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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, Vol. 52 Issue (3) : 294-306     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00294
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Empathy for pain in Individuals with autistic traits influenced by attention cues: Evidence from an ERP study
LI Xiong1,2,LI Zuoshan2,XIANG Binyang2,MENG Jing1,2()
1 Chongqing Research Institute of Curriculum and Instruction, School of Education, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China
2 Key Laboratory of Applied Psychology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China
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Abstract  

Previous studies have found that the behavioral patterns of individuals with autistic traits are similar to those of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). That is, individuals with autistic traits show the impairment of empathy in daily life, but the severity of such impairment is not enough to meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for ASD. The similar behaviors between the two mean that studying individuals with autistic traits can help us understand the empathy characteristics of ASD. At present, the results of studies on the empathy for pain of autistic individuals are not consistent. It is possible that attention cues and specific face processing affect their empathy processing.
Therefore, in this study, pictures of painful faces were used as stimulus materials, and the event-related potentials (ERP) technique was adopted to explore the effect of attention cues on the pain empathy processing in autistic individuals. The study randomly selected 30 healthy undergraduates (15 males) as the autistic trait group, and 30 healthy undergraduates (16 males) as the control group. The experiment, based on three-factor mixed design (2×2×2), included two tasks: 1) Pain judgment task: The subjects were required to judge whether there was pain in the pictures of the painful faces (with a needle in the cheek) and the pictures of the non-painful faces (touched gently with a cotton swab), where the subjects' attention was directed to the pain cues. 2) Attractiveness judgment task: The subjects were required to judge whether the faces were attractive or unattractive, where the subjects' attention did not point to the pain cues. EEG during the observation of pictures under different experiment tasks was recorded by a 64-channel amplifier using a standard 10-20 system (Brain Products).
The ERP results revealed that the attention cues would influence the late cognitive processing stage component P3, but not the early automatic component. Compared with the control group, the autistic trait group induced a larger P3 amplitude by the painful face pictures in the attractiveness judgment task; however, in the pain judgment task, there was no significant difference between the two groups.
This suggests that top-down attention to visual pain cues may modulate the late processing of pain empathy in autistic individuals, as manifested in the following fact: When autistic individuals pay attention to pain cues, they have similar empathic neural responses to the control group; when they do not pay attention to pain cues, they process other people's painful faces to a higher degree. This result also suggests that autistic individuals may avoid other people's face information, and provides evidence for the empathy deficit of autistic individuals. This conclusion is helpful for understanding the cognitive processing characteristics and influencing factors of pain empathy in ASD.

Keywords empathy      empathy for pain      autism spectrum disorders (ASD)      autistic traits      event related potentials (ERP)     
ZTFLH:  B845  
  R395  
Corresponding Authors: Jing MENG     E-mail: qufumj@qq.com
Issue Date: 18 January 2020
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Xiong LI
Zuoshan LI
Binyang XIANG
Jing MENG
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Xiong LI,Zuoshan LI,Binyang XIANG, et al. Empathy for pain in Individuals with autistic traits influenced by attention cues: Evidence from an ERP study[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(3): 294-306.
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http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00294     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2020/V52/I3/294
组别 年龄(岁) AQ分数
最小值 最大值 M ± SD t p 最小值 最大值 M ± SD t p
自闭特质组
(男=15, 女=15)
18 23 20.20 ± 1.35 1.23 0.224 27 35 29.80 ± 2.09 31.81 < 0.001
控制组
(男=16, 女=14)
18 23 19.77 ± 1.38 9 15 13.03 ± 1.99
  
  
项目名称 疼痛图片 非疼痛图片 t p
疼痛程度 6.77 ± 0.24 1.50 ± 0.15 100.64 < 0.001
吸引力程度 3.60 ± 0.29 3.67 ± 0.50 -0.71 0.482
情绪效价 3.17 ± 0.16 3.39 ± 0.24 -4.29 < 0.001
情绪唤醒度 2.50 ± 0.17 2.45 ± 0.18 1.06 0.292
  
  
组别 图片类型 反应时 主观等级评分
疼痛判断任务 吸引力判断任务 疼痛程度 吸引力程度 情绪反应
自闭特质组 疼痛图片 793.81 ± 332.36 802.16 ± 146.36 5.53 ± 1.36 3.44 ± 1.07 5.64 ± 0.99
非疼痛图片 763.97 ± 298.88 854.85 ± 213.89 1.85 ± 1.12 3.86 ± 1.28 5.12 ± 1.14
控制组 疼痛图片 780.48 ± 275.31 772.02 ± 134.04 5.75 ± 1.34 3.58 ± 0.81 5.70 ± 0.66
非疼痛图片 770.85 ± 281.18 779.73 ± 138.93 1.78 ± 1.20 3.85 ± 1.01 5.16 ± 0.63
  
变量 N1 N170 P2 N2 P3 LPC
F p η2p F p η2p F p η2p F p η2p F p η2p F p η2p
组别 0.30 0.584 0.01 0.22 0.638 <0.001 0.45 0.506 0.01 0.81 0.373 0.01 2.77 0.102 0.05 0.49 0.486 0.01
图片类型 0.34 0.562 0.01 0.32 0.574 0.01 0.07 0.792 <0.001 0.01 0.935 <0.001 6.08 0.017 0.10 <0.001 0.949 <0.001
任务类型 0.04 0.836 <0.001 4.59 0.036 0.07 0.45 0.505 0.01 29.02 <0.001 0.33 4.21 0.045 0.07 38.80 <0.001 0.40
组别×图片类型 0.01 0.907 <0.001 1.49 0.227 0.03 0.87 0.356 0.02 <0.001 0.953 <0.001 0.72 0.398 0.01 0.72 0.400 0.01
组别×任务类型 0.01 0.937 <0.001 0.11 0.747 <0.001 <0.001 0.997 <0.001 0.31 0.577 0.01 0.36 0.553 0.01 0.30 0.589 0.01
图片类型×任务类型 0.11 0.740 <0.001 0.12 0.735 <0.001 0.48 0.490 0.01 0.06 0.801 <0.001 1.05 0.310 0.02 10.25 0.002 0.15
组别×图片类型×任务类型 1.42 0.238 0.02 10.90 0.002 0.16 10.05 0.002 0.15 3.47 0.067 0.06 12.64 0.001 0.18 11.98 0.001 0.17
  
  
  
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