Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (10) : 1105-1119     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01105
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Cognitive and emotional benefits of emotional dual dimension n-back training based on an APP
Dong-ni PAN1,2,Daotuan WANG3,Xue-bing LI1,2()
1 Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049, China
3 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Download: PDF(530 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

Audiovisual dual channel n-back training offers the ability to transfer to basic cognitive processes that are closely related to the working memory process. However, dual-channel training based on a computer is highly demanding for a training environment. Thus, it is not conducive to its application promotion. Moreover, emotional working memory training is developed to enhance the emotional control ability of individuals. Only negative material working memory training has been examined. Thus, the general problems of emotional working memory training have not been clarified. A new type of emotional dual dimension n-back training based on smartphone applications was designed in this study. The general applicability and emotional effects of emotion (both positive and negative) and neutral working memory training were examined through the design of a randomized controlled group.

This study developed an app based on n-back task, which is a visual single-channel with two dimensions. A total of 66 healthy college students (34 males and 32 females) participated in the experiment and were randomly divided into control, negative training, neutral training, and positive training groups. All participants were trained with their smartphones. Participants in the training groups must remember the Chinese characters and the position of the Chinese characters in the 3*3 matrix and make two independent n-back tasks on the characters and the position. In the neutral, positive, and negative training groups, the valences of Chinese characters were neutral, positive, and negative, respectively. The participants in the control group completed the digital parity task in an interface similar to a training task. Before and after the training session, participants were asked to complete the visual-spatial working memory task, running memory task, Stroop task, digital shifting task, emotion Stroop task, and a profile of mood states.

Short-term dual-dimension n-back training can make more progress on the visual space work memory task, running memory task, digital shifting task, and classic Stroop task than placebo training. These tasks test the working memory capacity, as well as the update, shift, and inhibit the function, and fully characterize the working memory of the whole picture. However, training based on different emotional materials did not vary greatly across the various types of transfer effects. Short-term training cannot transfer into the emotional Stroop task, which is unable to produce specific emotional control benefits.

The dual-dimensional n-back training app can produce a favorable basic cognitive transfer. This indicates that the cognitive training app has a wide application prospect, and the dual-dimensional training paradigm is worthy of improved employment. For the invisible emotional benefits of the emotional version of n-back training manifested that simply incorporate emotional material into the work memory task must be examined carefully in the future.

Keywords working memory training      dual n-back      transfer      emotional working memory      emotional working memory training      APP     
ZTFLH:  B842  
Issue Date: 23 August 2018
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Dong-ni PAN
Daotuan WANG
Xue-bing LI
Cite this article:   
Dong-ni PAN,Daotuan WANG,Xue-bing LI. Cognitive and emotional benefits of emotional dual dimension n-back training based on an APP[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(10): 1105-1119.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01105     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I10/1105
  
  
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 5.41 (0.99) 5.65 (0.98) 5.19 (0.87) 5.29 (1.47)
后测成绩 5.71 (1.21) 6.44 (1.03) 6.53 (0.90) 6.06 (1.29)
训练效果量 0.29 (1.13) 0.79 (1.28) 1.34 (0.83) 0.78 (0.75)
  
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 0.96 (0.09) 0.94 (0.06) 0.96 (0.06) 0.95 (0.06)
后测成绩 0.96 (0.06) 0.96 (0.04) 0.98 (0.03) 0.99 (0.02)
训练效果量 0 (0.12) 0.02 (0.05) 0.02 (0.04) 0.04 (0.05)
  
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 517 (118) 494 (144) 422 (154) 521 (116)
后测成绩 501 (167) 427 (174) 386 (135) 419 (83)
训练效果量 15 (171) 67 (84) 46 (121) 102 (132)
  
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 818 (81) 858 (122) 788 (162) 853 (104)
后测成绩 773 (64) 745 (88) 685 (143) 729 (84)
训练效果量 45 (47) 113 (92) 103 (115) 123 (117)
  
控制组 负性训练组 中性训练组 正性训练组
前测 后测 前测 后测 前测 后测 前测 后测
正性词 736 (53) 708 (56) 730 (78) 690 (80) 693 (79) 672 (77) 744 (67) 724 (62)
中性词 744 (69) 741 (53) 727 (74) 678 (56) 692 (68) 685 (82) 731 (47) 694 (65)
负性词 747 (61) 729 (77) 753 (76) 704 (82) 724 (82) 696 (92) 729 (64) 710 (76)
  
维度 控制组 负性训练组 中性训练组 正性训练组
增加的紧张 0.59 (1.97) 0.47 (5.65) -1.00 (3.72) -2.50 (3.65)
增加的愤怒 0.76 (3.91 ) 1.76 (7.28) 1.13 (6.56) -1.50 (2.50)
增加的疲劳 -0.06 (4.37 ) -0.12 (6.16) -0.81 (3.33) -1.13 (2.53)
增加的抑郁 0.41 (3.30 ) -0.06 (5.66) -0.56 (3.12) -2.00 (2.45)
增加的精力 0.12 (1.32) -0.06 (5.06) -1.75 (6.09) 0.94 (3.89)
增加的慌乱 -0.18 (1.85) 0.35 (3.86) -1.81 (2.54) -0.94 (3.23)
增加的自尊 0.18 (1.24) -0.06 (4.04) -0.13 (3.91) 0.88 (2.60)
  
[1] Anderson P .( 2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8( 2), 71-82.
pmid: 12638061 url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1076/chin.8.2.71.8724
[2] Ansari S .( 2015). The therapeutic potential of working memory training for treating mental disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(13), 481.
pmid: 4558973 url: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC4558973
[3] Arean P. A., Hallgren K. A., Jordan J. T., Gazzaley A., Atkins D. C., Heagerty P. J., & Anguera J. A . ( 2016). The use and effectiveness of mobile Apps for depression: Results from a fully remote clinical trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18( 2), e330.
[4] Au J., Sheehan E., Tsai N., Duncan G. J., Buschkuehl M., & Jaeggi S. M . ( 2015). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22( 2), 366-377.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-33288-001
[5] Baddeley A .( 2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4( 10), 829-839.
url: http://www.nature.com/articles/nrn1201
[6] Bartolic E. I., Basso M. R., Schefft B. K., Glauser T., & Titanic-Schefft M . ( 1999). Effects of experimentally- induced emotional states on frontal lobe cognitive task performance. Neuropsychologia, 37( 6), 677-683.
pmid: 10390029 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0028393298001237
[7] Clark C. M., Lawlor-Savage L., Goghari V. M . ( 2017). Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer. Behavioural Brain Research, 334( 15), 34-49.
pmid: 28750832 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166432817308653
[8] Cortese S., Ferrin M., Brandeis D., Buitelaar J. K., Daley D., Dittmann R. W., ... Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. .( 2015). Cognitive training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis of clinical and neuropsychological outcomes from randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54( 3), 164-174.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890856714008892
[9] Dahlin E., Neely A. S., Larsson A., Bäckman L., & Nyberg L . ( 2008). Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum. Science, 320( 5882), 1510-1512.
pmid: 18556560 url: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1155466
[10] Erk S., Kleczar A., & Walter H . ( 2007). Valence-specific regulation effects in a working memory task with emotional context. Neuroimage, 37( 2), 623-632.
pmid: 17570686 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1053811907004673
[11] Esmaeili M. T., Karimi M., Tabatabaie K. R., Moradi A., & Farahini N . ( 2011). The effect of positive arousal on working memory. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30( 1), 1457-1460.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1877042811021070
[12] Etkin A, Büchel C, & Gross J . ( 2015). The neural bases of emotion regulation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16( 11), 693-700.
pmid: 26481098 url: http://www.nature.com/articles/nrn4044
[13] Gao X., Zhou R. L., & Dong Y. Y . ( 2013) A research of the selective effects of positive emotion on verbal and spatial working memory. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21( 2), 175-179.
[13] [ 高鑫, 周仁来, 董云英 . ( 2013). 积极情绪对言语和空间工作记忆的选择性影响. 中国临床心理学杂志, 21( 2), 175-179.]
[14] Jaeggi S. M., Buschkuehl M., Jonides J., & Perrig W. J . ( 2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105( 19), 6829-6833.
url: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0801268105
[15] Jaeggi S. M., Buschkuehl M., Shah P., & Jonides J . ( 2014). The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Memory & Cognition, 42( 3), 464-480.
pmid: 24081919 url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13421-013-0364-z
[16] Jaeggi S. M., Schmid C., Buschkuehl M., & Perrig W. J . ( 2009). Differential age effects in load-dependent memory processing. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn, 16( 1), 80-102.
pmid: 18686052 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/18686052
[17] Jaeggi S. M., Studer-Luethi B., Buschkuehl M., Su Y. F., Jonides J., & Perrig W. J . ( 2010). The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning— implications for training and transfer. Intelligence, 38( 6), 625-635.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160289610001091
[18] Joormann J., Levens S. M., & Gotlib I. H . ( 2011). Sticky thoughts: depression and rumination are associated with difficulties manipulating emotional material in working memory. Psychological Science, 22( 8), 979-983.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797611415539
[19] Kim H. E., Hong Y. J., Kim M. K., Jung Y. H., Kyeong S., & Kim J. J . ( 2017). Effectiveness of self-training using the mobile-based virtual reality program in patients with social anxiety disorder. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 614-619.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0747563217302595
[20] Kim N. Y., Wittenberg E., & Nam C. S . ( 2017). Behavioral and neural correlates of executive function: interplay between inhibition and updating processes. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 378.
url: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnins.2017.00378/full
[21] Klingberg T .( 2009). The overflowing brain: Information overload and the limits of working memory. Publishers Weekly, 22( 5), 415-415.
[22] Klingberg T., Fernell E., Olesen P. J., Johnson M., Gustafsson P., Dahlström K., .. Westerberg H . ( 2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD--A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 177-186.
[23] Koch I .( 2005). Sequential task predictability in task switching. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12( 1), 107-112.
pmid: 15945203 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15945203
[24] Lavric A., Rippon G., & Gray J. R . ( 2003). Threat-evoked anxiety disrupts spatial working memory performance: an attentional account. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27( 5), 489-504.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.1023/A:1026300619569
[25] Lilienthal L., Tamez E., Shelton J. T., Myerson J., & Hale S . ( 2013). Dual n-back training increases the capacity of the focus of attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20( 1), 135-141.
pmid: 23184506 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23184506
[26] Liu C.L., &Zhou R.L . ( 2012). Effects of working memory training on cognition and brain plasticity. Advances in Psychological Science, 20( 7), 1003-1011.
[26] [ 刘春雷, 周仁来 . ( 2012). 工作记忆训练对认知功能和大脑神经系统的影响. 心理科学进展, 20( 7), 1003-1011.]
[27] Liu X. P., Wang Z. X., Chen X. C., & Zhang D. R . ( 2003). Subsystems in visual working memory. Acta Psychologiac Sinica, 35, 598-603.
[27] [ 刘晓平, 王兆新, 陈湘川, 张达人 . ( 2003). 视觉工作记忆中的子系统. 心理学报, 35( 5), 598-603.]
[28] MacLeod C., Rutherford E., Campbell L., Ebsworthy G., & Holker L . ( 2002). Selective attention and emotional vulnerability: Assessing the causal basis of their association through the experimental manipulation of attentional bias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111( 1), 107-123.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0021-843X.111.1.107
[29] Magnussen S., Greenlee M. W., & Thomas J. P . ( 1996). Parallel processing in visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 22( 1), 202-212.
pmid: 8742262 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-1523.22.1.202
[30] Melby-Lervåg S., &Hulme C . ( 2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Dev Psychol, 49( 2), 270-291.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0028228
[31] Melby- Lervåg M., Redick T. S., & Hulme C . ( 2016). Working memory training does not improve performance on measures of intelligence or other measures of “far transfer”: Evidence from a meta-analytic review. Perspect Psychol Sci, 11( 4), 512-534.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1745691616635612
[32] Mistler L. A., Ben-Zeev D., Carpenter-Song E., Brunette M. F., & Friedman M. J . ( 2017). Mobile mindfulness intervention on an acute psychiatric unit: Feasibility and acceptability study. JMIR Mental Health, 4( 3), e34.
[33] Morris N., &Jones D.M . ( 1990). Memory updating in working memory: The role of the central executive. British Journal of Psychology, 81( 2), 111-121.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/bjop.1990.81.issue-2
[34] Oh H., Park J., & Seo W . ( 2017). Development of an evidence-based intervention program for patients with mild cognitive impairment after stroke: A home-based, online cognitive rehabilitation program. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 33( 2), 140-151.
url: http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00013614-201704000-00010
[35] Onraedt T., & Koster E.H . ( 2014). Training working memory to reduce rumination. PLoS One, 9( 3), e90632.
pmid: 3940909 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/24595102
[36] Ostaszewski P., Green L., & Myerson J . ( 1998). Effects of inflation on the subjective value of delayed and probabilistic rewards. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5( 2), 324-333.l
url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/BF03212959
[37] Pan D.N., Li X.B .( 2017). Working memory training in mental disorders. Advances in Psychological Science, 25( 9), 1527-1543.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxdt201709009
[37] [ 潘东旎, 李雪冰 . ( 2017). 工作记忆训练在精神疾病中的应用. 心理科学进展, 25( 9), 1527-1543.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxdt201709009
[38] Pedullà L., Brichetto G., Tacchino A., Vassallo C., Zaratin P., Battaglia M. A., .. Bove M . ( 2016). Adaptive vs.non-adaptive cognitive training by means of a personalized App: a randomized trial in people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 13( 1), 88.
[39] Qi B., Bai X. J., & Sheng D. L . ( 2017). Stimuli and predictatility in task switching. Psychological Science,30( 1), 41-44.
[39] [ 齐冰, 白学军, 沈德立 . ( 2007). 材料类型和任务可预测性在任务转换中的作用. 心理科学, 30( 1), 41-44.]
[40] Redick T. S., Shipstead Z., Harrison T. L., Hicks K. L., Fried D. E., … Engle R. W . ( 2013). No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 142( 2), 359-379.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0029082
[41] Román F. J., García-Rubio M. J., Privado J., Kessel D., López-Martín S., Martínez K., .. Roberto C . ( 2015). Adaptive working memory training reveals a negligible effect of emotional stimuli over cognitive processing. Personality & Individual Differences, 74, 165-170.
[42] Roy M. J., Costanzo M. E., Highland K. B., Olsen C., Clayborne D., & Law W . ( 2017). An App a day keeps the doctor away: Guided education and training via smartphones in subthreshold post traumatic stress disorder. Cyberpsychology Behavior and Social Networking, 20( 8), 470-478.
url: http://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/cyber.2017.0221
[43] Salminen T., Kühn S., Frensch P. A., & Schubert T . ( 2016). Transfer after dual n-back training depends on striatal activation change. Journal of Neuroscience, 36( 39), 10198-10213.
url: http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2305-15.2016
[44] Sari B. A., Koster E. H. W., Pourtois G., & Derakshan N . ( 2016). Training working memory to improve attentional control in anxiety: A proof-of-principle study using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Biological Psychology, 121, 203-212.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301051115300570
[45] Schlosser D., Campellone T., Kim D., Truong B., Vergani S., Ward C., & Vinogradov S . ( 2016). Feasibility of PRIME: A cognitive neuroscience-informed mobile App intervention to enhance motivated behavior and improve quality of life in recent onset schizophrenia. JMIR Res Protoc, 5( 2), e77.
[46] Schmiedek F., L#x000f6;vdén M., & Lindenberger U . ( 2014). A task is a task is a task: putting complex span, n-back, and other working memory indicators in psychometric context. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1475.
[47] Schwaighofer M., Fischer F., & Bühner M . ( 2015). Does working memory training transfer? A meta-analysis including training conditions as moderators. Educational Psychologist, 50( 2), 138-166.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00461520.2015.1036274
[48] Schweizer S., Grahn J., Hampshire A., Mobbs D., & Dalgleish T . ( 2013). Training the emotional brain: improving affective control through emotional working memory training. Journal of Neuroscience, 33( 12), 5301-5311.
url: http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2593-12.2013
[49] Schweizer S., Hampshire A., & Dalgleish T . ( 2011). Extending brain-training to the affective domain: Increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training. PLoS One, 6( 9), e24372.
[50] Senn T. E., Espy K. A., & Kaufmann P. M . ( 2004). Using path analysis to understand executive function organization in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology,26( 1), 445-464.
pmid: 15276904 url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15326942dn2601_5
[51] Shackman A. J., Sarinopoulos I., Maxwell J. S., Pizzagalli D. A., Lavric A., & Davidson R. J . ( 2006). Anxiety selectively disrupts visuospatial working memory. Emotion,6( 1), 40-61.
pmid: 16637749 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/1528-3542.6.1.40
[52] Shi Z .( 2016). Working memory updating and training in test anxiety. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
[52] [ 史战 . ( 2016). 考试焦虑者工作记忆刷新功能的特征及矫治训练. (博士论文). 东南大学, 南京.]
[53] Shipstead Z., Redick T. S., & Engle R. W . ( 2010). Does working memory training generalize? Psychologica Belgica, 50(3-4), 245-276.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2010-21056-007
[54] Shipstead Z, Redick T. S, & Engle R. W . ( 2012). Is working memory training effective?. Psychological Bulletin, 138( 4), 628.
pmid: 22409508 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0027473
[55] Smyth M.M., &Scholey K.A . ( 1994). Interference in immediate spatial memory. Memory & Cognition, 22( 1), 1-13.
pmid: 8035679 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1994-43920-001
[56] Song H.K .( 2011). The evolution and application of N-back paradigm. Journal of Southwest University (Social Sciences Edition)( s1), 81-82.
[56] [ 宋宏珂 . ( 2011). N-back范式的演变与应用. 西南大学学报(社会科学版) ( s1), 81-82.]
[57] Soveri A., Antfolk J., Karlsson L., Salo B., & Laine M . ( 2017). Working memory training revisited: A multi-level meta-analysis of n-back training studies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24( 4), 1077-1096.
pmid: 28116702 url: http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13423-016-1217-0
[58] Soveri A., Karlsson E. P. A., Waris O., Gronholm-Nyman P., & Laine M . ( 2017). Pattern of near transfer effects following working memory training with a dual n-back task. Experimental Psychology, 64( 4), 240-252.
url: https://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/10.1027/1618-3169/a000370
[59] Stroop J.R . ( 1992). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 121( 1), 15-23.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-3445.121.1.15
[60] Szmalec A., Verbruggen F., Vandierendonck A., & Kemps E . ( 2011). Control of interference during working memory updating. Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance, 37( 1), 137-151.
[61] Takeuchi H., Taki Y., Rui N., Hashizume H., Sekiguchi A., Kotozaki Y., .. Kawashima R . ( 2013). Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8, 200.
pmid: 4199268 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4199268/
[62] von Bastian, C. C., &Eschen A . ( 2016). Does working memory training have to be adaptive?. Psychological Research, 80( 2), 181-194.
pmid: 25716189 url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00426-015-0655-z
[63] von Bastian, C. C., &Oberauer K .( 2014). Effects and mechanisms of working memory training: A review. Psychological Research, 78( 6), 803-820.
pmid: 24213250 url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00426-013-0524-6
[64] de Voogd E. L., Wiers R. W., Zwitser R. J., & Salemink E . ( 2016). Emotional working memory training as an online intervention for adolescent anxiety and depression: A randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Psychology, 68( 3), 228-238.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ajpy.12134
[65] Waddell J., &Mooney S.M . ( 2017). Choline and working memory training improve cognitive deficits caused by prenatal exposure to ethanol. Nutrients, 9( 10), 1080.
[66] Wang Y. N., Zhou L. M., & Luo Y. J . ( 2008). The pilot establishment and evaluation of Chinese affective words system. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22( 8), 608-612.
[66] [ 王一牛, 周立明, 罗跃嘉 . ( 2008). 汉语情感词系统的初步编制及评定. 中国心理卫生杂志, 22( 8), 608-612.]
[67] Wanmaker S., Geraerts E., &Franken I. H. A .( 2015). A working memory training to decrease rumination in depressed and anxious Individuals: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 310-319.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165032714008131
[68] Weicker J., Villringer A., & Thone-Otto A . ( 2016). Can impaired working memory functioning be improved by training? A Meta-Analysis with a special focus on brain injured patients. Neuropsychology, 30( 2), 190-212.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/neu0000227
[69] Williams J. M. G., Mathews A., & Macleod C . ( 1996). The emotional stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 120( 1), 3-24.
pmid: 8711015 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.3
[70] Xiu L., Zhou R., & Jiang Y . ( 2016). Working memory training improves emotion regulation ability: Evidence from HRV. Physiology & Behavior, 155, 25-29.
pmid: 26679738 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679738
[71] Zhao X., &Zhou R.L .( 2011) Sub-function evaluation method of central executive system in working memory. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19( 6), 748-752.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zglcxlxzz201106011
[71] [ 赵鑫, 周仁来 . ( 2011). 工作记忆中央执行系统不同子功能评估方法. 中国临床心理学杂志, 19( 6), 748-752.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zglcxlxzz201106011
[72] Zhong Y. P., Sun Y. A., & Zhang J . ( 2007). The emotional stroop effect: Evidence from Chinese characters. Psychological Science, 30( 4), 778-781.
[72] [ 钟毅平, 孙羽中, 张杰 . ( 2007). 情绪Stroop效应:来自汉字的证据. 心理科学, 30( 4), 778-781.]
[73] Zhu B.L . ( 1995). Brief introduction of POMS scale and its model for China. Journal of Tianjin Institute of Physical Education, 10( 1), 35-37.
[73] [ 祝蓓里 . ( 1995). POMS量表及简式中国常模简介. 天津体育学院学报, 10( 1), 35-37]
[1] Hui DAI, Chuanlin ZHU, Dianzhi LIU. Is implicit knowledge abstract? Evidence from implicit sequence learning transfer[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(9): 965-974.
[2] Xiaolei SONG, Yangyang LI, Qian YANG, Xuqun YOU. The influence of different status of the observer’s responding hands on observational learning in the joint task[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(9): 975-984.
[3] Wumei LIU,Liang LEI,Zhiyuan LI,Yun SU,Xiaozhi HUANG. Touch or not touch? Prior touch facilitates consumers’ adoption of new products[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 782-792.
[4] Lu LIU,Guoli YAN. Effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading: Evidence from disappearing text[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 715-726.
[5] YANG Qingqing, HU Na, CHEN Xu, NIU Juan, ZHAI Jing.  Electrophysiological evidences of different emotional regulation strategies between the avoidant and the secure attachment individuals in the context of lovers, intimacy[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(3): 306-316.
[6] TAO Aihua, LIU Yonghe, WANG Pei.  Moderating effects of conflict types on disappointment in interpersonal conflict[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(2): 235-242.
[7] LI Meijia, ZHUANG Danqi, PENG Huamao. The role of surface and structural similarity in analogical reasoning aging: Based on the problem-solving paradigm[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(11): 1282-1291.
[8] Heng LI,Yu CAO. The influence of temporal focus on implicit space-time mappings on the front-back axis: Evidence from Han and Qiang Chinese[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(10): 1083-1093.
[9] ZHU Zude, DUAN Yixing, WANG Suiping.  The baseline fluid intelligence modulated the transfer effect from working memory to fluid intelligence[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(8): 1022-1030.
[10] LIU Zhifang, ZHANG Zhijun, PAN Yun, TONG Wen, SU Heng.  The characteristics of visual word encoding in preview and fixation frames during Chinese reading: Evidences from disappearing text[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(7): 853-865.
[11] YUN Yifei, LIU Xiping, CHEN Shiping.  The role of emotions in crisis news framing and corporate crisis response[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(6): 814-828.
[12] ZHANG Shanshan; CHEN Nan; LIU Hongyun. LGM-based analyses with missing data: Comparison between ML method and Diggle-Kenward selection model[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(5): 699-710.
[13] DONG Shuyang; LIANG Xi; ZHANG Ying; WANG Zhengyan. Maternal positive parenting behaviors and toddler’s compliance: Prediction from maternal sensitivity in infancy and bidirectional effects of autonomy encouragement in toddlerhood[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(4): 460-471.
[14] ZHU Huawei; ZHANG Yanyan; GONG Xuan. Does company’s humor resolve consumer complaining: The match of humor types and relationship norms[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(4): 526-538.
[15] ZHANG Qilin; ZHOU Yimeng. Work and happiness of the newly retired in urban China[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(4): 472-481.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech