Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, Vol. 51 Issue (3) : 337-352     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00337
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Similarity in processes of risky choice and intertemporal choice: The case of certainty effect and immediacy effect
ZHOU Lei1,2,3,LI Ai-Mei1,ZHANG Lei4,LI Shu2,3(),LIANG Zhu-Yuan2,3()
1 Management School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China
3 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4 Institute for Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246, Germany
Download: PDF(1247 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info

Risky choice (RC) and intertemporal choice (IC) are two types of common decisions that are vital to human’s everyday life. RC and IC share similarities regarding theoretical development, behavioral effects, and neural basis. One critical challenge is that, although previous studies have revealed that RC and IC involve similar cognitive processes, results are mixed regarding what the exact mechanism might be. The mainstream discounting model hypothesizes that both RC and IC follow a compensatory and alternative-based rule. However, other models suggest that RC and IC commonly involve non-compensatory and attribute-based processing. Moreover, prior studies primarily based their findings on outcome data and few have attempted to determine whether RC and IC shared a common decision process at the cognitive computational level.
To fill this gap, the present study adopts a systematic approach to disentangle the exact mechanism of RC and IC. We considered two well-studied behavioral effects, namely, certainty effect of RC and immediacy effect of IC, respectively, and compared their underlying local and holistic process characteristics by using eye-tracking technique. Besides, we employed hierarchical Bayesian modeling to assess whether alternative- or attribute-based models better fit both RC and IC. We designed a 2×2 within-subject paradigm, with the choice task (RC vs. IC) and the construct of decision options (with vs. without certain/immediate option) as factors. Thirty-three postgraduate students participated in our study. As we were particularly interested in two pairs of decision rules, i.e., compensatory/non-compensatory rules and alternative-based/attribute-based rules, we included a series of decision attributes that reflected them, based on the local and holistic process characteristics derived from eye-movement data to test our hypotheses.
Our entire set of analyses aimed to (1) determine whether the decision processes of RC and IC are similar and (2) identify the best computational model that is more suitable for both decisions. For the first aim, results show that RC and IC indeed share comparable decision processes, albeit having a few differences in other aspects. Specifically, RC and IC differ in process characteristics, such as complexity and holistic eye-movement dynamics, and IC is processed in a relatively more deliberate, deeper fashion than RC. However, they are similar in other characteristics, such as search direction, which is more relevant to making decisions. For the second aim, computational modeling of process characteristics suggests that both types of decisions are consistent with non-discounting models. In particular, results of search direction, in light of Bayesian model comparison, reveals that participants are more likely to follow the non-compensatory, attribute-based rule rather than the alternative-based/attribute-based rule when deciding for both RC and IC. Furthermore, different task constructs of decision options, i.e., with or without certain/immediate option, show distinct process characteristics, such as direction, complexity, and depth in both RC and IC.
To conclude, the present study shows that although differences exist between RC and IC, they indeed have shared cognitive mechanisms at the core of the decision processes. In both types of decisions, contrary to classic discounting models, individuals seem not to follow compensatory, attribute-based rules, which undergoes a “weighting and summing” or “delay discounting” process. Instead, they are more likely to use simple heuristic rules hypothesized by non-discounting models. Moreover, when including certain or immediate options, individuals tend to follow less compensatory and non-dominant (neither attribute-based nor alternative-based) rules. In sum, our findings not only provide a theoretical and empirical basis for the establishment of a common framework for RC and IC, but also provide a novel direction for thorough theoretical and methodological comparisons between variant decision tasks.

Keywords risky choice      intertemporal choice      eye-tracking      hierarchical Bayesian modeling      certainty effect      immediacy effect     
ZTFLH:  B849: C91  
Corresponding Authors: Shu LI,Zhu-Yuan LIANG     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 22 January 2019
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Ai-Mei LI
Shu LI
Zhu-Yuan LIANG
Cite this article:   
Lei ZHOU,Ai-Mei LI,Lei ZHANG, et al. Similarity in processes of risky choice and intertemporal choice: The case of certainty effect and immediacy effect[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(3): 337-352.
