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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (10) : 1143-1156     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01143
Reports of Empirical Studies |
The behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among four different warmth-competence social groups based on Stereotype Content Model
YANG Yaping1,XU Qiang1,ZHU Tingting1,ZHENG Xutao1,DONG Xiaoye1,CHEN Qingwei2,3,4()
1 Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
2 National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Information Materials and Technology & Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
4 Lab of Light and Physio-psychological Health, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
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Abstract  

Stereotypes are vital for social interaction by facilitating social decision making as well as conserving limited time and cognitive resources. Previous studies on stereotype activation mainly focus specific social groups, such as gender, race, etc. However, exactly how stereotypes are activated among various social groups remains unknown.

To fill this gap, we classified social groups into four clusters according to stereotype content model in the present study, measuring for perceptions of warmth and competence. These clusters form a four-way axis, that is, high warmth-high competence (HW-HC), high warmth-low competence (HW-LC), low warmth-high competence (LW-HC) and low warmth-low competence (LW-LC). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among these four clusters. We predicted that the stereotype activation pattern would be similar among these four clusters.

In the first experiment, we employed a sequential priming paradigm to explore stereotype activation explicitly. The prime stimuli were 24 social groups equally attributed to these four clusters and the target stimuli were stereotype trait words of these 24 social groups. All of the prime stimuli and target stimuli were obtained from pilot study. The participants were instructed to judge whether the target word was consistent with the stereotypes of the prime social group. Fifty undergraduates (35 female, 19~25 years old, M = 20.68, SD = 2.08) were recruited for this experiment.

In the second experiment, to validate the findings of Experiment 1, we utilized a lexical decision task to further investigate the stereotype activation patterns among the four clusters implicitly, using the same stimuli from Experiment 1. Pseudowords were also added, corresponding to the target words of Experiment 1. Participants were asked to identify whether the target word as a real word or pseudoword. Forty eight undergraduates (32 female, 19~25 years old, M = 20.64, SD = 1.93) participated in Experiment 2.

Four (Social groups: HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC, LW-LC) × 2 (Consistency: consistent vs. inconsistent) repeated measure ANOVA were examined for response time and accuracy in both experiments. The results of Experiment 1 revealed classical stereotype activation patterns for HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC social groups while showing a reverse pattern for LW-LC social groups. Specifically, the participants responded more quickly and more accurately on consistent condition than on inconsistent condition for the former three clusters. However, when the prime stimuli were LW-LC social groups, the reverse was true; faster and more accurate response was shown for inconsistent condition rather than consistent condition. In Experiment 2, only real word trails were analyzed. The results of Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1. Therefore, classical stereotype activation patterns for HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC social groups and the reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC were relatively robust, both explicitly and implicitly, demonstrating the great differences among the stereotype activation patterns among these four clusters.

The results of these two experiments partially support our hypothesis, while revealing an unforeseen reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC social groups. We hypothesize that this may be due to disgust elicited by LW-LC social groups. The present study expanded the research framework of stereotype activation and provided new behavioral evidence for the specificity of LW-LC. The mechanism underlying the reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC should be examined in the future.

Keywords stereotype      stereotype content model      stereotype activation      explicit      implicit     
ZTFLH:  B849: C91  
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Corresponding Authors: Qingwei CHEN     E-mail: qingwei.chen@m.scnu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 19 August 2019
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YANG Yaping
XU Qiang
ZHU Tingting
ZHENG Xutao
DONG Xiaoye
CHEN Qingwei
Cite this article:   
YANG Yaping,XU Qiang,ZHU Tingting, et al. The behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among four different warmth-competence social groups based on Stereotype Content Model[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(10): 1143-1156.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01143     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I10/1143
  
社会群体 实验2(靶子包括4类群体的刻板印象词语及其对应的假词, 假词不分析)
实验1(靶子均为词) 由真词的形近字构成的假词
一致性 刺激举例 试次个数 一致性 刺激举例 试次个数
HW-HC 一致 军人-正义 30 一致 军人-止丈 30
冲突 军人-瘦弱 30 冲突 军人-叟溺 30
HW-LC 一致 老年人-慈祥 30 一致 老年人-滋样 30
冲突 老年人-挥霍 30 冲突 老年人-浑霞 30
LW-HC 一致 商人-有钱 30 一致 商人-肴线 30
冲突 商人-贫穷 30 冲突 商人-贪罕 30
LW-LC 一致 乞丐-懒惰 30 一致 乞丐-濑隋 30
冲突 乞丐-勤劳 30 冲突 乞丐-谨荧 30
  
观测指标 启动
社会群体
启动-靶子的一致性 Mean Difference (I-C) F p Partial η2
一致(C) 冲突(I)
正确率
(Accuracy)
HW-HC 0.971 (0.006) 0.944 (0.007) -0.027 10.08 0.003 0.171
HW-LC 0.938 (0.007) 0.935 (0.010) -0.003 0.07 0.788 0.001
LW-HC 0.877 (0.012) 0.903 (0.010) 0.025 2.21 0.143 0.043
LW-LC 0.843 (0.010) 0.918 (0.012) 0.075 21.30 0.000 0.303
反应时
RT (ms)
HW-HC 774 (23) 851 (26) 77 27.73 0.000 0.361
HW-LC 839 (24) 875 (28) 36 5.64 0.022 0.103
LW-HC 872 (24) 911(26) 39 6.35 0.015 0.115
LW-LC 937 (29) 856 (26) -81 34.75 0.000 0.415
  
  
  
观测指标 启动
社会群体
启动-靶子的一致性 Mean Difference (I-C) F p Partial η2
一致(C) 冲突(I)
正确率
(Accuracy)
HW-HC 0.967 (0.010) 0.914 (0.015) -0.052 18.16 0.000 0.287
HW-LC 0.953 (0.011) 0.927 (0.014) -0.026 5.33 0.026 0.106
LW-HC 0.931 (0.011) 0.914 (0.016) -0.017 3.01 0.090 0.063
LW-LC 0.928 (0.009) 0.952 (0.010) 0.024 6.29 0.016 0.123
反应时
RT (ms)
HW-HC 582 (18) 638 (19) 56 57.11 0.000 0.559
HW-LC 588 (17) 618 (18) 30 13.99 0.001 0.237
LW-HC 607 (17) 625 (18) 18 4.98 0.031 0.100
LW-LC 631 (18) 576 (16) -55 48.47 0.000 0.519
  
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