Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, Vol. 52 Issue (6) : 730-741     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00730
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Lexical tone perception mechanism in 2- to 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in the pre-attention stage
YANG Wanqing, XIAO Rong, LIANG Dandan()
School of Chinese Language and Culture, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China
Download: PDF(1479 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

Lexical tones are a key component of tonal language. The accurate perception of different Mandarin lexical tones is essential for Mandarin-speaking children to process spoken Chinese. Previous studies based on the speech perception model of nontonal language proposed perceptual narrowing theory, while later studies indicated that the perception of lexical tones might be more complicated. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are an effective tool that can investigate Mandarin-speaking children's implicit perception of lexical tones. Some studies targeting children's speech perception have demonstrated that mismatch responses (MMRs, including MMN and p-MMR) indicate the development of phonetic representation. Moreover, these studies have provided empirical evidence in this field. However, ages between 2 and 4 years old needs to be explored empirically. The current study used MMN and p-MMR as the neural correlates of lexical tone perception of Mandarin in the pre-attention stage and investigated the development of lexical tone processing mechanisms in 2- to 4-year-old children. In addition, we paid attention to the influence of category information and the size of the deviance at the acoustic level.

Sixteen 2- to 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children (7 boys and 9 girls; mean age: 3.4 years old; range: 2.6 - 3.10 years old) were recruited in this study. The study used the oddball paradigm and designed two experiments: Experiment 1 investigated the mismatch responses in across-category lexical tone perception in the participants. The stimuli consisted of three syllables: /yi1/ (T1), /yi2/ (T2), and /yi3/ (T3). T3 was assigned as the standard; T1 was assigned as the large deviant; T2 was the small deviant. This experiment investigated how the deviance size affects children's perception of different lexical tones in the across-category condition. Experiment 2 investigated the mismatch responses of the participants to the perception of tones in the same category and were designated yi3a (T3a) and yi3b (T3b) within the category. These tones have the same phonological information but differ from the standard T3 stimulus in the acoustic information (based on the frequency and contour). The distances between T3a & T3 and T3b & T3 were modulated in Praat to control the distances of T1 & T3 and T2 & T3, respectively. This experiment detected the influence of the degree of similarity on the acoustic information on lexical tone perception without changing the category information.

The results of the EEG data showed that (1) only the across-category large-deviance pair (T1/T3) elicited an obvious MMN response, indicating that 2- to 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children can distinguish tones with obvious category boundaries in the pre-attention stage; (2) the across-category small-deviance pair (T2/T3) and the two kinds of within-category deviations (T3a/T3; T3b/T3) achieved the same data performance: no significant MMN or p-MMR was elicited. However, the internal mechanisms of these two conditions are different. The former may indicate that 2- to 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children are in the period of transition from p-MMR to MMN. The latter may reflect that children have established a lexical tone category, and due to their immature perception ability, it is impossible for them to distinguish the differences among within-category lexical tones.

In summary, the current study has filled the age gap in the relevant lexical tone perception neural mechanism research and has revealed what is crucial to children's lexical tone neural mechanism of perception development. Moreover, this research has identified the size difference between isometric across-category stimulation with within-category stimulation, which innovatively provides a reference for future research. The conclusion indicates that 2- to 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children are in the period of lexical tone category formation. In the pre-attention stage, the obvious category boundary of lexical tones can be distinguished accurately. For the inconspicuous category boundaries of lexical tones, the neural mechanism is transforming from p-MMR to MMN. The magnitude of the deviance does not affect lexical tone perception within the same category.

Keywords Mandarin-speaking children      lexical tone perception      the categories of lexical tones      size of deviant     
PACS:  B844  
  B842  
Corresponding Authors: Dandan LIANG     E-mail: ldd233@163.com
Issue Date: 22 April 2020
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Wanqing YANG
Rong XIAO
Dandan LIANG
Cite this article:   
Wanqing YANG,Rong XIAO,Dandan LIANG. Lexical tone perception mechanism in 2- to 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in the pre-attention stage[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(6): 730-741.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00730     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2020/V52/I6/730
年龄 T1/T3 T2/T3
新生儿组(出生13天内) p-MMR 无MMRs
6月龄组(6个月15天内) MMN p-MMR
12月龄组(11; 22~12; 14) MMN p-MMR
18月龄组(17; 25~18; 17) MMN p-MMR
24月龄组(24; 1~24; 18) MMN 无MMRs
3岁 未知 未知
4岁组(4; 1~4; 11) MMN 弱p-MMR或无MMRs
5岁组(5; 0~5; 11) MMN p-MMR或无MMRs
6岁组(6; 0~6; 11) MMN p-MMR或无MMRs
  
  
  
  
  
电极 T1 T3 T1-T3 t(15) p Cohen’s d
F3 -0.65 (2.44) 1.34 (2.12) -1.99 (3.33) -2.39 0.031* -0.87
Fz -1.53 (3.71) 1.87 (2.01) -3.40 (4.08) -3.33 0.005* -1.14
F4 -1.47 (3.63) 1.62 (1.97) -3.09 (4.44) -2.78 0.014* -1.06
C3 -1.53 (3.18) 0.99 (1.69) -2.52 (3.84) -2.622 0.019* -0.99
Cz -2.22 (4.71) 1.17 (1.47) -3.39 (5.82) -2.33 0.034* -0.97
C4 -1.58 (3.73) 1.25 (1.84) -2.83 (4.56) -2.483 0.025* -0.96
  
电极 T2 T3 T2-T3 t(15) p Cohen’s d
F3 0.81 (4.00) 1.34 (2.12) -0.53 (4.04) -0.53 0.606 -0.16
Fz 1.68 (3.71) 1.86 (2.01) -0.18 (3.56) -0.20 0.844 -0.06
F4 0.59 (3.82) 1.62 (1.97) -1.03 (3.56) -1.12 0.266 -0.34
C3 0.46 (3.54) 0.99 (1.69) -0.53 (3.75) -0.57 0.575 -0.19
Cz 0.76 (3.57) 1.17 (1.47) -0.41 (4.05) -0.41 0.687 -0.15
C4 -0.10 (3.68) 1.25 (1.85) -1.35 (4.49) -1.20 0.248 -0.46
  
  
电极 T3a T3 T3a-T3 t p Cohen’s d
F3 1.77 (2.88) 1.18 (2.34) 0.59 (2.23) 1.05 0.309 0.22
Fz 1.25 (3.65) 1.03 (1.92) 0.22 (3.23) 0.28 0.786 0.08
F4 1.87 (3.58) 1.13 (2.63) 0.74 (2.92) 1.03 0.322 0.24
C3 0.78 (2.15) 0.66 (1.37) 0.12 (2.39) 0.20 0.844 0.07
Cz 1.01 (2.76) 1.66 (1.91) -0.65 (3.56) -0.73 0.476 -0.27
C4 1.04 (3.19) 0.86 (1.52) 0.18 (3.17) 0.22 0.827 0.07
  
电极 T3b T3 T3b-T3 t p Cohen’s d
F3 1.36 (2.25) 1.18 (2.34) 0.18 (1.89) 0.38 0.713 0.08
Fz 1.43 (2.54) 1.03 (1.92) 0.40 (1.64) 0.99 0.339 0.18
F4 1.86 (2.28) 1.13 (2.63) 0.73 (2.05) 1.43 0.173 0.30
C3 1.05 (2.11) 0.66 (1.37) 0.39 (1.59) 0.99 0.340 0.22
Cz 1.68 (3.20) 1.66 (1.91) 0.02 (2.12) 0.04 0.970 0.01
C4 1.09 (1.36) 0.87 (1.52) 0.22 (1.34) 0.67 0.515 0.15
  
  
电极 T2-T3 t(15) p Cohen’s d
F3 0.45 (3.38) 0.55 0.59 0.19
Fz 1.32 (3.43) 1.59 0.13 0.54
F4 0.81 (3.27) 1.02 0.32 1.12
C3 0.04 (2.89) 0.05 0.96 0.02
Cz 1.08 (3.95) 1.12 0.28 0.39
C4 0.21 (2.78) 0.31 0.76 0.11
  
  
电极 T3a-T3 t p Cohen’s d
F3 1.13 (2.73) 1.65 0.119 0.56
Fz 0.68 (3.15) 0.87 0.398 0.31
F4 0.24 (2.62) 0.37 0.717 0.13
C3 0.34 (2.35) 0.58 0.569 0.20
Cz 0.14 (3.97) 0.14 0.890 0.50
C4 0.13 (2.62) 0.02 0.984 0.07
  
电极 T3b-T3 t p Cohen’s d
F3 0.39 (3.07) 0.51 0.617 0.18
Fz 1.26 (3.18) 1.58 0.136 0.56
F4 1.19 (2.57) 1.85 0.084 0.65
C3 0.58 (2.18) 1.06 0.307 0.38
Cz 1.43 (3.21) 1.79 0.094 0.63
C4 0.85 (2.33) 1.46 0.164 0.52
  
  
范畴间大偏差 范畴间小偏差 范畴内大偏差 范畴内小偏差
F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz
-0.05 -0.53 -0.25 -0.34 -0.29 -0.47 0.08 0.14 0.14 0.19 0.08 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.17 0.24 0.07 -0.23 0.17 0.22 0.12 0.07 0.16 0.11
  
范畴间大偏差 范畴间小偏差 范畴内大偏差 范畴内小偏差
F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz F3 F4 C3 C4 Fz Cz
-0.17 0.14 -0.21 -0.06 -0.16 -0.28 -0.19 -0.17 -0.26 -0.36 -0.25 -0.32 -0.32 -0.06 -0.44 -0.43 -0.22 -0.40 -0.14 -0.08 -0.24 0.38 -0.18 -0.16
  
失匹配响
应成分
范畴间刺激 范畴内刺激
T1/T3 T2/T3 T3a/T3 T3b/T3
MMN 显著 不显著 不显著 不显著
p-MMR 不显著 不显著 不显著
  
[1] Blicher, D. L., Diehl, R. L., & Cohen, L. B . (1990). Effects of syllable duration on the perception of the Mandarin tone 2/tone 3 distinction: Evidence of auditory enhancement. Journal of Phonetics, 18(1), 37-49.
[2] Chandrasekaran, B., Krishnan, A., & Gandour, J. T . (2007). Mismatch negativity to pitch contours is influenced by language experience. Brain Research, 1128, 148-156.
[3] Cheng, Y. Y., & Lee, C. Y . (2018). The development of mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tone in 12-to 24-month-old infants. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 448-459.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00448 url: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00448/full
[4] Cheng, Y. Y., Wu, H. C., Tzeng, Y. L., Yang, M. T., Zhao, L. L., & Lee, C. Y . (2013). The development of mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones in early infancy. Developmental Neuropsychology, 38(5), 281-300.
doi: 10.1080/87565641.2013.799672 url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2013.799672
[5] He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J . (2007). Mismatch responses to pitch changes in early infancy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(5), 878-892.
[6] He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J . (2009a). Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(4), 861-867.
[7] He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J . (2009b). Maturation of cortical mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: Effects of presentation rate and magnitude of change. Neuropsychologia, 47(1), 218-229.
[8] Hua, Z . (2002). Phonological development in specific contexts: studies of Chinese-speaking children. Child language and development. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 12.1-12.5.
[9] Kaan, E., Wayland, R., Bao, M., & Barkley, C. M . (2007). Effects of native language and training on lexical tone perception: An event-related potential study. Brain Research, 1148, 113-122.
[10] Kuo, Y. C., Lee, C. Y., Chen, M. C., Liu, T. L., & Cheng, S. K . (2014). The impact of spectral resolution on the mismatch response to mandarin Chinese tones: An ERP study of cochlear implant simulations. Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(8), 1568-1575.
[11] Kushnerenko, E., Ceponiene, R., Balan, P., Fellman, V., & Näätänen, R . (2002). Maturation of the auditory change detection response in infants: A longitudinal ERP study. Neuroreport, 13(15), 1843-1848.
[12] Lee, C. Y., Yen, H. L., Yeh, P. W., Lin, W. H., Cheng, Y. Y., Tzeng, Y. L., & Wu, H. C . (2012). Mismatch responses to lexical tone, initial consonant, and vowel in Mandarin- speaking preschoolers. Neuropsychologia, 50(14), 3228-3239.
[13] Ma, W., Zhou, P., Singh, L., & Gao, L . (2017). Spoken word recognition in young tone language learners: Age- dependent effects of segmental and suprasegmental variation. Cognition, 159, 139-155.
[14] Morr, M. L., Shafer, V. L., Kreuzer, J. A., & Kurtzberg, D . (2002). Maturation of mismatch negativity in typically developing infants and preschool children. Ear and Hearing, 23(2), 118-136.
[15] Näätänen, R., Paavilainen, P., Rinne, T., & Alho, K . (2007). The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: A review. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(12), 2544-2590.
[16] Sun, Q . (2016). ERP study on pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones in adults and young children (Unpublished Master's dissertation). Liaoning Normal University.
[16] [ 孙琪 . (2016). 汉语声调加工的ERP研究 (硕士学位论文). 辽宁师范大学. ]
[17] Trainor, L. J., Samuel, S. S., Desjardins, R. N., & Sonnadara, R. R . (2001). Measuring temporal resolution in infants using mismatch negativity. Neuroreport, 12(11), 2443-2448.
[18] Tsao, F. M . (2017). Perceptual improvement of lexical tones in infants: Effects of tone language experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 558.
[19] Wang, X. D., Wang, M., & Chen, L . (2013). Hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones: Dependence on pitch level and pitch contour. Neuropsychologia, 51(11), 2238-2244.
doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.07.015 url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.07.015
[20] Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C . (1984). Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 7(1), 49-63.
[21] Winkler, I . (2007). Interpreting the mismatch negativity. Journal of Psychophysiology, 21(3-4), 147-163.
[22] Wong, P., Schwartz, R. G., & Jenkins, J. J . (2005). Perception and production of lexical tones by 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48(5), 1065-1079.
[23] Xi, J., Zhang, L., Shu, H., Zhang, Y., & Li, P . (2010). Categorical perception of lexical tones in Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity. Neuroscience, 170(1), 223-231.
[24] Yang, Y. F. (Ed).(2016). Rating scales for children’s developmental behavior and mental health. Beijing, China: People's Medical Publishing House.
[24] [ 杨玉凤 (编). (2016). 儿童发育行为心理评定量表. 北京: 人民卫生出版社.]
[25] Yu, K., Wang, R., Li, L., & Li, P . (2014). Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(3), 729.
[26] Yu, K., Zhou, Y., Li, L., Su, J. A., Wang, R., & Li, P . (2017). The interaction between phonological information and pitch type at pre-attentive stage: An ERP study of lexical tones. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 32(9), 1164-1175.
doi: 10.1080/23273798.2017.1310909 url: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23273798.2017.1310909
[1] HE Xiaoli, YUAN Xiaolong, HU Ming, ZHOU Lichen. The association between parental meta philosophy and adolescent’s behavior problem: The moderating role of vagus[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(8): 971-981.
[2] CAO Xiancai, WANG Dahua, WANG Yan. The effects of episodic simulation on expected responsiveness of partner and attachment security[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(8): 982-992.
[3] LEI Yi, XIA Qi, MO Zhifeng, LI Hong. The attention bias effect of infant face: The mechanism of cuteness and familiarity[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(7): 811-822.
[4] CHANG Shumin, GUO Mingyu, WANG Jingmin, WANG Lingxiao, ZHANG Wenxin. The influence of school assets on the development of well-being during early adolescence: Longitudinal mediating effect of intentional self-regulation[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(7): 874-885.
[5] YAO Yao,CHEN Xiaoxiang. The effects of music training on categorical perception of Mandarin tones in 4- to 5-year-old children[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(4): 456-468.
[6] ZHAO Xin,LI Hongli,JIN Ge,LI Shifeng,ZHOU Aibao,LIANG Wenjia,GUO Hongxia,CAI Yaya. Effects of phonological memory and central executive function on decoding, language comprehension of children in different grades[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(4): 469-484.
[7] CHEN Ximei,LUO Yijun,CHEN Hong. Friendship quality and adolescents’ intuitive eating: A serial mediation model and the gender difference[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(4): 485-496.
[8] HE Xiaoling,CHEN Jun. Cognitive development of multiple metaphors of power concepts in 3~5 year-old children[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(2): 149-161.
[9] WANG Yan,HOU Bowen,LIU Wenjin. The influence of parent-child relationship and “good resource” on unmarried males’ unrestricted sociosexual attitudes[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(2): 207-215.
[10] CHANG Shumin,ZHANG Liya,WANG Lingxiao. The cumulative effects and relationship model of developmental assets used to reduce adolescent externalizing behaviors[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(11): 1244-1255.
[11] CAO Yanmiao, ZHANG Wenxin. The influence of dopaminergic genetic variants and maternal parenting on adolescent depressive symptoms: A multilocus genetic study[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(10): 1102-1115.
[12] JIN Xinyi,ZHOU Bingxin,MENG Fei. Level 2 visual perspective-taking at age 3 and the corresponding effect of cooperation[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(9): 1028-1039.
[13] WANG Ting,ZHI Fengying,LU Yutong,ZHANG Jijia. Effect of Dong Chorus on the executive function of Dong high school students[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(9): 1040-1056.
[14] WANG Meiping,ZHENG Xiaojie,XIA Guizhi,LIU Didi,CHEN Pian,ZHANG Wenxin. Association between negative life events and early adolescents’ depression: The moderating effects of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met polymorphism and parenting behavior[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(8): 903-913.
[15] ZHAO Xin,JIA Lina,ZHOU Aibao. Congruency sequence effects in 9~10-year-old children and young adults[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(8): 914-923.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech