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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (8) : 945-957     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00945
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Does nostalgic advertising contribute to the spread of a brand’s word of mouth? An emotional two-dimensional perspective
LIAO Yichen,XU Chuanzhe(),GONG Xuan
Department of Marketing and Tourism Management, Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
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Abstract  

Nostalgic emotional advertising is a common advertising strategy used among businesses. It allows consumers to recall past experiences, by evoking emotional resonance and self-identity, which can improve brand communication. Previous studies have shown the predominantly positive impact of nostalgic advertising. However, some research has contested these findings. For example, nostalgic advertisements released by certain brands have failed to produce fruitful results. In this study, we explore the effectiveness of nostalgic and non-nostalgic emotional advertising by examining their impact on word-of-mouth communication. More importantly, we introduce brand image as the moderation, which is divided into warm-type and competent-oriented brands.


This article uses one study that employed second-hand data and two experimental studies that used first-hand data to prove the conclusions. First, we collected data from 15 brands through Weibo for the entire year of 2016, including posting content, likes, comments, and forwarding numbers. Through the research, the 15 brands were divided into warm-type and competent-oriented brands. After screening and coding, we obtained nostalgic and non-nostalgic posts. The experimental results show that for warm-type brands, nostalgic posts had better effect on word-of-mouth communication than non-nostalgic posts. For competent-oriented brands, non-nostalgic posts had better effect on word-of-mouth communication than nostalgic posts.


Next, we conducted two experimental studies to validate our hypothesis further. One study focused on designing experiments from the perspective of emotional arousal; the other deals with designing experiments from the perspective of cognitive arousal. The experiments use a 2 (ad type: nostalgic vs non-nostalgic) × 2 (brand image: warmth vs competence) between-subject design. First, the experimental results reinforce the conclusions obtained by the study using second-hand data. For competent-oriented brands, nostalgic advertising had better effect on word-of-mouth communication than non-nostalgic advertising. For warm-type brands, non-nostalgic advertising had better effect on word-of-mouth communication than nostalgic advertising. Second, we examined the mediation mechanisms of sense of history, trust, loneliness and satisfaction. The results show that consumer perceptions are more emotional for warm-type brands. Nostalgic advertisement can reduce consumers’ loneliness and make consumers feel satisfied. It also diminishes consumers’ desire to share information and gain social connections, which reduces word-of-mouth communication. For competent-oriented brands, consumers are more rational, and nostalgic advertisements bring consumers a long-standing perception of brand. Consumers are able to trust in the brand, which then improves the effect of word-of-mouth communication.


The theoretical contributions of this research are as follows. First, this study enriches understanding of nostalgic advertising. In the past, research on nostalgic advertising focused on the positive aspects of advertising, whereas this study found that nostalgic advertising focus on two perspectives. Second, this study expands understanding of the cognitive and emotional attributes of nostalgic advertising and deepens understanding of the two dimensions of emotion. Third, this study extends the internal mechanisms of the effects of nostalgic advertising on word-of-mouth communication. This study verifies the continuous double mediation mechanism of the influence of nostalgic advertisement on word-of-mouth communication from the perspective of consumer psychology.

Keywords nostalgic advertising      brand image      word-of-mouth communication      information      emotion     
ZTFLH:  B849: C93  
Issue Date: 24 June 2019
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Yichen LIAO
Chuanzhe XU
Xuan GONG
Cite this article:   
Yichen LIAO,Chuanzhe XU,Xuan GONG. Does nostalgic advertising contribute to the spread of a brand’s word of mouth? An emotional two-dimensional perspective[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(8): 945-957.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00945     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I8/945
  
广告类型 温暖型 效能型 总计
怀旧广告 125 46 171
非怀旧广告 88 89 177
总计 213 135 348
  
属性 广告类型 温暖 效能 总计
信息 怀旧 63 20 83
非怀旧 49 41 90
情感 怀旧 62 26 88
非怀旧 39 48 87
总计 213 135 348
  
帖子类型 帖子内容
信息 怀旧 比起现在的我们, 还记得小时候更喜欢下雨——在换洗一新的世界里, 一把小伞、一双雨鞋, 你就拥有了全世界。 (可口可乐)
非怀旧 冰箱里的可口可乐就像薛定谔的猫, 不打开门你永远不会知道快乐的模样。 (可口可乐)
情感 怀旧 #父亲节#小时候, 我调皮、打架、撒谎、成绩差…让你上火操心; 此时我早已知错, 惹你上火不是本意, 表上火, 消消气, 老爸节日快乐, 我爱你! (王老吉)
非怀旧 猴年吉祥无论能不能回家, 都要喜庆地过年。一点门联红, 三两爆竹声, 辛苦操劳一整年, 所有吉祥如意的期盼都在这一刻得到释放, 愿每个人都能把年过得红火。过吉祥年, 喝王老吉!红红火火就是吉祥! (王老吉)
  
变异来源 III类平方和 df 均方 F 显著性
校正模型 3.20E-6 3 1.07E-6 32.472 0.000
截距 4.70E-6 1 4.70E-6 143.007 0.000
怀旧类型 1.12E-6 1 1.12E-6 34.170 0.000
品牌形象 1.78E-6 1 1.78E-6 54.123 0.000
怀旧类型×品牌形象 1.58E-6 1 1.58E-6 48.203 0.000
误差 1.13E-5 344 3.29E-8
总计 1.73E-5 348
校正的总计 1.45E-5 347
  
  
  
变异来源 III类平方和 df 均方 F 显著性
校正模型 55.270 3 18.423 41.611 0.000
截距 2733.457 1 2733.457 6173.808 0.000
怀旧类型 36.797 1 36.797 83.109 0.000
品牌形象 0.829 1 0.829 1.872 0.173
怀旧类型×品牌形象 16.724 1 16.724 37.772 0.000
误差 96.520 218 0.443
总计 2889.520 222
校正的总计 151.790 221
  
  
  
变异来源 III类平方和 df 均方 F 显著性
校正模型 41.522 3 13.841 78.028 0.000
截距 1720.546 1 1720.546 9699.661 0.000
怀旧类型 8.936 1 8.936 50.375 0.000
品牌形象 10.960 1 10.960 61.787 0.000
怀旧类型×品牌形象 18.800 1 18.800 105.984 0.000
误差 25.898 146 0.177
总计 1821.880 150
校正的总计 67.420 149
  
  
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