Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (4) : 395-406     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00395
Special Column: Behavioral decision-making is nudging China toward the overall revitalization |
Are we truly irrational and almost impossible to educate? Analyzing the scientific evidence behind libertine paternalism
Gerd GIGERENZER1,LUAN Shenghua2(),LIU Yongfang3
1 Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany
2 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3 华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海 200062
Download: PDF(506 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

Based on research in psychology, libertine paternalists argue that our mind is systematically flawed, which leads to many cognitive biases that are too deeply entrenched to eradicate through education. Thus, they suggest that authorities should take lead and nudge people into proper behaviors and good decisions. However, from the perspectives of ecological rationality, the outcomes of the so-called cognitive biases may not be bad, and in many instances, can be even better than those of the so-called rational reasoning as suggested by libertine paternalists. We analyze the evidence libertine paternalists use to justify nudging and find two major problems: (1) some of the supposed evidence is the product of researchers’ narrow interpretations of what qualify as human rationality and rational thinking; and (2) some libertine paternalists selectively reported scientific evidence, neglecting or sparsely reporting research that show findings contradictory to their belief. We conclude that there is lack of evidence to support the assertion that people are irrational and almost impossible to educate. To invest on education and make people risk savvy not only has been shown plausible and applicable, but also should be a more sustainable solution than nudging.

Keywords nudge      ecological rationality      risk      uncertainty      heuristics      framing effect      probability learning     
ZTFLH:  B849: C91  
Fund: 
Corresponding Authors: Shenghua LUAN     E-mail: luansh@psych.ac.cn
Issue Date: 22 February 2019
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Gerd GIGERENZER
LUAN Shenghua
LIU Yongfang
Cite this article:   
Gerd GIGERENZER,LUAN Shenghua,LIU Yongfang. Are we truly irrational and almost impossible to educate? Analyzing the scientific evidence behind libertine paternalism[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(4): 395-406.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00395     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2019/V51/I4/395
[1] Aki E. A., Oxman A. D., Herrin J., Vist G. E., Terrenato I., Sperati F., … Schünemann H . ( 2011). Using alternative statistical formats for presenting risks and risk reductions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD006776.
pmid: 21412897 url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006776.pub2/pdf/standard
[2] Ariely,D. ( 2008). Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York:Harper Collins.
[3] Baratgin, J., & Noveck, I. A . ( 2000). Not only base rates are neglected in the Engineer-Lawyer problem: An investigation of reasoners' underutilization of complementarity. Memory & Cognition, 28, 79-91.
pmid: 10714141 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/10714141
[4] Berg, N., & Gigerenzer G. , (2007). Psychology implies paternalism? Bounded rationality may reduce the rationale to regulate risk-taking. Social Choice and Welfare, 28, 337-359.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00355-006-0169-0
[5] Berg, N., & Gigerenzer G. , ( 2010). As-if behavioral economics: Neoclassical economics in disguise? History of Economic Ideas, 18, 133-165.
url: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1677168
[6] Berrington de González A., Mahesh M., Kim K. P., Bhargavan M., Lewis R., Mettler F., & Land C . ( 2009). Projected cancer risks from computed tomographic scans performed in the United States in 2007. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169, 2071-2077.
url: http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archinternmed.2009.440
[7] Binmore, K . (2007). Rational decisions in large worlds. Annales d'Ecomonie et de Statistique, 86, 25-41.
url: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20079192
[8] Bond, M . (2009). Risk school. Nature, 461, 1189-1192.
url: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/4611189a
[9] Brase, G.L . ( 2009). Pictorial representations in statistical reasoning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 369-381.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/acp.v23%3A3
[10] Brenner, D. J., & Hall, E. J . ( 2007). Computed tomography— An increasing source of radiation exposure. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 2277-2284.
url: http://www.nejm.org/doi/abs/10.1056/NEJMra072149
[11] Brodie J., Daubechies I., de Mol C., Giannone D., & Loris I . ( 2009). Sparse and stable Markowitz portfolios. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 12267-12272.
pmid: 19617537 url: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0904287106
[12] Chater N. ,& Oaksford, M .( 2008). The probabilistic mind:Prospects for Bayesian cognitive science Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
[13] Chater N., Tenenbaum J. B., & Yuille A . ( 2006). Probabilistic models of cognition: Conceptual foundations. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 287-291.
pmid: 16807064 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S136466130600132X
[14] Cohen, D., &Carter, P. ( 2010). WHO and the pandemic flu “conspiracies.” BMJ, 340, 1274-1279.
[15] Cosmides, L., &Tooby, J. ( 1996). Are humans good intuitive statisticians after all? Rethinking some conclusions from the literature on judgment under uncertainty. Cognition, 58, 1-73.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0010027795006648
[16] Dawes, R. M.,& Mulford, M. , ( 1996). The false consensus effect and overconfidence: Flaws in judgment or flaws in how we study judgment? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 201-211.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749597896900205
[17] DeMiguel V., Garlappi L., & Uppal R . ( 2009). Optimal versus naive diversification: How inefficient is the 1/ N portfolio strategy? Review of Financial Studies, 22, 1915-1953.
url: http://www.jstor.org/stable/i30226011
[18] Edwards,W. ( 1968). Conservatism in human information processing. In B. Kleinmuntz (Ed.), Formal representation of human judgment(pp. 17-52). New York: Wiley.
[19] Epstein, R., & Robertson, R. E . ( 2015). The search engine manipulation effect (SEME) and its possible impact on the outcomes of elections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, E4512-E4521.
pmid: 26243876 url: http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1419828112
[20] Erev I., Wallsten T. S., & Budescu D. V . ( 1994). Simultaneous over- and underconfidence: The role of error in judgment processes. Psychological Review, 101, 519-527.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0033-295X.101.3.519
[21] Fong G. T., Krantz D. H., & Nisbett R. E . ( 1986). The effects of statistical training on thinking about everyday problems. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 253-292.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0010028586900010
[22] Friston,K . ( 2010). The free-energy principle: A unified brain theory? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 127-138.
pmid: 20068583 url: http://www.nature.com/articles/nrn2787
[23] Gigerenzer, G. ( 2000). Adaptive thinking: Rationality in the real world. New York: Oxford University Press.
[24] Gigerenzer,G. ( 2014a ). Breast cancer screening pamphlets mislead women. BMJ, 348, g2636.
pmid: 24770369 url: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/bmj.g2636
[25] Gigerenzer,G. ( 2014b ). Risk savvy: How to make good decisions. New York: Viking.
[26] Gigerenzer G., Fiedler K.,& Olsson, H. , ( 2012) . Rethinking cognitive biases as environmental consequences. In P. M. Todd, G. Gigerenzer, & the ABC Research Group (Eds.), Ecological rationality: Intelligence in the world (pp. 80-110). New York: Oxford University Press.
[27] Gigerenzer G., Gaissmaier W., Kurz-Milcke E., Schwartz L. M., & Woloshin S . ( 2007). Helping doctors and patients to make sense of health statistics. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8, 53-96.
pmid: 26161749 url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/j.1539-6053.2008.00033.x
[28] Gigerenzer G., Hell W., & Blank H . ( 1988). Presentation and content: The use of base rates as a continuous variable. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14, 513-525.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-1523.14.3.513
[29] Gigerenzer G., Hertwig R.,& Pachur, T. , ( 2011) . Heuristics: The foundations of adaptive behavior New York: Oxford University Press The foundations of adaptive behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.
[30] Gigerenzer, G., &Hoffrage, U. ( 1995). How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: Frequency formats. Psychological Review, 102, 684-704.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0033-295X.102.4.684
[31] Gigerenzer G., Mata J., & Frank R . ( 2009). Public knowledge of benefits of breast and prostate cancer screening in Europe. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101, 1216-1220.
pmid: 19671770 url: https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/djp237
[32] Gigerenzer G. , & Muir Gray, J. A.( 2011) . Better doctors, better patients, better decisions: Envisioning health care 2020. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[33] Gigerenzer G. , & Selten, R.( 2001) . Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox Cambridge, MA: MIT Press The adaptive toolbox. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[34] Gigerenzer G., Todd P. M. , & the ABC Research Group.( 1999) . Simple heuristics that make us smart. New York: Oxford University Press.
[35] G?tzsche, P. C., & J?rgensen, K. J . ( 2013). Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6, CD001877.
[36] Griffiths T. L., Kemp C. , & Tenenbaum, J. B.( 2008) . Bayesian models of cognition. In R. Sun (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology (pp. 59-100). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[37] Hertwig R., Pachur T., & Kurzenh?user S . ( 2005). Judgments of risk frequencies: Tests of possible cognitive mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31, 621-642.
pmid: 16060769 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16060769
[38] Hoffrage U., Lindsey S., Hertwig R., & Gigerenzer G . ( 2000). Communicating statistical information. Science, 290, 2261-2262.
url: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.290.5500.2261
[39] Juslin P., Winman A., & Olsson H . ( 2000). Naive empiricism and dogmatism in confidence research: A critical examination of the hard-easy effect. Psychological Review, 107, 384-396.
pmid: 10789203 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0033-295X.107.2.384
[40] Kahneman,D. ( 2011). Thinking fast and slow. London: Allen Lane.
[41] Kahneman, D., &Tversky, A. ( 1972). Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 430-454.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0010028572900163
[42] Kahneman, D., &Tversky, A. ( 1973). On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 80, 237-251.
url: http://content.apa.org/journals/rev/80/4/237
[43] Kleiter, G. D . ( 1994). Natural sampling: Rationality without base rates. In G. H. Fischer & D. Laming (Eds.), Contributions to mathematical psychology, psychometrics, and methodology(pp. 375-388). New York: Springer.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4612-4308-3_27
[44] Knight, F. H . ( 1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit (Vol. XXXI). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
[45] K?sters, J. P., & G?tzsche, P. C . ( 2003). Regular self- examination or clinical examination for early detection of breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD003373.
pmid: 15830497 url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003373/full
[46] Kühberger,A. ( 1995). The framing of decisions: A new look at old problems. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62, 230-240.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749597885710461
[47] Kühberger, A., &Gradl, P. ( 2013). Choice, rating, and ranking: Framing effects with different response modes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26, 109-117.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/bdm.v26.2
[48] Kühberger, A., &Tanner, C. ( 2010). Risky choice framing: Task versions and a comparison of prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 23, 314-329.
url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bdm.656/full
[49] Lindsey S., Hertwig R., & Gigerenzer G . ( 2003). Communicating statistical DNA evidence. Jurimetrics, 43, 147-163.
[50] Luan S., Schooler L. J., & Gigerenzer G . ( 2011). A signal- detection analysis of fast-and-frugal trees. Psychological Review, 118, 316-338.
pmid: 21381858 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0022684
[51] Luan S., Schooler L. J., & Gigerenzer G . ( 2014). From perception to preference and on to inference: An approach-avoidance analysis of thresholds. Psychological Review, 121, 501-525.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0037025
[52] Mandel D. R . ( 2001). Gain-loss framing and choice: Separating outcome formulations from descriptor formulations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85, 56-76.
pmid: 11341817 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749597800929327
[53] McKenzie, C. R. M., & Nelson J.D, . ( 2003). What a speaker's choice of frame reveals: Reference points, frame selection, and framing effects. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 10, 596-602.
pmid: 14620352 url: http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.3758/BF03196520
[54] Meyerowtiz, B. E.,& Chaiken, S. , ( 1987). The effect of message framing on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 509-510.
pmid: 3572721 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1987-22913-001
[55] Moxey A., O’Connell D., McGettigan P., & Henry D . ( 2003). Describing treatment effects to patients: How they are expressed makes a difference. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18, 948-959.
pmid: 14687282 url: http://link.springer.com/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.20928.x
[56] Multmeier,J. ( 2012). Representations facilitate Bayesian reasoning: Computational facilitation and ecological design revisited. Unpublished manuscript.
[57] Nisbett, R. E . ( 2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York: Norton.
[58] Norman,D. ( 1990). The design of everyday things. New York: Doubleday.
[59] Parikh,P. ( 2009). Value investing and behavioral finance: Insights into Indian stock market realities. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
[60] Rebonato,R. ( 2012). Taking liberties: A critical examination of libertarian paternalism. Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
[61] Savage, L. J . ( 1954). The foundations of statistics. New York: Wiley.
[62] Schooler, L. J., & Anderson, J. R . ( 1997). The role of process in the rational analysis of memory. Cognitive Psychology, 32, 219-250.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010028597906526
[63] Sedlmeier, P., &Gigerenzer, G. ( 2001). Teaching Bayesian reasoning in less than two hours. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 380-400.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-3445.130.3.380
[64] Sher, S., & McKenzie, C. R. M . ( 2006). Information leakage from logically equivalent frames. Cognition, 101, 467-494.
pmid: 16364278 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S001002770500212X
[65] Salovey, P., &Williams-Piehota, P. ( 2004). Field experiments in social psychology: Message framing and the promotion of health protective behaviors. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 488-505.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0002764203259293
[66] Slovic P., Fischhoff B.& Lichtenstein, S. , ( 1982). Facts versus fears: Understanding perceived risk. In D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, & A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (pp. 463-492). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14774003.2005.11667668
[67] Spiegelhalter D., Pearson M., & Short I . ( 2011). Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science, 333, 1393-1400.
pmid: 21903802 url: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1191181
[68] Studdert D. M., Mello M. M., Sage W. M., DesRoches C. M., Peugh J., Zapert K., & Brennan M. D . ( 2005). Defensive medicine among high-risk specialist physicians in a volatile malpractice environment. JAMA, 293, 2609-2617.
pmid: 15928282 url: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jama.293.21.2609
[69] Sunstein C. R. ( 2005). Laws of fear: Beyond the precautionary principle. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
[70] Sunstein, C. R . ( 2013). The Storrs lectures: Behavioral economics and paternalism. The Yale Law Journal, 122, 1826-1899.
url: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2182619
[71] Thaler, R. H . ( 1991). Quasi rational economics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
[72] Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R . ( 2003). Libertarian paternalism. American Economic Review, 93, 175-179.
url: http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/10.1257/000282803321947001
[73] Thaler R. H.& Sunstein, C. R. , (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness New Haven, CT: Yale University Press Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
[74] Till, C . ( 2014). Risk literacy: First steps in primary school. In K. Makar, B. de Sousa, & R. Gould (Eds.), Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9).Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
[75] Trout, J. D . ( 2005). Paternalism and cognitive bias. Law and Philosophy, 24, 393-434.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10982-004-8197-3
[76] Tversky, A., &Kahneman, D. ( 1980). Causal schemata in judgments under uncertainty. In M. Fishbein (Ed.), Progress in social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 49-72). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[77] Tversky, A., &Kahneman, D. ( 1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453-458.
url: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.7455683
[78] Tversky, A., &Kahneman, D. ( 1986). Rational choice and the framing of decisions. The Journal of Business, 59, S251-S278.
url: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/jb/59/s4
[79] Wegwarth O., Schwartz L. M., Woloshin S., Gaissmaier W., & Gigerenzer G . ( 2012). Do physicians understand cancer screening statistics? A national survey of primary care physicians in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156, 340-349.
pmid: 22393129 url: http://annals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.7326/0003-4819-156-5-201203060-00005
[80] Welch H. G. ( 2004). Should I be tested for cancer? Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
[81] Woloshin, S., & Schwartz L. M, . ( 2012). How a charity oversells mammography. BMJ, 345, e5132.
pmid: 22859787 url: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/bmj.e5132
[82] Woloshin S., Schwartz L. M.& Welch, H. G. , ( 2008) . Know your chances: Understanding health statistics Berkeley, CA: University of California Press Understanding health statistics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
[83] Yu,Y., & Li,S , ( 2006). "Overconfidence" and its cross- cultural variation. Advances in Psychological Science, 14, 468-474.
url: http://www.cqvip.com/Main/Detail.aspx?id=21953694
[83] [ 于窈, 李纾 . ( 2006). “过分自信”的研究及其跨文化差异. 心理科学进展, 14( 3), 468-474.]
url: http://www.cqvip.com/Main/Detail.aspx?id=21953694
[84] Zhu, L., &Gigerenzer, G. ( 2006). Children can solve Bayesian problems: The role of representation in mental computation. Cognition, 98, 287-308.
pmid: 16399266 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010027705000132
[1] ZHANG Hong,REN jingyuan,LIU Chenyang,LUO Jing. Conformity effect of the evaluation of creative products[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(6): 688-698.
[2] Xiao Tian WANG. Using behavioral economics to cope with uncertainty: Expand the scope of effective nudging[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(4): 407-414.
[3] YANG Ling,WANG Binqiang,GEN Yinfeng,YAO Dongwei,CAO Hua,ZHANG Jianxun,XU Qiongying. The influence of hypothetical and real money rewards on the risky decision-making of the abstinent heroin user[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(4): 507-516.
[4] ZHOU Lei,LI Ai-Mei,ZHANG Lei,LI Shu,LIANG Zhu-Yuan. Similarity in processes of risky choice and intertemporal choice: The case of certainty effect and immediacy effect[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(3): 337-352.
[5] WANG Xiaozhuang, AN Xiaojing, LUO Haoshuang, XU Sheng, YU Xin, HU Shiya, WANG Yuhan. Anchoring effect as a nudge on improving public health: Two field experiments[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 848-857.
[6] HE Gui-Bing, LI Shu, LIANG Zhu-Yuan. Behavioral decision-making is nudging China toward the overall revitalization[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 803-813.
[7] LI Aimei, WANG Haixia, SUN Hailong, XIONG Guanxing, YANG Shaoli . The nudge effect of “foresight for the future of our children”: Pregnancy and environmental intertemporal choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 858-867.
[8] LU Xi, HSEE, Christopher K. Joint evaluation versus single evaluation: A field full of potentials[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 827-839.
[9] TIAN Lumei, YUAN Jingchi, LI Yongmei.  Effects of peer presence and self-esteem on adolescent risk-taking behavior: Evidence from an ERP study[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(1): 47-57.
[10] CHEN Jiaxin; HE Guibing. Taking money and environment together: The role of relative values in composite risky decision-making[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(4): 500-512.
[11] HUANG Minxue; WANG Yiting; LIAO Junyun; LIU Maohong. Mixed effects of inconsistent reviews on consumers: The moderating roles of product attributes and regulatory focus[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(3): 370-382.
[12] XU Shiyong; ZHU Jinqiang. Ethical leadership and pro-social rule breaking: A dual process model[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(1): 106-115.
[13] HOU Jinqin; CHEN Zhiyan. The trajectories of adolescent depressive symptoms: Identifying latent subgroups and risk factors[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(8): 957-968.
[14] ZHU Jingyuan; HE Guibing. Risk source matters much in decision-making: Betrayal aversion and the role of need for affiliation[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(6): 733-745.
[15] LI Dongping; ZHOU Yueyue; ZHAO Liyan; WANG Yanhui; SUN Wenqiang. Cumulative ecological risk and adolescent internet addiction: The mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction and positive outcome expectancy[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(12): 1519-1537.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech