Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (5) : 543-556     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00543
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Language and culture influence cognition: Effects of indirect or direct language
YANG Qun1,ZHANG Qirui2,FENG Yiran1,ZHANG Jijia1()
1 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China; The State Ethnic Affairs Commission Key Research Center for Language, Cultural, and Psychology; Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
2 Lecturer of School of Criminology, People's Public Security University of China, Beijing 100038, China
Download: PDF(892 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

The relationship between language and color cognition is key to understanding language and cognition. With the arguments between linguistic relevance and linguistic universal hypotheses, researchers prefer the eclectic theory that color cognition includes physics, perception, and culture-related properties. Given these theories and various investigations, interaction theory between color terms and color cognition has been proposed. One argument suggests that color perception should be influenced by language and culture, given the normal sense organs and level of intelligence.
Numerous types of studies have proven that language and culture play a role in color cognition, but how such a role is performed remains to be fully understood. Discussions on the essential mechanism of this effect remain lacking, and whether this effect is a direct or indirect effect (i.e., language strategies or cognition structure changes) continues to be unclear. According to the literature, the color category perception effect proposes that people are more likely to distinguish colors from different colors than those that landed in the same area. Thus, two categories of color were used as materials in past research, which made it difficult to distinguish between the direct and indirect effects. Accordingly, this paper employed just one category color, which was further divided into two different categories. Color culture is import to a nation. Thus, green is vital to Uygur culture, with red as the counterpart for the Han culture. In relation to this, the present study designed a perceptual task (Experiment 1) as well as classification and recognition tasks containing memory (Experiments 2 and 3), in order to explore the effect of language and culture on color cognition for the Uygur and Han nationalities.
Focal colors of red (RGB: 0, 255, 0) and green (RGB: 255, 0, 0) were selected as base points, and a vertical demarcation line was drawn on the RGB chromatography. On each side of the line, nine different stimuli in the same lightness saturation level (240-120) but with different chromaticities were selected. In Experiment 1, three colors (two from the same side of green or red and another from the other side) constitute one set of experimental material. Participants were asked to judge as quickly and as accurately as possible whether the left or the right color block looked more similar to the middle one, and press the corresponding button on a response box. A total of 62 college students participated in the experiment (31 of Han nationality and 31 of Uygur nationality). In Experiment 2, the materials and the participants (in terms of number and categories) were identical to those in Experiment 1. Participants were instructed to remember the colors and identify as quickly and as accurately as possible whether the following colors belong to the left or to the right of the color pair, and then press the corresponding button on a response box. In Experiment 3, 62 participants from the two nationalities who were using identical materials were asked to judge as quickly and as accurately as possible whether the left or the right color looked more similar to the standard one, and then press the corresponding button on the response box.
Results showed significant differences in the perception, classification, and recognition tasks between the Uygur and Han nationalities. Compared with the Han nationality, the Uygur nationality had the advantage in distinguishing, classifying, and even recognizing green, but suffered a disadvantage when processing the color red. For the perception task, the two groups both spent a long time in the classification and recognition tasks. Accordingly, we believe that language and cultural differences in terms of perceiving the green and red colors affect color cognition and that such an effect is indirect, that is, language and culture can influence the color perception structure.

Keywords Uygur nationality      Han nationality      color cognition      direct language effect      indirect language effect     
ZTFLH:  B842  
  B849:C91  
Corresponding Authors: Jijia ZHANG     E-mail: Zhangjj1955@163.com
Issue Date: 20 March 2019
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Qun YANG
Qirui ZHANG
Yiran FENG
Jijia ZHANG
Cite this article:   
Qun YANG,Qirui ZHANG,Yiran FENG, et al. Language and culture influence cognition: Effects of indirect or direct language[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(5): 543-556.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00543     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I5/543
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
1 Berlin B., & Kay, P .( 1969). Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution Their universality and evolution. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
2 Bornstein M. H., Kessen W., & Weiskopf S . ( 1976). Color vision and hue categorization in young human infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2( 1), 115-129.
3 Davies I. R. L., Corbett G. G., Law G., Mcgurk H., Moss A. E. S. G., & Smith M. W . ( 1991). Linguistic basicness and colour information processing. International Journal of Psychology, 26( 3), 311-327.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1080/00207599108246856
4 Davies I. R. L., Daoutis C., Pilling M., & Wigget A . ( 2003). Categorical perception in visual search. Paper presented at the XIII Conference of the European Society of Cognitive Psychology, Granada, Spain.
5 Die, M. D. Y., & Duo, J. Z. M . ( 2016). A study on the cultural specificity of color metaphors from a cognitive perspective - A case study of the basic color terms in Chinese and Tibetan. Chinese National Expo,( 1), 106-108.
5 [ 迭目德英, 多杰卓玛 . ( 2016). 认知视角下颜色隐喻的文化特异性研究——以汉藏语基础颜色词为例. 中国民族博览, ( 1), 106-108.]
6 Du, S. H . ( 2012). Three words and three questions: A philosophical response to Shen Jiaxuan’s “Physical word, mental world, and linguistic world”. Contemporary Foreign Languages Studies,( 7), 9-13.
6 [ 杜世洪 . ( 2012). 三个世界, 三个问题——对沈家煊《三个世界》的语言哲学思考. 当代外语研究, ( 7), 9-13.]
7 Gu D. Z., Fu S. S., & Yang, R. M .( 2000) . Color and graphics visual principium. Beijing: Science Press.
7 [ 古大治, 傅师申, 杨仁鸣 . ( 2000). 色彩与图形视觉原理. 北京: 科学出版社.]
8 Huang X. S., Zheng J., Yan J. B. X., Zhang J. J., & Zhang L . ( 2011). On the color word classification among Japanese college students. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 17( 4), 365-370.
8 [ 黄喜珊, 郑娟, 盐见邦雄, 张积家, 张琳 . ( 2011). 日本大学生的基本颜色词分类——兼与中国大学生比较. 应用心理学, 17( 4), 365-370.]
9 Jiao, L . ( 2012). A study on basic color terms of red and green in Chinese, Japanese and English from cognitive metaphor . Journal of Huaihai Business (Humanities and Social Sciences Edition), 10( 6), 72-74.
9 [ 焦丽 . ( 2012). 基本颜色词的隐喻认知研究——以汉日英语言中的“红”和“绿”为例. 淮海工商学报 (人文社会科学版), 10( 6), 72-74.]
10 Kawai M., Uchikawa K., & Ujike H . ( 1995). Influence of color category on visual search. Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Paper #2991, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
11 Kay, P., & Kempton, W . ( 1984). What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? American Anthropologist, 86( 1), 65-79.
url: http://www.anthrosource.net/toc/aa/86/1
12 Li, J . ( 2006). National psychology course. Beijing: National Press.
12 [ 李静 . ( 2006). 民族心理学教程. 北京: 民族出版社.]
13 Ma, R . ( 2004). The use of language and the ethnic relationship . Northwest Ethno-National Studies, ( 1), 20-44.
13 [ 马戎 . ( 2004). 语言使用与族群关系(民族社会学连载之三). 西北民族研究, ( 1), 20-44.]
14 Ma, Y . ( 2014). The inheritance of green beauty: The symbolic concept of Islamic art. Brand,( 9), 128.
14 [ 马琰 . ( 2014). 绿色美的传承——伊斯兰艺术的符号理念. 品牌, ( 9), 128.]
15 Özgen, E., & Davies, I . ( 2003). Acquisition of categorical color perception: New evidence suggests perceptual change. Paper presented at the Ⅶ Ⅰ Conference of the European Society of Cognitive Psychology.
16 Özgen, E., & Davies, I. R. L . ( 2002). Acquisition of categorical color perception: A perceptual learning approach to the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131( 4), 477-493.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-3445.131.4.477
17 Pilling, M., & Davies, I. R. L . ( 2004). Linguistic relativism and colour cognition. British Journal of Psychology, 95( 4), 429-455
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1348/0007126042369820
18 Pilling M., Wiggett A., Özgen E., & Davies, I. R. L. ( 2003). Is color “categorical perception” really perceptual? Memory & Cognition, 31( 4), 538-551.
19 Plato. ( 2003). Plato Complete Works. Beijing: People’s Publishing House.
19 [ 柏拉图 . ( 2003). 柏拉图全集(第二卷). 北京: 人民出版社.]
20 Regier, T., & Kay, P . ( 2009). Language, thought, and color: Whorf was half right. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13( 10), 439-446.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364661309001454
21 Roberson D., Davidoff J., Davies I. R. L., & Shapiro L. R . ( 2005). Color categories: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis. Cognitive Psychology, 50( 4), 378-411.
22 Roberson D., Davies I. R. L., & Davidoff J . ( 2000). Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129( 3), 369-398.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-3445.129.3.369
23 Rohaguri, Hudson. ( 2002). The appreciation of green colour in Uygur culture. Journal of Kashgar Teachers College, 23( 1), 53-56.
23 [ 热汗古丽, 哈得江 . ( 2002). 维吾尔文化中的绿色审美. 喀什师范学院学报, 23( 1), 53-56.]
24 Rong, F. J., & Xiao, Z . ( 2012). Comparison and translation between the English and Chinese color words “red” and “hong”. Journal of Jilin Radio and TV University,( 1), 88-90.
24 [ 荣风静, 肖征 . ( 2012). 英汉颜色词“red”与“红”隐喻对比与翻译. 吉林广播电视大学学报, ( 1), 88-90.]
25 Schirillo, J. A . ( 2001). Tutorial on the importance of color in language and culture. Color Research and Application, 26( 3), 179-192.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/%28ISSN%291520-6378
26 Shen, J. X . ( 2008). Three words. Foreign Language Teaching and Research,( 6), 403-417.
26 [ 沈家煊 . ( 2008). 三个世界. 外语教学与研究, ( 6), 403-417.]
27 Shen, M. F . ( 2008). The culture implication and comparisons with color terms in Han and Uygur nationalities Journal of Hotan Teachers College, 28( 5), 159-160.
27 [ 谌梅芳 . ( 2008). 汉维语颜色词的文化含义及其对比. 和田师范专科学校学报(汉文综合版), 28( 5), 159-160.]
28 Smith. (1991). Opponents in the American civil war. Commercial Press.
28 [ 史密斯 . ( 1991). 美国南北战争中的对手. 北京: 商务印书馆.]
29 Sun, Y . ( 2013). Cognitive metaphor is a multidimensional cross domain study. Beijing: Peking University Press.
29 [ 孙毅 . ( 2013). 认知隐喻学多维跨域研究. 北京: 北京大学出版社.]
30 Wan, M. G., & Jiang, L . ( 2016). On the issues of science and engineering in Chinese minority nationality education. Educational Research, ( 2), 96-101.
30 [ 万明钢, 蒋玲 . ( 2016). 论我国少数民族教育中的“理工科问题”. 教育研究, ( 2), 96-101.]
31 Wang H. M., Yang F. X., & Li, C. L .( 2016) . Studies on religious culture of the Frivole in Yuan dynasty. Beijing: Science Press.
31 [ 王红梅, 杨福学, 黎春林 . ( 2016). 元代畏兀儿宗教文化研究. 北京: 科学出版社.]
32 Wang, J., & Zhang, J. J . ( 2012). Color terms and color cognition: Based on the perspective of national psychology. Advances in Psychological Science, 20( 8), 1159-1168.
32 [ 王娟, 张积家 . ( 2012). 颜色词与颜色认知的关系——基于民族心理学的研究视角. 心理科学进展, 20( 8), 1159-1168.]
33 Wang J., Zhang J. J., He X. M., Min C. Z . ( 2013). Conceptual structure of the basic color terms for Lisu and Pumi high school students: Concurrently compare that of the Mosuo high school students. Journal of Dali University, 12( 7), 13-19.
33 [ 王娟, 张积家, 和秀梅, 闵翠蓁 . ( 2013). 傈僳族、普米族高中生基本颜色词的概念结构——兼与摩梭高中生基本颜色词概念结构比较. 大理学院学报, 12( 7), 13-19.]
34 Wang J., Zhang J. J., Lin N . ( 2012). Nari people's concept structure on color terms—Compared with Naxi people's concept structure on color terms. Journal of Minzu University of China (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), 37( 2), 87-93.
34 [ 王娟, 张积家, 林娜 . ( 2010). 纳日人颜色词的概念结构——兼与纳西人颜色词概念结构比较. 中央民族大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 37( 2), 87-93.]
35 Wang, T. T, Wang, R. M., Wang J., Wu, X. W., Mo L., & Yang Li . ( 2014). The priming effects of red and blue on the emotion of Chinese. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46( 6), 777-790.
35 [ 王婷婷, 王瑞明, 王靖, 吴小文, 莫雷, 杨力 . ( 2014). 红色和蓝色对中国汉族大学生情绪的启动效应. 心理学报, 46( 6), 777-790.]
36 Wang, X. Y . ( 2016). Interpretation of the “green image” in the “Funeral of Muslims”. Modern Chinese, ( 12), 48-49.
36 [ 汪小艳 . ( 2016). 《穆斯林的葬礼》之“绿色意象”解读. 现代语文(学术综合版), ( 12), 48-49.]
37 Wang, Y., Gao, J . ( 2011). Culture of China’s western regions. Beijing: Current Affairs Press.
37 [ 王勇, 高敬 . ( 2011). 西域文化. 北京: 时事出版社.]
38 Wei, X. Y., & Chen, B. G . ( 2011). The influence of language on perception: Evidence from categorical perception of color. Advances in Psychological Science, 19( 1), 35-41.
38 [ 魏晓言, 陈宝国 . ( 2011). 语言对知觉的影响——来自颜色范畴知觉研究的证据. 心理科学进展, 19( 1), 35-41.]
39 Winawer J., Witthoft N., Frank M. C., Wu L. S., Wade A. R., & Bororditsky L . ( 2007). Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 104( 19), 7780-7785.
40 Wittgenstein, L. ( 1999). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House.
41 Xie S. S., Zhang J. J., He X. M., Lin N., & Xiao E. P . ( 2008). Culture’s effects on ‘black’ and ‘white’ color cognition of undergraduates from Yi Nation, Bai Nation, Naxi Nation and Han Nation. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40( 8), 890-901.
41 [ 谢书书, 张积家, 和秀梅, 林娜, 肖二平 . ( 2008). 文化差异影响彝、白、纳西和汉族大学生对黑白的认知. 心理学报, 40( 8), 890-901.]
42 Yang J. G. ( 2012). The moral dimension of Popper’s nondeterminism. Beijing: Word Publishing Corporation.
42 [ 阳建国 . ( 2012). 波普尔非决定论思想的道德之维. 北京: 世界图书出版公司.]
43 Yang, M . ( 2010). Interpretations on the cultural differences carried by the color term “red”. New Curriculum Research,( 12), 182-184.
43 [ 扬眉 . ( 2010). 解读颜色词“red”所承载的文化差异. 新课程研究(高等教育), ( 12), 182-184.]
44 Yang, Q., & Zhang, J. J . ( 2014). The classification of basic color terms in Oroqen: Together with the effect of language, culture and intelligence play on the color recognition. Manchu Studies,( 1), 61-67.
44 [ 杨群, 张积家 . ( 2014). 鄂伦春语基本颜色词的分类——兼论语言、文化与智力对颜色认知的影响. 满语研究, ( 1), 61-67.]
45 Zhang C. X. ( 2015). Study on the cultural transformation of the southern Xinjiang oasis from the perspective of the Marxist cultural center. Beijing: People’s Daily Press.
45 [ 张春霞 . ( 2015). 南疆绿洲文化转型研究: 以马克思主义文化馆为视域. 北京: 人民日报出版社.]
46 Zhang F. H., Yang X. F., Fang Y. H., & Zhang J. J . ( 2016). The conceptual structure of basic color terms in Mongolia. Journal of South China Normal University (Social Science Edition),( 1), 112-118.
46 [ 张付海, 杨晓峰, 方燕红, 张积家 . ( 2016). 生活环境和宗教文化对蒙古族基本颜色词概念结构的影响. 华南师范大学学报(社会科学版), ( 1), 112-118.]
47 Zhang J. J., Chen X. Q., You N., & Wang B . ( 2018). On how conceptual connections influence the category perception effect of colors: Another evidence of connections between language and cognition. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50( 4), 390-399.
47 [ 张积家, 陈栩茜, 尤宁, 王斌 . ( 2018). 颜色词的语用关系影响颜色认知. 心理学报, 50( 4), 390-399.]
48 Zhang J. J., Fang Y. H., & Xie S. S . ( 2012). Interactive theory of color cognition and its evidence. Advances in Psychological Science, 20( 7), 949-962.
48 [ 张积家, 方燕红, 谢书书 . ( 2012). 颜色词与颜色认知的关系: 相互作用理论及其证据. 心理科学进展, 20( 7), 949-962.]
49 Zhang J. J., Lin Q. K., & Chen X. Q . ( 2014). Spatial language expression affects memory for spatial scenes. Journal of South China Normal University (Social Science Edition),( 5), 83-92.
49 [ 张积家, 林琦坤, 陈栩茜 . ( 2014). 空间表达对汉语母语者空间场景记忆的影响——兼同英语母语者比较. 华南师范大学学报(社会科学版), ( 5), 83-92.]
50 Zhang, J. J., Lin, X. Y . ( 2005). A research on undergraduate students' classification of basic colour terms. Psychological Science, 28( 1), 19-22.
50 [ 张积家, 林新英 . ( 2005). 大学生颜色词分类的研究. 心理科学, 28( 1), 19-22.]
51 Zhang J. J., Liu L. H., Chen X., & He X. M . ( 2008). A study on cognitive relationship of color in Naxi language. Minority Languages of China,( 2), 49-55.
51 [ 张积家, 刘丽红, 陈曦, 和秀梅 . ( 2008). 纳西语颜色认知关系研究. 民族语文, ( 2), 49-55.]
52 Zhang J. J., Xie S. S., & He X. M . ( 2008). The effect of language and culture on spatial cognition: A comparison of the spatial-terms classification by undergraduates of the Han and Naxi nationalities. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40( 7), 774-787.
52 [ 张积家, 谢书书, 和秀梅 . ( 2008). 语言和文化对空间认知的影响——汉族和纳西族大学生空间词相似性分类的比较研究. 心理学报, 40( 7), 774-787.]
53 Zhang, L., Rexidan, A . ( 2011). A comparative study about the value system of basic colour terms in Chinese and Uygur language. Language and Translation,( 4), 37-40.
53 [ 张玲, 热西旦·艾山江 . ( 2011). 汉维语基本颜色词价值取向的异同比较. 语言与翻译, ( 4), 47-40.]
54 Zhang Q. R., He X. M., & Zhang J. J . ( 2007). A comparative study on the classification of basic color terms by undergraduates from Yi nationality, Bai nationality and Naxi nationality. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39( 1), 18-26.
54 [ 张启睿, 和秀梅, 张积家 . ( 2007). 彝族、白族和纳西族大学生的基本颜色词分类. 心理学报, 39( 1), 18-26.]
55 Zhang, W., & Yu, J. Y . ( 2009). A preliminary study on the color of Buddhist architecture and Islamic architecture. Journal of Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology (Social Science Edition), 28( 1), 54-58.
55 [ 张卫, 喻金焰 . ( 2009). 佛教建筑与伊斯兰教建筑色彩初探. 西安建筑科技大学学报(社会科学版), 28( 1), 54-58.]
56 Zhou K., Mo L., Kay P., Kwok V. P. Y., Tiffany N. M. I., & Tan L. H . ( 2010). Newly trained lexical categories produce lateralized categorical perception of color. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107( 22), 9974-9978.
url: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1005669107
57 Zhou Y. P . ( 2011). "Red" cultural implication differences between Chinese and English and their causes. Journal of Yangtze University: Social Sciences, 34(11), 96-97.
57 [ 周育萍 . ( 2011). “红 (red) ”汉英文化意蕴差异及其成因. 长江大学学报(社会科学版), 34( 11), 96-97.]
[1] ZHANG Jijia, CHEN Xuqian, YOU Ning, WANG Bin.  On how conceptual connections influence the category perception effect of colors: Another evidence of connections between language and cognition[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(4): 390-399.
[2] ZHANG Pan;LU Zhongyi. The Mental Representation of Color Information in Sentence Comprehension[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(4): 406-415.
[3] XIE Shu-Shu,ZHANG Ji-Jia,HE Xiu-Mei,LIN Na,XIAO Er-Ping. Culture’s Effects on ‘black’ and ‘white’ Color Cognition of Undergraduates from Yi Nation, Bai Nation, Naxi Nation and Han Nation[J]. , 2008, 40(08): 890-901.
[4] ZHANG Ji-Jia,DANG Yu-Xiao,ZHANG Yu-Zhi,WANG Hui-Ping,LUO Guan-Hai. Color Concepts and Their Organization in the Case of Blind Children[J]. , 2008, 40(04): 389-401.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech