Please wait a minute...
   2011, Vol. 43 Issue (08) : 898-906     DOI:
|
Cognitive Appraisal Influences Negative Emotion Experience and Physiological Activity
YUAN Lin;PENG Ming;LIU Dan-Wei;ZHOU Ren-Lai
(1Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology (Beijing Normal University), Beijing 100875, China)
(2State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neurosciences and Learning (Beijing Normal University), Beijing 100875, China)
Download: PDF(358 KB)  
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  To control negative emotion entails avoiding the harmful influences of bad mood, which may influence attention, memory, subjective and physical well-being, etc. Developing effective methods of negative emotion regulation are critical in improving mental health. The study of cognitive appraisal has been the recent focus of this pursuit. Cognitive appraisal is defined as a type of cognitive regulation that may eliminate negative feelings. While much evidence of cognitive appraisal has been reported, the studies often used inappropriate instructions and hence caused a confounding effect due to uncontrollable cognitive activity. For example, some researchers explicitly asked participants to try to reduce their emotional intensity by using reappraisal. As a result, participants would use unnecessary cognitive activities to decrease emotion, leading to the artificial inflation of appraisal effect. In this study, an improved method was used to solve this problem and probe only the function of appraisal on negative emotion.
Three pieces of films, the length of which were all about six minutes, were chosen to elicit emotion. According to the emotional valence ratings, one of them was neutral while the other two were negative. Thirty-seven participants for the main experiment were instructed to watch the films with two physiological indexes being recorded: GSR (Galvanic Skin Reflex) and ECG (Electrocardiography). Before and after each film, the participants were asked to rest for four minutes. A rating for their current mood was also made before and after the clips. Different from previous studies, two distinct appraisals were given to two participant groups before the second negative film started, both asked the participants to watch the films naturally. Nineteen of the participants were told the actors’ own stories and emphasized they just “performed”. The rest, as a control group, were told the content in the film. At the end of the experiment, all participants were asked if they thought the film was fabled when watching the last clip to assess whether the appraisal background influenced their cognition of the film.
The results indicated that only GSR and self emotion rating reflected emotional activity differences between the two groups. Analysis of covariance with the GSR level of the first rest as covariant indicated that the GSR level in the actors-appraisal group was lower than that in the control group when watching the second negative film. However, during the first two films, there were no differences between these two groups. On the other hand, analysis of covariance with the self report before the first rest as covariant indicated that the negative experience of actors–appraisal group was lower than that of the control group when watching the second negative film. During the first two films, there were no such differences. The change of GSR and negative experience, as anticipated, indicated that appraisal decreased physiological reaction to negative emotion.
To sum up, people with the knowledge that the emotional stimulus was fabled showed more peaceful physiological activity along with lower negative emotion rating. These results indicate the effect of appraisal on emotion.
Keywords negative emotion      cognitive appraisal      galvanic skin response      heart rate     
Corresponding Authors: ZHOU Ren-Lai   
Issue Date: 30 August 2011
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
YUAN Lin
PENG Ming
LIU Dan-Wei
ZHOU Ren-Lai
Cite this article:   
YUAN Lin,PENG Ming,LIU Dan-Wei, et al. Cognitive Appraisal Influences Negative Emotion Experience and Physiological Activity [J]. , 2011, 43(08): 898-906.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/      OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2011/V43/I08/898
[1] XIA Ruixue;ZHOU Aibao;LI Shifeng;XU Kepeng;REN Deyun;ZHU Jing. The Moderating Effect of Perspective Taking in Implicit Emotional Processing[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(8): 1094-1102.
[2] DING Ruyi; ZHOU Hui; LIN Ma. Cognitive Appraisal Basis of Gratitude[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(10): 1463-1475.
[3] WANG Mingzhong;FAN Cuiying;ZHOU Zongkui;CHEN Wu. Parental Conflict Affects Adolescents' Depression and Social Anxiety: Based on Cognitive-contextual and Emotional Security Theories[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(1): 90-100.
[4] HUANG Jing,TONG Ze-Lin,ZHANG You-Heng,ZHANG Xiao-Juan. Effect of Negative Emotions and Persuasion Strategies on Brand Relationship Restoration[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2012, 44(8): 1114-1123.
[5] WANG Qin,BAI Xue-Jun,GUO Long-Jian,SHEN De-Li. The Effect of Suppressing Negative Emotion on Economic Decision-making[J]. , 2012, 44(5): 690-697.
[6] WANG Yu-Qing;LONG Li-Rong;ZHOU Hao. Organizational Injustice Perception and Workplace Deviance: Mechanisms of Negative Emotion and Traditionality[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2012, 44(12): 1663-1676.
[7] JIN Yi-Xiang,LUO Yue-Jia. The Mere Exposure Effect of Neutral Words and Negative Words[J]. , 2011, 43(07): 739-748.
[8] YANG Juan,HOU Yan,YANG Yu,ZHANG Qing-Lin. Impact of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on Salivary Cortisol Secretion[J]. , 2011, 43(04): 403-409.
[9] BAI Xue-Jun, ZHU Zhao-Hong, SHEN De-Li, LIU Nan. Autonomic Nervous Arousal and Behavioral Response of Punishment and Reward in Extroverts and Introverts[J]. , 2009, 41(06): 492-500.
[10] DU Jian-Gang,FAN Xiu-Cheng. Multiple Emotional Contagions and Its Dynamic Impact on Consumer’s Negative Emotion under Service Encounters[J]. , 2009, 41(04): 346-356.
[11] Zhang Wencai,Yan Kele,Lu Yunqing,zhang Di,Hong Jie,Yuan Lizhuang,Zhang Yuejuan. The Effect of Different Psychological Stressors
on Responses of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
[J]. , 2007, 39(02): 285-291.
[12] Ye Haihui, Wang Zhengping, Xie Xing. THE RESPONSES OF TERM FETUSES TO DIFFERENT ACOUSTIC STIMULATIONS[J]. , 2005, 37(01): 62-66.
[13] Feng Wenbo, Zhang Ping, Yan Kele, Dai Jinghua. EFFECTS OF COPING ON HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, FINGER TEMPERATURE OF TYPE A AND B BEHAVIORAL UNDERGRADUATES[J]. , 2005, 37(01): 113-121.
[14] Wang Jianping,Lin Xiuyun,Wu Hao,Qu Wenyan. THE MOOD STATE OF PAID BLOOD DONORS WITH HIV AND ITS RELATION TO STRESS AND COGNITIVE APPRAISAL[J]. , 2005, 37(01): 106-112.
[15] Guo Meiying, Yan Kele, Shang Zhien (College of Educational Science, Hebei Normal University,Shijiazhang 050016). EFFECTS OF RELAXATION TRAINING AND ABDOMINAL BREATHING ON T-WAVE AND HEART RATE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS UNDER STRESS[J]. , 2002, 34(04): 96-100.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech