,Ye Yi-qian,Zhu Pei-li,Gao Yue-mei,Li Min(Shanghai Normal University)(Shanghai Kindergartners School)
    1981, 13 (01):  44-54. 
    Abstract ( 809 )  
    The purpose of this study was to explore the problem of the best ageof the ability of recognition. Tested were eight age groups. each of whichconsisted of 24 subjects, with a total of 192 subjects in all. Three groupsof test materials used in the experiment were both concrete and abstractpictures, and words. The results show that the best age of recognizing concrete pictures iseleven and middle school students of 15 are the most powerful inrecognizing abstract pictures and words. In addition, we also came to know that the signal detection theoryhas many advantages in the research of memory.
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    A MEASUREMENT OF SKIN COLORS OF CHINESE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
    Lin Zhong-xian,Sun Xiu-yu,Ji Gui-ping,Peng Rui-xiang(Institute of Psychology. Academia Sinica)
    1981, 13 (01):  60-65. 
    Abstract ( 464 )  
    The skin colors of 548 Chinese children and youths aged from 3 to 17were measured by a colorimeter, tristimulus values (X. Y. Z) and chromaticitycoordinates (x.y) were obtained. The results show that the chromaticitycoordinates of average skin colors of Chinese children and youths arex=0.3828, y=0.3454; reflectance=26.0%; dominant wave length λd=590.2nmand excitation purity Pe=27.4%. The reflectance of skin of females ishigher than that of males in every age group and it decreases with age.The excitation purity of skin colors of females is somewhat lower than thatof males, and saturation of skin colors increases with age. Comparing thoseresults with that obtained for Chinese adults, this refectance is higher byabout 3%, saturation is lower by about 4% and the dominant wavelength is longer by about 0.9nm.
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    THE MEASUREMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FUZZINESS
    Ma Mou-chao(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1981, 13 (01):  66-77. 
    Abstract ( 449 )  
    The present work attempts to obtain evidence for the psychologicalreality of fuzzy sets and to apply fuzzy sets to psychological research. Usually, there are two types of characteristic curves in reacting tosuch psychological conceptualization as the size of egg namely classicalsets and fuzzy sets. If people's reaction uses a threshold-decision criterion,resulting curve is characterized by classical sets. And their S curvedistribution will support the general hypotheses for the psychologicalreality of fuzzy sets. Data obtained both from tests of eighty-four Ss, and the same testrepeated eighty-four times on the one subject demonstrated consistently thepsychological reality of fuzzy sets. It is of interest too that children's curve about size of egg is analogicto that of adults in shape, but the former is clearly to be displacing towardsmaller side of the axis, and that is probably relevant to their experiences. In the second experiment the same Ss were shown 19 lines different inlength and were given a list of 9 names in such terms as "very near","near","not far","not very far","neither far nor near","not near","not verynear","far" and"very far". The instructions were to select the term thatrepresented best what one believed it to be. Preliminary trials presentedevidence for certain operators and indicated psychological reality of"Modificator", but no "concentrator". Furthermore it is important that theZadeh's operation about'x is not very discrepant with the psychologicalmeaning which was elucidated by empirical data. The third experiment dealt chiefly with such questions as theapplication of fuzzy entropy to measurement of inference process fordifferent stages of age. It is shown that adopting nonprobabilistic entropyof information may clarify successfully the striking differences amongvarious individual intelligent levels.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE PERCEPTUAL CONFIGURATIONS OF CHINESE CONSONANTS
    Zhang Jia-lu,Qi Shi-qian,Lu Shi-nan(Institute of Acostics, Academia Sinica)
    1981, 13 (01):  78-87. 
    Abstract ( 529 )  
    Chinese consonant confusion matrices were obtained by means ofarticulation tests for natural syllables in several transmission conditions:low-pass or high-pass filtering with a masking noise, and passing througha numerical 2400 bits/sec vocoder. A MD-SCAL is used to analyze thesimilarities among Chinese consonants, and to test how well the space werepredicted by the traditional Chinese phonology. It has been found that theresults obtained for analogical and numerical transmission conditions arevery similar, so the configurations which are deduced from the confusionmatrices reflect the perceptual features of Chinese consonants. It is shownthat, the exceedingly important perceptual features of Chinese consonantswere interpreted as voicing, aspiration, frication and place (front/median/back) in the order of importance, they agree with traditional Chinesephonology, but the nasals and orals are not significantly contradictoryfeatures, it is different from some foreign languages.
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    A COMPARISON OF TWO MODES OF HAPTIC LENGTH PERCEPTION
    Wang Su(DePartment of Psychology, Peking University)
    1981, 13 (01):  88-94. 
    Abstract ( 540 )  
    Two modes of haptic length perception have been tested with themethod of constant stimuli:Thumb-index finger span (2F mode) andtouching of index finger along the surface of a wooden bar from one endto the other (1F mode). In addition to the DL, we also obtained d' and βaccording to the signal detection theory from the same data. In terms ofboth DL and d', the 2F mode is more accurate than the 1F mode. Theformer has lower DL and bigger d', while the latter has higher DL andsmaller d'. The DL data are consistent with d'. These two modes have nosignigicant difference in β. The results suggest that the two modes aredifferential not in the criterion of decision but in the sensitivity conditionedby the various ways of encoding in processing length information.
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    THE EFFECTS OF CHLORPROMAZINE ON EEG IN RHESUS MONKEYS
    Wu Qin-e,Guan Liu-chu,Liu Shan-xun(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1981, 13 (01):  95-101. 
    Abstract ( 465 )  
    The characteristics of EEG of different ages were studied on rhesusmonkeys (macacas rhesus). 16 animals (mixed malesand females) weredivided into three groups According to different ages, namely new born,immature and mature groups, The effects of chlorpromazine on EEG wereperfromed on 12 animals of them. The results are as follows: The frequencies of spontaneous potential on the EEG in the rhesusmonkeys vary at different ages. The frequency is increased and theamplitude is decreased as the animal's age advances. The driving response elicited by photic stimulation is quite evident in immature animals andsecondary evident in mature animals, and it has not been observed in newborn animals. Different changes of EEG in rhesus monkeys caused by chlorpromazinewere observed. The main characteristics of EEG present high voltages andslow waves. Immature monkeys suffered more effects than maturemonkeys. Chlorpromazine can improve the driving response elicited by photicstimulation.
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    THE EFFECTS OF LITHIUM SALT ON TRANSMITTERS OF MONOAMINES AND AMINOACIDS IN RAT BRAIN
    Shen Zheng,Siao Jian,Lin Shu-zhi,Wang Li-hua(Department of Psychology, Beijing University)
    1981, 13 (01):  102-108. 
    Abstract ( 769 )  
    The changes in brain transmitter contents of monoamines and aminoacids were studied with materials of 111 rats poisoned seriously by lithiumchloride. The result showed that when serum lithum level reached 2.67±0.9meq/L., and cerebellum lithium level reached 2.05±0.92meq/kg., DA and GAwere decreased while 5-HT, 5-HIAA and GABA were increased in thewhole brain (decerebellum) of the experimental group. So far as each areaof brain was concerned, DA was decreased, and 5-HIAA was increasedin Telencephalon; NE was decreased and 5-HT was in creased in Dience-phalon; 4 kinds of monoamines did not display obvious changes in the brainstem but GABA was increased in the whole of the three areas of the brain. The results seem to be supportive to the theory of monoamine aboutaffective disorders. It is possible that effect of lithium on brain is to regulatethe dynamic balance between indoleamines and catacholamines, not only tochange a certain single transmitter. This is not the unique and specificmechanism of lithum effect, because it also makes GABA increase in thewhole of the three areas of the brain, including brain stem.
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