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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (4) : 484-496     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00484
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Effects of meta-stereotype on aggressive behavior among migrant children and the mediating effect of frustration
HUANG Xiaoxiao1,ZHANG Baoshan1,2(),ZHANG Yuan1,MA Yuting1
1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University
2 Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality at Beijing Normal University, Xi’an 710061, China;
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Abstract  

Meta-stereotype threat (MST) refers to an unbalanced cognitive state where a person’s negative beliefs on the stereotype that out-group members hold about their own group are activated. Previous research has shown that the activation of negative meta-stereotypes contributes to social behaviors, but the mechanism of MST effects on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. Migrant children are more susceptible to meta-stereotype compared with dominant groups. However, the influences of negative meta-stereotype on migrant children’s aggressive behaviors have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the current study aims to explore MST effects on migrant children’s aggressive behaviors and the mediated role of frustration between MST and aggressive behaviors. Finally, it attempts to use imagined intergroup contact to examine causes of frustration and identify the negative effects of MST.

As an exploratory study, 60 migrant children were invited to participate in study 1. They were instructed to write adjectives or words that trigger or allay negative meta-stereotypes in accordance with different instructions. Then, they were assigned to complete a balsam pear juice distribution task, which represented aggressive behaviors against local children. Study 2 was improved on the basis of study 1. This study was organized into a 2 (MST condition: activate MST or not) × 2 (attacked aim: local and migrant children) mixed design. A total of 60 migrant children participated in study 2. After writing adjectives, the participants were tasked to complete a test to ensure that meta-stereotype was evoked. Then, a frustration questionnaire and balsam pear juice task among local and migrant children were completed and measured. Study 3 was organized into a 3 (types of imagination: imagined intergroup contact, imagined scenery, and non-imagination) × 2 (attacked aim: local and migrant children) mixed design. First, 95 migrant children were asked to trigger meta-stereotypes and complete the meta-stereotype test. Next, the non-imagination group directly completed the frustration questionnaire and balsam pear juice task, whereas the migrant children of the imagined intergroup contact group imagined positive interaction with local children and the imagined scenery group imagined an outdoor scenery. Then, the two groups completed the questionnaire and balsam pear juice task. T test, ANOVA, and mediation analysis were used to analyze all data.

The following results were observed: (1) Frustration and aggressive behaviors under the MST condition were higher than those in the non-MST condition. (2) The relationship between MST and aggressive behaviors against local children was partly mediated by frustration. (3) The mediated role of frustration was further supported by the results of study 3. Imagined intergroup contact can reduce the aggressive behavior against local children by controlling frustration.

In sum, the results proved that the effects of MST on frustration among migrant children contribute to the increase of aggressive behaviors against local children.

Keywords migrant children      meta-stereotype threat      frustration      aggressive behavior.     
ZTFLH:  B844  
Corresponding Authors: Baoshan ZHANG     E-mail: zhangbs@snnu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 22 February 2019
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Xiaoxiao HUANG
Baoshan ZHANG
Yuan ZHANG
Yuting MA
Cite this article:   
Xiaoxiao HUANG,Baoshan ZHANG,Yuan ZHANG, et al. Effects of meta-stereotype on aggressive behavior among migrant children and the mediating effect of frustration[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(4): 484-496.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00484     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I4/484
组别 操作检验 苦瓜汁评定 挫折感 攻击行为
苦味程度 喜爱程度 城市儿童 随迁儿童
元刻板印象威胁组 2.83 (1.02) 6.57 (0.57) 6.30 (0.70) 12.10 (4.08) 19.30 (9.82) 15.84 (8.15)
控制组 4.17 (0.79) 6.23 (0.86) 6.43 (0.63) 10.33 (1.97) 12.82 (7.06) 10.40 (5.45)
  
变量 1 2 3 4
1元刻板印象操纵
2挫折感 0.27*
3攻击行为(城市儿童) 0.36** 0.46**
4攻击行为(随迁儿童) 0.37** 0.30* 0.91**
  
  
路径 标准化
路径效应
95%置信区间
下限 上限
元刻板印象威胁→挫折感 0.54* 0.034 1.037
挫折感→对城市儿童的攻击行为 0.39** 0.160 0.630
元刻板印象威胁→对城市儿童的攻击行为 0.50* 0.036 0.967
元刻板印象威胁→对随迁儿童的攻击行为 0.62* 0.124 1.113
挫折感→对随迁儿童的攻击行为 0.22 -0.033 0.466
间接效应(元刻板印象威胁→挫折感→对城市儿童的攻击行为) 0.21* 0.003 0.558
间接效应(元刻板印象威胁→挫折感→对随迁儿童的攻击行为) 0.12 -0.055 0.426
  
组别 操作检验 苦瓜汁评定 挫折感 攻击行为
苦味程度 喜爱程度 城市儿童 随迁儿童
想象群际接触组 2.97 (0.70) 6.50 (0.51) 6.56 (0.50) 10.38 (2.50) 14.23 (7.22) 10.86 (5.23)
想象风景组 2.67 (0.76) 6.50 (0.51) 6.50 (0.51) 12.90 (4.90) 20.00 (10.16) 12.88 (6.73)
无想象组 2.61 (1.09) 6.27 (0.63) 6.27 (0.72) 15.24 (5.90) 19.06 (8.28) 13.45 (6.16)
  
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