URL:     OR
模型类别 模型 风险决策任务 跨期决策任务
WAIC 预测率 WAIC 预测率
折扣模型 指数模型 1169.51 61.79% 885.61 71.60%
双曲线模型 1325.38 54.91% 787.39 76.01%
非折扣模型 启发式模型 682.42 80.46% 595.59 84.32%
决策特征 决策属性 分析指标 决策过程规则
风险任务 跨期任务
局部过程特征 加工复杂程度 单个注视点平均时长/长注视点比例 非补偿 非补偿 非补偿 非补偿
加工深度 注视量百分比 非补偿 非补偿 非补偿 非补偿
加工方向 SM值 无占优规则 基于维度 无占优规则 基于维度
整体过程特征 整体动态的眼动过程 眼动轨迹 无占优规则 基于维度 无占优规则 无占优规则
模型拟合 潜在的认知过程 分层贝叶斯模型拟合 基于维度 基于维度 基于维度 基于维度
[1] Ahn W.-Y., Haines N., &Zhang L . ( 2017). Revealing neuro- computational mechanisms of reinforcement learning and decision-making with the hBayesDM package. Computational Psychiatry, 1, 24-57. doi: 10.1162/cpsy_a_00002
doi: 10.1162/cpsy_a_00002 url:
[2] Allais M . ( 1953). Le comportement de l'homme rationnel devant le risque: Critique des postulats et axioms de l'ecole americaine [Rational man's behavior in face of risk: Critique of the American School's postulates and axioms]. Econometrica Quick Links, 21, 503-546.
[3] Böckenholt U., &Hynan L.S . ( 1994). Caveats on a process- tracing measure and a remedy. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 7( 2), 103-117. doi: 10.1002/bdm.3960070203
doi: 10.1002/bdm.3960070203 url:
[4] Brandstätter E., Gigerenzer G., &Hertwig R . ( 2006). The priority heuristic: Making choices without trade-offs. Psychological Review, 113( 2), 409-432. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.113.2.409
doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.113.2.409 pmid: 2891015 url:
[5] Brandstätter E., &Körner C. ( 2014). Attention in risky choice. Acta Psychologica, 152, 166-176. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2014. 08.008
doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2014. 08.008
[6] Burnham K.P., &Anderson D.R . ( 2004). Multimodel inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods & Research, 33( 2), 261-304. doi: 10.1177/0049124104268644
doi: 10.1177/0049124104268644
[7] Dai J., &Busemeyer J.R . ( 2014). A probabilistic, dynamic, and attribute-wise model of intertemporal choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143( 4), 1489-1514. doi: 10.1037/a0035976
doi: 10.1037/a0035976 pmid: 4115005 url:
[8] Ericson K. M. M., White J. M., Laibson D. I., &Cohen J. D . ( 2015). Money earlier or later? Simple heuristics explain intertemporal choices better than delay discounting does. Psychological Science, 26( 6), 826-833. doi: 10.1177/ 0956797615572232
doi: 10.1177/ 0956797615572232 pmid: 4516222 url:
[9] Fiedler S., &Glöckner A. ( 2012). The dynamics of decision making in risky choice: An eye-tracking analysis. Frontiers Psychology , 3, 335. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00335
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00335 pmid: 3498888 url:
[10] Figner B., Knoch D., Johnson E. J., Krosch A. R., Lisanby S. H., Fehr E., &Weber E. U . ( 2010). Lateral prefrontal cortex and self-control in intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience, 13( 5), 538-539. doi: 10.1038/nn.2516
doi: 10.1038/nn.2516 pmid: 20348919 url:
[11] , , Fisher G., &Rangel A. ( 2013). Intertemporal discount rates are mediated by relative attention. Paper presented at Society for Judgment and Decision Making Annual Conference, Toronto, Canada.
[12] Franco-Watkins A. M., Mattson R. E., &Jackson M. D . ( 2016). Now or later? Attentional processing and intertemporal choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29( 2-3), 206-217. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1895
doi: 10.1002/bdm.1895 url:
[13] Frederick S., Loewenstein G., &O'donoghue T . ( 2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40( 2), 351-401. doi: 10.1257/ 002205102320161311
doi: 10.1257/ 002205102320161311 url:
[14] Gelman A., Carlin J. B., Stern H. S., Dunson D. B., Vehtari A., &Rubin, D. B. ( 2014) . Bayesian data analysis (3rd ed.). New York, NY: CRC Press.
[15] Gelman A., &Rubin D.B . ( 1992). Inference from iterative simulation using multiple sequences. Statistical Science, 7( 4), 457-472. doi: 10.1214/ss/1177011136
doi: 10.1214/ss/1177011136 url:
[16] Glöckner A., &Herbold A-K . ( 2011). An eye-tracking study on information processing in risky decisions: Evidence for compensatory strategies based on automatic processes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24( 1), 71-98. doi: 10.1002/bdm.684
doi: 10.1002/bdm.684 url:
[17] Green L., Myerson J., &Ostaszewski P . ( 1999). Amount of reward has opposite effects on the discounting of delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25( 2), 418-427. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.25.2.418
doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.25.2.418 pmid: 10093208 url:
[18] Green L., Myerson J., &Vanderveldt, A. . (2014) Delay and probability discounting. In: F. K. McSweeney & E. Murphy (Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Operant and Classical Conditioning (pp. 307-337). Chichester, England: Wiley.
[19] Hardisty D.J., &Pfeffer J. ( 2016). Intertemporal uncertainty avoidance: When the future is uncertain, people prefer the present, and when the present is uncertain, people prefer the future. Management Science, 63( 2), 519-527. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2349
doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2349 url:
[20] Horstmann N. ( 2009). How distinct are intuition and deliberation? An eye-tracking analysis of instruction-induced decision modes. Judgment and Decision Making, 4( 5), 335-354. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1393729
doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1393729 url:
[21] Hu C-P., Kong X-Z., Wagenmakers E-J., Ly A., &Peng K-P . ( 2018). The bayes factor and its implementation in JASP: A pratical primer. 26(6), 951-965. doi: 10.3724/SP. J.1042.2018.00951
doi: 10.3724/SP. J.1042.2018.00951 url:
[21] [ 胡传鹏, 孔祥祯, Wagenmakers, E-J., Ly A., 彭凯平 . ( 2018). 贝叶斯因子及其在JASP中的实现. 心理科学进展, 26( 6), 951-965.]
doi: 10.3724/SP. J.1042.2018.00951 url:
[22] JASP Team . ( 2017). JASP (Version 0. 8.2) [Computer software]
[23] Jeffreys H. ( 1961). Theory of probability (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
[24] Kable J.W., &Glimcher P.W . ( 2007). The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience, 10( 12), 1625-1633. doi: 10.1038/nn2007
doi: 10.1038/nn2007 pmid: 2845395 url:
[25] Kahneman D., &Tversky A. ( 1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47( 2), 263-291. doi: 10.2307/1914185
doi: 10.2307/1914185 url:
[26] Kahneman D., &Tversky A. ( 1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39( 4), 341-350.
[27] Kirby K.N., &Herrnstein R.J . ( 1995). Preference reversals due to myopic discounting of delayed reward. Psychological Science, 6( 2), 83-89. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00311.x
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00311.x url:
[28] Konstantinidis E., van Ravenzwaaij D., &Newell B. R . ( 2017). Exploring the decision dynamics of risky intertemporal choice. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 694-699. Retrieved from
url: pdf
[29] Kuhnen C.M., &Knutson B. ( 2005). The neural basis of financial risk taking. Neuron, 47( 5), 763-770. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.008
doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.008 pmid: 16129404 url:
[30] Li S. ( 2004). A behavioral choice model when computational ability matters. Applied Intelligence, 20( 2), 147-163. doi: 10.1023/B:APIN.0000013337.01711.c7
doi: 10.1023/B:APIN.0000013337.01711.c7 url:
[31] Li S., Su Y., &Sun Y . ( 2010). The effect of pseudo-immediacy on intertemporal choices . Journal of Risk Research. 13( 6), 781-787. doi: 10.1080/13669870903551704
doi: 10.1080/13669870903551704 url:
[32] Liang Z-Y., Zhou L., &Su Y . ( 2016, Aug.). The hidden-zero effect in risky choice: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the 31th International Congress of Psychology, Yokohama, JAPAN.
[33] Luckman A., Donkin C., &Newell B. R . ( 2017). Can a single model account for both risky choices and inter-temporal choices? Testing the assumptions underlying models of risky inter-temporal choice. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 785-792. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1330-8
doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1330-8 pmid: 28600719 url:
[34] Loewenstein G., &Prelec D. ( 1992). Anomalies in intertemporal choice: Evidence and an interpretation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107( 2), 573-597. doi: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0028
doi: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0028 url:
[35] Ly A., Verhagen J., &Wagenmakers E.-J . ( 2016 a). An evaluation of alternative methods for testing hypotheses, from the perspective of Harold Jeffreys. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 72, 43-55. doi: 10.1016/
doi: 10.1016/ url:
[36] Ly A., Verhagen J., &Wagenmakers E-J . ( 2016 b). Harold Jeffreys’s default Bayes factor hypothesis tests: Explanation, extension, and application in psychology. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 72, 19-32. doi: 10.1016/ 2015.06.004
doi: 10.1016/ 2015.06.004 url:
[37] Magen E., Dweck C., &Gross J. J . ( 2008). The hidden-zero effect: Representing a single choice as an extended sequence reduces impulsive choice. Psychological Science, 19( 7), 648-649. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02137.x
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02137.x url:
[38] Marsman M., &Wagenmakers E-J . ( 2017). Bayesian benefits with JASP. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14( 5), 545-555. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2016.1259614
doi: 10.1080/17405629.2016.1259614 url:
[39] Mazur J.E . ( 1987). An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement. In M. L. Commons, J. E. Mazur, J. A. Nevin, & H. Rachlin(Eds.), Quantitative analyses of behavior: Vol. 5. The effect of delay and of intervening events on reinforcement value
[40] McClure S. M., Laibson D. I., Loewenstein G., &Cohen J. D . ( 2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306( 5695), 503-507. doi: 10.1126/science.1100907
doi: 10.1126/science.1100907
[41] Myerson J., Green L., Hanson S. J., Holt D. D., &Estle S. J . ( 2003). Discounting delayed and probabilistic rewards: Processes and traits. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24( 5), 619-635. doi: 10.1016/S0167-4870(03)00005-9
doi: 10.1016/S0167-4870(03)00005-9 url:
[42] Noton D., &Stark L. ( 1971). Scanpaths in eye movements during pattern perception. Science, 171( 3968), 308-311. doi: 10.1126/science.171.3968.308
doi: 10.1126/science.171.3968.308 pmid: 5538847 url:
[43] Pascal B. ( 1670). Pensées (W. F. Trotter, Trans.). Retrieved Nov. 22, 2018, from
url: 1660pascal-pensees.asp
[44] Rao L-L, &Li S. ( 2011). New paradoxes in intertemporal choice. Judgment and Decision Making, 6( 2), 122-129.
[45] Rayner K. (Ed.) ( 2013). Eye movements and visual cognition: Scene perception and reading. New York:Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-2852-3
doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-2852-3
[46] Read D., Frederick S., &Scholten M . ( 2013). DRIFT: An analysis of outcome framing in intertemporal choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39( 2), 573-588. doi: 10.1037/a0029177
doi: 10.1037/a0029177 pmid: 22866891 url:
[47] Read D., Loewenstein G., &Kalyanaraman S . ( 1999). Mixing virtue and vice: Combining the immediacy effect and the diversification heuristic. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 12( 4), 257-273. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0771 (199912)12:4%3C257::AID-BDM327%3E3.0.CO;2-6
doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0771 (199912)12:4%3C257::AID-BDM327%3E3.0.CO;2-6
[48] Reeck C., Wall D., &Johnson E. J . ( 2017). Search predicts and changes patience in intertemporal choice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114( 45), 11890-11895. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1707040114
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1707040114 pmid: 29078303 url:
[49] Rouder J. N., Speckman P. L., Sun D. C., Morey R. D., &Iverson G . ( 2009). Bayesian t-tests for accepting and rejecting the null hypothesis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 225-237. doi: 10.3758/PBR.16.2.225
doi: 10.3758/PBR.16.2.225 pmid: 19293088 url:
[50] Samuelson P.A . ( 1937). A note on measurement of utility. The Review of Economic Studies, 4( 2), 155-161.
[51] Scheibehenne B., &Pachur T. ( 2015). Using Bayesian hierarchical parameter estimation to assess the generalizability of cognitive models of choice. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22( 2), 391-407. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0684-4
doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0684-4 pmid: 25134469 url:
[52] Schneider E., Streicher B., Lermer E., Sachs R., &Frey D . ( 2017). Measuring the zero-risk bias: Methodological artefact or decision-making strategy? Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225, 31-44. doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000284
doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000284
[53] Schulte-Mecklenbeck M., Johnson J. G., Böckenholt U., Goldstein D. G., Russo J. E., Sullivan N. J., &Willemsen M. C . ( 2017). Process-tracing methods in decision making: On growing up in the 70s. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26( 5), 442-450. doi: 10.1177/0963721417708229
doi: 10.1177/0963721417708229 url:
[54] Schulte-Mecklenbeck M., Kühberger A., Gagl B., &Hutzler F . ( 2017). Inducing thought processes: Bringing process measures and cognitive processes closer together. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30( 5), 1001-1013. doi: 10.1002/bdm.2007
doi: 10.1002/bdm.2007 url:
[55] Scholten M., &Read D. ( 2010). The psychology of intertemporal tradeoffs. Psychological Review, 117( 3), 925-944. doi: 10.1037/a001
doi: 10.1037/a001 pmid: 20658858 url:
[56] Simon H. A. ( 1982). Models of Bounded Rationality: Empirically grounded economic reason. Cambridge, US: MIT Press.
[57] Stewart N., Hermens F., &Matthews W. J . ( 2015). Eye movements in risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29( 2-3), 116-136. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1854
doi: 10.1002/bdm.1854 url:
[58] Stevens J. R. ( 2011). Mechanisms for decisions about the future. In R. Menzel, & J. Fischer (Eds.) Animal thinking: Contemporary issues in comparative cognition (pp. 93- 104) . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[59] Stevenson M. K., Busemeyer J. R., &Naylor, J. C.. , ( 1990) . Judgment and decision-making theory. In D. M. Dunnette, & L. M. Hough (Eds.) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 283-374) . CA, US: Consulting Psychologists Press.
[60] Su Y., Rao L. L., Sun H. Y., Du X. L., Li X., &Li S . ( 2013). Is making a risky choice based on a weighting and adding process? An eye-tracking investigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39( 6), 1765-1780. doi: 10.1037/a0032861
doi: 10.1037/a0032861 pmid: 23687917 url:
[61] Vehtari A., Gelman A., &Gabry J . ( 2015). Efficient implementation of leave-one-out cross-validation and WAIC for evaluating fitted Bayesian models. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1507.04544. doi: 1007/s11222-016-9696-4
doi: 1007/s11222-016-9696-4 url:
[62] Vincent B.T . ( 2016). Hierarchical Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing for delay discounting tasks. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 1608-1620. doi: 10.3758/s13428-015- 0672-2
doi: 10.3758/s13428-015- 0672-2 pmid: 26542975 url:
[63] Wagenmakers E-J., Love J., Marsman M., Jamil T., Ly A., Verhagen J., … van Doorn J . ( 2018 a). Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II?: Example applications with JASP. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25( 1), 58-76. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1323-7
doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1323-7 pmid: 28685272 url:
[64] Wagenmakers E.- J., Marsman M., Jamil T., Ly A., Verhagen J., Love J., … Morey R. D . ( 2018 b). Bayesian inference for psychology. Part I: Theoretical advantages and practical ramifications. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25( 1), 35-57. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1343-3
doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1343-3 url:
[65] Wang Z-J., &Li S . ( 2012). Tests of the integrative model and priority heuristic model from the point of view of choice process: Evidence from an eye-tracking study. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 44( 2), 179-198. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.00179
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.00179 url:
[65] [ 汪祚军, 李纾 . ( 2012). 对整合模型和占优启发式模型的检验:基于信息加工过程的眼动研究证据. 心理学报, 44( 2), 179-198.]
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.00179 url:
[66] Weber B.J., &Chapman G.B . ( 2005). The combined effects of risk and time on choice: Does uncertainty eliminate the immediacy effect? Does delay eliminate the certainty effect? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 96( 2), 104-118. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.01.001
doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.01.001 url:
[67] Weber B.J., &Huettel S.A . ( 2008). The neural substrates of probabilistic and intertemporal decision making. Brain Research, 1234, 104-115. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.105
doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.105 pmid: 2629583 url:
[68] Wei Z-H., &Li X.S . ( 2015). Decision process tracing: Evidence from eye-movement data. Advances in Psychological Science, 23( 12), 2029-2041. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.02029
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.02029 url:
[68] [ 魏子晗, 李兴珊 . ( 2015). 决策过程的追踪: 基于眼动的证据. 心理科学进展, 23( 12), 2029-2041.]
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.02029 url:
[69] Wu F., Gu Q., Shi Z-H., Gao Z-F., &Shen M-W . ( 2018). Striding over the “classical statistical inference trap” —Application of Bayes factors in psychological studies. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 24(3), 195-202.
[69] [ 吴凡, 顾全, 施壮华, 高在峰, 沈模卫 . ( 2018). 跳出传统假设检验方法的陷阱——贝叶斯因子在心理学研究领域的应用. 应用心理学, 24(3), 195-202.]
[70] Wu Y., Zhou X-L., &Luo Y-J . ( 2010). The neuroscience of intertemporal choices and decision-making under risk and uncertainty. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 84( 1), 76-80.
[70] [ 吴燕, 周晓林, 罗跃嘉 . ( 2010). 跨期选择和风险决策的认知神经机制. 心理与行为研究, 8( 1), 76-80.]
[71] Zhang Y-Y., Xu L-J., Rao L-L., Zhou L., Zhou, Y, Jiang, T-Z, Li, S., &Liang Z-Y . ( 2016). Gain-loss asymmetry in neural correlates of temporal discounting: An approach-avoidance motivation perspective. Scientific Reports, 6, 31902. doi: 10.1038/srep31902
doi: 10.1038/srep31902 pmid: 4997255 url:
[72] Zhou L . ( 2017). Process comparison of risky choice and intertemporal choice: Evidence from eye-tracking method (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
[72] [ 周蕾 ( 2017). 风险决策与跨期决策的过程比较:基于眼动研究的证据 (博士学位论文). 中国科学院大学.]
[73] Zhou L., Zhang Y-Y., Li S., &Liang, Z-Y .( 2018). New paradigms for the old question: Challenge the expectation rule held by risky decision-making theories. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 12, e17. doi: 10.1017/prp.2018.4
doi: 10.1017/prp.2018.4
[74] Zhou L., Zhang Y-Y., Wang Z-J., Rao L-L., Wang W., Li S., Li X. S., &Liang Z-Y . ( 2016). A scanpath analysis of the risky decision-making process. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 29( 2-3), 169-182. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1943
doi: 10.1002/bdm.1943 url:
[1] XU Lan,CHEN Quan,CUI Nan,LU Kaili. Enjoy the present or wait for the future? Effects of individuals’ view of time on intertemporal choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2019, 51(1): 96-105.
[2] LI Aimei, WANG Haixia, SUN Hailong, XIONG Guanxing, YANG Shaoli . The nudge effect of “foresight for the future of our children”: Pregnancy and environmental intertemporal choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 858-867.
[3] JIANG Cheng-Ming; LIU Hong-Zhi; CAI Xiao-Hong; LI Shu. A process test of priority models of intertemporal choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(1): 59-72.
[4] LIU Hong-Zhi; JIANG Cheng-Ming; RAO Li-Lin; LI Shu. Discounting or Priority: Which Rule Dominates the Intertemporal Choice Process?[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(4): 522-532.
[5] LI Aimei; PENG Yuan; XIONG Guanxing. Are Pregnant Women More Foresighted? #br# The Effect of Pregnancy on Intertemporal Choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(11): 1360-1370.
[6] CHEN Haixian;HE Guibing. The Effect of Psychological Distance on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(5): 677-690.
[7] JING Wei;FANG Junming;ZHAO Wei. Word Learning with Multiple Cues in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Eye Movements[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(3): 385-395.
[8] SUO Tao;ZHANG Feng;ZHAO Guoxiang;LI Hong. The Influence of Time Perception Difference on Intertemporal Choice[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(2): 165-173.
[9] MA Wen-Juan,SUO Tao,LI Ya-Dan,LUO Li-Zhu,FENG Ting-Yong,LI Hong. Dissecting the Win-Loss Framing Effect of Intertemporal Choice: Researches from Intertemporal Choice of Money-Gain & Loss[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2012, 44(8): 1038-1046.
[10] WANG Zuo-Jun,LI Shu. Tests of the Integrative Model and Priority Heuristic Model from the Point of View of Choice Process: Evidence from an Eye-tracking Study[J]. , 2012, 44(2): 179-198.
[11] HE Wei,LONG Li-Rong. The Effects of Pay System Frame and Performance Appraisal on Individual’s Acceptance of Pay for Performance Plan[J]. , 2011, 43(10): 1198-1210.
[12] CHEN Hai-Xian, HE Gui-Bing. The Effect of Construal Level on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Choice[J]. , 2011, 43(04): 442-452.
[13] ZHANG Wen-Hui,WANG Xiao-Tian. Self-framing, Risk Perception and Risky Choice[J]. , 2008, 40(06): 633-641.
Full text



Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech