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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (4) : 471-483     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00471
Reports of Empirical Studies |
The efficiency and improvement of novel word’s learning in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia during natural reading
BAI Xuejun1,2(),MA Jie1,LI Xin1,LIAN Kunyu1,TAN Ke1,YANG Yu1,LIANG Feifei2()
1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
2 School of Education and Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
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Abstract  

Previous studies have shown that the amount of vocabularies of children with developmental dyslexia is remarkably lower than that of normal children, thus, it becomes one of the primary indicators for discriminating dyslexia in clinical children develop vocabularies at an extremely high rate in primary school, and a conservative estimate shows that approximately one-third of vocabulary growth is acquired by accidental learning in natural reading. The critical process of this way to learn words, is to infer the word meaning by gathering useful sources base on lexical and contextual cues. Chinese developmental dyslexia typically have deficits in the aspects of morphological- and phonological-related processing, we infer they would be less skilled to derive the word meaning by using lexical information. The first experiment is designed to examine the dyslexic children’s performance of novel word learning in reading.

In Experiment 1, the novel words were embedded into eight sentences, each of which provided a context for readers to form a new lexical representation. Three groups of children were selected as participants, including children with developmental dyslexia (DD), the chronological age-matched children (CA), and reading level-matched children (RL). They were instructed to read sentences containing novel words as their eye movements were recorded. The results showed that, reading times on target words gradually reduced with the increasing of learning stages. Children with developmental dyslexia needed more contexts to begin to decrease for the measures of first fixation duration and gaze duration, and showed a slower decline on total fixation time as compared to age-matched and reading level-matched children. It suggests that more contexts are necessary for dyslexic children to learn novel words in reading.

The insertion of spaces between words, has been proven to be an effective way of improving children’s word learning efficiency. In Experiment 2, we examined whether children with dyslexia were more benefit from word spacing in word learning because of their low-level of reading skills. Three groups of children as the same in Experiment 1 were instructed to read sentences in unspaced, and word-spaced formats. The results showed that all children were benefit from word spacing in word learning, and it was more pronounced for children with- than without- dyslexia. We argue that word spacing may allow readers to form a more fully specified representation of the novel word, or to strengthen connections between representations of the constituent characters and the multi-character word.

Our findings provide robust evidence that Chinese children with developmental dyslexia have lower efficiency of word learning in reading, probably this accounts for their less vocabularies in mental lexicon. The findings also have strong implications for educational practice with respect to reading development with dyslexia.

Keywords developmental dyslexia      word acquisition      word segmentation      Chinese reading     
ZTFLH:  B842  
  B844  
Corresponding Authors: Xuejun BAI,Feifei LIANG     E-mail: baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn;feifeiliang_329@126.com
Issue Date: 22 February 2019
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Xuejun BAI
Jie MA
Xin LI
Kunyu LIAN
Ke TAN
Yu YANG
Feifei LIANG
Cite this article:   
Xuejun BAI,Jie MA,Xin LI, et al. The efficiency and improvement of novel word’s learning in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia during natural reading[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(4): 471-483.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00471     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I4/471
学校 年级 性别 年级
人数
发展性阅读
障碍儿童
筛出率
小学A 五年级 117 9 7.7%
98 0 0
总数 215 9 4.2%
小学B 五年级 79 2 2.5%
80 2 2.5%
总数 159 4 2.5%
小学C 五年级 61 4 6.5%
46 3 6.5%
总数 107 7 6.5%
小学D 五年级 211 17 8.1%
189 4 2.1%
总数 400 21 5.3%
  
各项测验 发展性阅读障碍组 生理年龄匹配组 阅读能力匹配组 F ηp2
年龄(月) 126 (6.78) 129(8.98) 105 (6.65) 68.75*** 0.69
智力(标准分) 106 (12) 108 (10) 113 (12) 2.56
识字量(字) 2173 (236) 2959 (206) 2166 (255) 83.96*** 0.73
正字法意识 72 (7.66) 78 (5.97) 75 (4.88) 4.31* 0.12
语音意识
音节判断 35 (2.38) 36 (0.59) 35 (1.57) 1.63
音位删除 11 (5.80) 17 (5.21) 17 (4.99) 7.70** 0.20
声母/韵母/声调辨别 29 (2.59) 30 (4.38) 31 (3.13) 1.80
言语工作记忆
数字广度(顺背+倒背) 15 (2.79) 16 (2.54) 15 (2.84) 2.94 (0.06) 0.09
汉字广度 9.55 (1.63) 8.91 (1.63) 9.55 (1.79) 1.05
快速命名(RAN)
数字RAN反应时 23 (4.97) 20 (2.29) 22 (3.66) 3.17* 0.09
字母RAN反应时 29 (7.32) 23 (2.31) 26 (7.86) 4.48* 0.13
颜色RAN反应时 46 (9.24) 41 (6.46) 48 (9.08) 3.70* 0.11
阅读流畅性
一分钟读词(词/分) 83(12) 94 (11) 88 (12) 4.66* 0.13
三分钟阅读(字) 382 (97) 518 (62) 430 (92) 14.53*** 0.32
  
学习阶段 句子编号 例句
学习阶段一 语境1 花园里的环米特别的鲜艳夺目。
学习阶段二 语境2 充足光照是环米生长的基本条件。
学习阶段三 语境3 水养或盆栽的环米都不需要施肥。
语境4 四月到五月是环米开花的好时期。
语境5 富丽端庄的环米的花瓣不易脱落。
学习阶段四 语境6 适合红色环米生长的土壤呈酸性。
语境7 所有盆栽的环米都必须定期浇水。
语境8 生长在山上的环米是一种药材。
语义类别选择题目:请选择“环米”属于以下哪个类别?
(1)文具 (2)花类 (3)容器 (4)季节
  
组别 学习
阶段
首次注视
时间(ms)
凝视时
间(ms)
总注视
时间(ms)
发展性阅读障碍组 阶段一 289 (60) 468 (135) 1123 (340)
阶段二 285 (58) 461 (141) 898 (270)
阶段三 265 (42) 393 (101) 715 (241)
阶段四 264 (36) 380 (109) 645 (195)
生理年龄匹配组 阶段一 284 (57) 471 (146) 1121 (307)
阶段二 265 (44) 328 (72) 687 (176)
阶段三 253 (36) 325 (66) 609 (153)
阶段四 246 (34) 297 (53) 549 (122)
阅读能力匹配组 阶段一 307 (74) 540 (184) 1404 (391)
阶段二 275 (49) 431 (148) 955 (287)
阶段三 266 (44) 371 (92) 796 (220)
阶段四 250 (43) 326 (89) 637 (199)
  
  
  
各项测验 首次注视
时间(ms)
凝视时间
(ms)
总注视
时间(ms)
正字法意识 -0.09 -0.16 -0.12
语音意识
音节判断 -0.21 -0.23 -0.21
音位删除 -0.01 -0.02 0.07
声母/韵母/声调辨别 -0.06 -0.09 -0.04
言语工作记忆
数字广度(顺背+倒背) -0.14 -0.15 -0.09
汉字广度 -0.14 -0.16 0.08
快速命名(RAN)
数字RAN反应时 0.07 0.23 0.31*
字母RAN反应时 0.08 0.05 0.27*
颜色RAN反应时 -0.06 0.12 0.11
阅读流畅性
一分钟读词(词/分) -0.20 -0.38** -0.13
三分钟阅读(字) -0.07 -0.25* -0.15
  
眼动指标 发展性阅读障碍组 生理年龄匹配组 阅读能力匹配组
无空格 词间空格 无空格 词间空格 无空格 词间空格
首次注视时间(ms) 274 (36) 260 (33) 259 (34) 264 (44) 273 (43) 280 (43)
凝视时间(ms) 427 (97) 375 (83) 342 (62) 338 (70) 407 (100) 384 (70)
总注视时间(ms) 856 (218) 696 (170) 670 (145) 602 (143) 860 (240) 692 (173)
  
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