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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (5) : 598-611     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00598
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Aging of the tip of the tongue in daily life: A diary study
ZHAO Ruiying,LOU Hao,OUYANG Mingkun,ZHANG Qingfang()
Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
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Abstract  

The “tip of the tongue” (TOT) refers to a state in which one cannot recall a familiar word but can recall words of similar form and meaning in speech production, which is common in our daily life, especially for the old speakers. The perspectives of cognitive (how linguistic properties and general cognitive abilities influence aging of TOT) and meta-cognitive (how the meta-cognitive evaluations of TOT influence TOT’s processing) have been proposed to explain the aging of TOT. However, little research has addressed this question in Chinese. The present study aims to examine how (a) individual characteristics (i.e., emotion, age) influence daily TOTs and (b) the interplay of cognitive factors and meta-cognitive factors influence daily TOTs.
A sample of 67 participants (36 old adults, 13 males, age ranges: 60~81 years, M = 66.91, SD = 6.85; 31 young adults, 16 males, age ranges: 18~25 years, M = 21.50, SD = 2.43) filled in a quantitative and qualitative diary for 4 weeks (including weekends) to investigate their experience of TOTs. The questions and measurements used in our diary questionnaire included cognitive and meta-cognitive characteristics of TOT in speech production.
Results indicated that the old adults generated more TOTs and took longer time to retrieve target words in successful production than the young adults in daily life, which confirmed our hypothesis that there was an aging of speech production in Chinese. Furthermore, when TOT happened, both old and young people could successfully retrieve alternative words and (or) semantically related information, but less phonologically related information, which supported transmission deficit hypothesis about aging of speech production. For the meta-cognitive experience, we found that young adults experienced higher degree of excitement and fatigueness than the old adults. In addition, the resolution time of TOTs was influenced by factors of target words familiarity, the presence of alternates and the comfort level when TOT happened. The assessments on TOT’s cognitive and meta-cognitive states affected the resolution time of the subsequent TOTs, reflecting that participants took more efforts and time to resolve TOTs after evaluating their meta-cognitive states. We suggest that TOT is the products of cognitive and meta-cognitive processes in Chinese speech production.

Keywords TOT      diary study      aging      cognitive perspective      meta-cognitive perspective     
ZTFLH:  B844  
  B842  
Corresponding Authors: Qingfang ZHANG     E-mail: qingfang.zhang@ruc.edu.cn
Issue Date: 20 March 2019
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Ruiying ZHAO
Hao LOU
Mingkun OUYANG
Qingfang ZHANG
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Ruiying ZHAO,Hao LOU,Mingkun OUYANG, et al. Aging of the tip of the tongue in daily life: A diary study[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(5): 598-611.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00598     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I5/598
组别 年龄(岁) 受教育年限(年)
Range M SD M SD
青年人 18~25 21.50 2.43 13.93 1.82
老年人 60~81 66.91 6.85 13.34 2.07
  
组别 基本信息 词类
发生总数 解决总数 熟悉度 平均发生数量 人名 地名 物体名 抽象词 电影/电视/书名 专有名词 非专有名词
青年人 145 133 5.50±0.71 4.83±2.10 0.47±0.27 0.14±0.21 0.11±0.22 0.10±0.13 0.17±0.17 0.78±0.23 0.21±0.34
老年人 205 193 5.26±1.15 6.41±2.96 0.59±0.21 0.10±0.13 0.16±0.20 0.02±0.05 0.14±0.19 0.82±0.21 0.17±0.25
  
  
组别 目标词信息 替代词信息 身心状态
语义信息 音韵信息 替代词发生率 语义信息 音韵信息 紧张度 疲惫感 兴奋度 舒适度
青年人 0.96±0.09 0.06±0.12 0.87±0.24 0.58±0.27 0.20±0.21 3.57±1.14 4.08±0.88 4.10±0.91 3.85±0.93
老年人 0.97±0.80 0.07±0.13 0.87±0.13 0.58±0.23 0.27±0.24 3.16±1.19 3.09±1.20 3.09±1.20 4.11±1.22
  
  
组别 最终解决策略 试图解决策略
反复想 问别人 查资料 什么都不做 反复想 问别人 查资料 什么都不做
青年人 0.47±0.31 0.24±0.28 0.23±0.22 0.06±0.13 0.56±0.24 0.22±0.22 0.16±0.16 0.06±0.12
老年人 0.49±0.26 0.25±0.19 0.10±0.13 0.17±0.26 0.50±0.25 0.29±0.22 0.08±0.10 0.13±0.18
  
  
Step Variable 各项指标
R2 Adjusted R2 ΔR2 β t
Step1 0.06 0.06
年龄 0.23 3.86***
Step2 0.10 0.09 0.04
熟悉度 -0.16 -2.90**
是否有替代词 0.15 2.63**
Step3 0.12 0.10 0.02
紧张度 0.12 1.66
疲惫感 -0.05 -0.69
兴奋度 -0.08 -1.28
舒适度 0.13 2.32*
  
  
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