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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (7) : 805-815     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00805
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Saccadic targeting deficits of Chinese children with developmental dyslexia: Evidence from novel word learning in reading
LIANG Feifei(),MA Jie,LI Xin,LIAN Kunyu,TAN Ke,BAI Xuejun()
Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
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Abstract  

It is reported that, the primary approach for school children to acquire vocabularies is by deriving word meanings from contexts. The typical deficit of developmental dyslexia is that they have smaller vocabulary size than their chronological age-matched children. One recent study has examined the cognitive processes underlying dyslexic children’s novel word learning during reading by using eye tracking. This is a method that is well established as a means of investigating reading behaviour by measuring when and where the eye fixates on text as written language is processed naturally. It should be noted that all the studies investigating novel word learning measured fixation durations on novel words fixated by dyslexic children with a view to quantifying the time required for those novel words to be successfully identified within the context of a sentence. In the present study we investigated saccadic targeting in relation to novel word learning in dyslexia children.
Each novel word was embedded into eight sentences, each of which provided a context for readers to form a new lexical representation. Two groups of dyslexic children and age-matched control children’s eye movements were recorded when they read sentences. Given the ongoing lexical processing difficulty influences the basic decision of “where to target” in Chinese reading, the novel word poses substantial processing difficulty, particular for dyslexic children with inefficient lexical processing, we predict that dyslexic children would be less efficient to target the eyes than control children did in novel word learning.
Consistent with our prediction, the mean initial landing positions on novel words were further away from the word center for dyslexic than control children, showing that the basic decision of saccadic targeting on novel words was less efficient for dyslexic than control children. Additionally, we categorized 8 exposures to novel words as being two learning stages: Learning stage 1 including exposures 1 to 4; and learning stage 2 including the exposures from 5 to 8. We aimed to examine whether they were able to modulate their saccadic targeting as the accumulated learning of novel words. The results showed that, control children targeted the initial saccades closer to the word centers with increased exposures, while such effect did not occur for dyslexic children. These findings indicate that control children adjusted the initial saccadic targeting based on lexical familiarity information, while dyslexic children did not.
On the basis of the findings above, we argue that, dyslexic children may adopt more careful strategy of saccade-target selection given their lower efficiency in word processing, such that they had lower efficiencies in the basic decision of saccadic targeting, as well as the usage of “lexical familiarity information” to modulate the saccadic targeting to novel words. This might account for their low word acquisition efficiency in reading.

Keywords developmental dyslexia      novel word learning      saccade targeting      Chinese reading     
ZTFLH:  B844  
  G44  
Corresponding Authors: Feifei LIANG,Xuejun BAI     E-mail: feifeiliang_329@126.com;baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 22 May 2019
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Feifei LIANG
Jie MA
Xin LI
Kunyu LIAN
Ke TAN
Xuejun BAI
Cite this article:   
Feifei LIANG,Jie MA,Xin LI, et al. Saccadic targeting deficits of Chinese children with developmental dyslexia: Evidence from novel word learning in reading[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(7): 805-815.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00805     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I7/805
各项测验 DD组 CA组 t
年龄(月) 126 (6.20) 129 (8.46) 1.47
智力(标准分) 107 (11) 110 (11) 1.07
识字量(字) 2122 (237) 2963 (199) 12.24***
正字法意识 71 (7.58) 79 (6.33) 3.81**
语音意识
音节判断 34 (2.42) 36 (0.59) 2.91**
音位删除 10 (4.51) 17 (5.32) 5.21***
声母/韵母/声调辨别 28 (3.52) 30 (4.29) 1.63
言语工作记忆
数字广度(顺背+倒背) 14 (2.76) 17 (2.71) 3.11**
汉字广度 8.95 (2.44) 9.14 (1.83) 0.31
快速命名(RAN)
数字RAN反应时 24 (4.82) 21 (2.19) 3.14**
字母RAN反应时 30 (7.01) 23 (2.34) 3.87***
颜色RAN反应时 48 (8.07) 42 (6.72) 3.40**
阅读流畅性
一分钟读词(词/分) 82 (12) 94 (12) 2.87**
三分钟阅读(字) 359 (81) 521 (65) 7.04***
  
学习阶段 语境编号 例句
阶段1 语境1 空荡荡的鞋懂里摆放着许多桌子。
语境2 每天有许多人在鞋懂里随意出入。
语境3 他们经常在鞋懂里举行大型活动。
语境4 这座雄伟的鞋懂的设计十分新颖。
阶段2 语境5 在通风处建造鞋懂是明智的选择。
语境6 人们没有养成给鞋懂上锁的习惯。
语境7 妹妹喜欢在鞋懂里的游戏场玩耍。
语境8 开发区里新建的鞋懂有几十栋。
语义类别选择题目:请选择“鞋懂”属于以下哪个类别?
(1)桥梁 (2)纪念碑 (3)楼房 (4)博物馆
  
目标词属性 组1 组2 t
字频 317 300 0.14
笔画数 8.83 8.50 0.45
词素位置概率(首字) 0.50 0.50 1.19
词素位置概率(尾字) 0.50 0.50 1.19
平均联想值 1.04 1.01 1.13
句子通顺性 4.49 4.45 1.64
句子难度 4.54 4.54 0.18
  
  
注视位置指标 DD组 CA组
材料1 材料2 材料1 材料2
平均首次注视位置(字) 0.87 (0.51) 0.77 (0.52) 1.01 (0.52) 0.89 (0.52)
跳入新词眼跳距离(字) 2.21 (0.99) 1.96 (0.97) 2.51 (0.89) 2.34 (0.90)
跳出新词眼跳距离(字) 2.23 (1.26) 2.04 (1.04) 2.33 (1.08) 2.41 (0.99)
  
组别 模型 平均首次注视位置 跳入新词眼跳距离 跳出新词眼跳距离
b SE t CI b SE t CI b SE t CI
DD组 截距 0.97 0.11 9.20*** 0.76~1.17 2.64 0.33 8.10*** 2.00~3.27 2.72 0.45 6.03*** 1.83~3.60
材料类别 -0.08 0.07 -1.22 -0.21~0.05 -0.30 0.21 -1.45 -0.70~0.11 -0.31 0.29 -1.08 -0.87~0.25
CA组 截距 1.11 0.09 11.95*** 0.93~1.29 2.68 0.24 11.09*** 2.21~3.15 2.29 0.33 7.02*** 1.65~2.93
材料类别 -0.11 0.06 -1.86 -0.22~0.01 -0.17 0.15 -1.09 -0.47~0.13 0.09 0.21 0.42 -0.32~0.49
  
注视位置指标 DD组 CA组
学习阶段1 学习阶段2 学习阶段1 学习阶段2
平均首次注视位置(字) 0.84 (0.51) 0.80 (0.53) 0.91 (0.51) 0.98 (0.53)
跳入新词眼跳距离(字) 2.11 (1.02) 2.05 (0.95) 2.41 (0.92) 2.45 (0.88)
跳出新词眼跳距离(字) 2.08 (1.20) 2.19 (1.11) 2.23 (1.01) 2.50 (1.05)
再注视比率(%) 53 (50) 44 (50) 44 (50) 30 (46)
  
模型 平均首次注视位置 跳入新词眼跳距离 跳出新词眼跳距离 再注视比率
b SE t CI b SE t CI b SE t CI b SE t CI
截距 1.14 0.03 35.67*** 1.08~
1.20
1.14 0.03 35.67*** 1.08~
1.20
2.26 0.08 26.65*** 2.09~
2.42
-0.67 0.14 -4.81*** -0.94~-0.40
组别 -0.12 0.06 -2.14* -0.23~
-0.01
-0.12 0.06 -2.14* -0.23~-0.01 -0.15 0.16 -0.94 -0.45~0.16 0.42 0.24 1.74 -0.05~0.90
学习阶段 0.02 0.02 1.13 -0.01~
0.05
0.02 0.02 1.13 -0.01~0.05 0.17 0.03 5.18*** 0.11~
0.24
-0.56 0.07 -7.52*** -0.71~-0.42
起跳位置 -0.17 0.01 -18.27*** -0.19~
-0.15
0.83 0.01 87.24*** 0.81~
0.85
0.13 0.01 9.31*** 0.10~
0.15
0.18 0.04 4.04*** 0.09~
0.26
组别×学习阶段 -0.10 0.03 -2.93** -0.16~
-0.03
-0.10 0.03 -2.93** -0.16~-0.03 -0.13 0.07 -1.94 -0.26~0.00 0.22 0.15 1.50 -0.07~0.52
比较1:DD 0.03 0.02 1.10 -0.02~
0.07
0.04 0.04 1.00 -0.04~0.12 -0.13 0.05 -2.72** -0.22~-0.04
比较2:CA -0.07 0.02 -2.95** -0.12~
-0.02
-0.04 0.04 -1.10 -0.13~0.04 -0.28 0.05 -5.85*** -0.37~-0.18
  
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