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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (12) : 1400-1412     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01400
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Assessing the symptom structure, characteristics, and predictive factors of posttraumatic stress disorder among Shidu parents
SONG Chao1,LI Wanjun2,3,MENG Xiaohui1,XING Yilun1,FU Zhongfang1,WANG Jianping1()
1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education <Beijing Normal University>; Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
2 Jiangsu Food & Pharmaceutical Science College, Huai’an 223003, China;
3 Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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Abstract  

The Chinese culture regards death as a taboo subject that is often avoided in daily conversations. Moreover, the death of a family member is a family affair that is inappropriate to share with others. Thus, the bereavement experience of the Chinese is a particularly mysterious territory that provides limited information. Among all types of bereavement, the death of a child is the most significant stressor that a parent could experience. In particular, an only child’s death is the ultimate trauma that any parent could ever encounter. However, China’s one-child policy, which has been implemented since the late 1970s, has the number of bereft parents who lost their only child to illness, accident, and other causes reaching millions. For shidu parents, the death of their only child may be the most significant source of traumatic stress, coupled with financial difficulties, thereby possibly leading to a state of stress and even severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, research on PTSD symptoms in shidu parents is critical. This study attempts to analyze the symptom characteristics and predictive factors of PTSD in shidu parents.

The study investigated 463 shidu parents (mean age = 60.20 years, SD = 7.58) from March 2017 to December 2017 by using convenience sampling. The subjects completed the Parents Themselves and Their Children’s Basic Information Questionnaire and PTSD Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C). The survey results indicated that (1) the five-factor dysphoric arousal model entailing intrusion, avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal was verified in the sample group of shidu parents. (2) The PTSD prevalence in the sample group was 71.9%. Among them, the incidence of PTSD, intrusion, avoidance, dysphoric arousal, emotional numbing, and anxious arousal increased. Repeated stress events; memory of past events (children), ideas, and the pain; and attempt to avoid stress factor (children’s death events) memory are the symptoms with the highest positive rates. (3) PTSD symptoms are significantly correlated with the duration of the loss and age of the shidu parents. Significant differences in PTSD symptoms were demonstrated in terms gender, home location, and family income status. The variables were incorporated into a regression equation and the three factors (i.e., gender, home location, and age) can be used to predict the PTSD symptoms.

This research has theoretical and practical significance. First, this research enriched the study of PTSD symptom structure by verifying Elhai’s five-factor dysphoric arousal model. Second, this study determined that the three main factors, namely, gender, home location, and age, can be used to predict PTSD symptoms. This finding is beneficial for scholars to study the mechanism for PTSD emergence and development. Lastly, this research will enable the development of effective intervention methods for Chinese shidu PTSD. In the process of psychosocially assisting shidu parents, patients with high risk of PTSD should be screened in five aspects: intrusion, avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal, particularly intrusion and avoidance. Furthermore, shidu patients should be distinguished in terms of age, home location, and gender to be able to implement effective approaches to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD.

Keywords Shidu parents      posttraumatic stress disorder      symptom characteristics      predictive factors     
ZTFLH:  R395  
Issue Date: 30 October 2018
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SONG Chao
LI Wanjun
MENG Xiaohui
XING Yilun
FU Zhongfang
WANG Jianping
Cite this article:   
SONG Chao,LI Wanjun,MENG Xiaohui, et al. Assessing the symptom structure, characteristics, and predictive factors of posttraumatic stress disorder among Shidu parents[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(12): 1400-1412.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01400     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I12/1400
项目 PTSD临床症状 DSM-IV模型 情感麻木模型 精神痛苦模型 精神痛苦性唤起模型
B1 闯入性思维 I I I I
B2 噩梦 I I I I
B3 记忆闪回 I I I I
B4 情绪反应 I I I I
B5 生理反应 I I I I
C1 回避创伤相关想法 A/N A A A
C2 回避提示创伤的线索 A/N A A A
C3 创伤有关的遗忘 A/N N D N
C4 丧失兴趣 A/N N D N
C5 疏远他人 A/N N D N
C6 情感麻木 A/N N D N
C7 无希望感 A/N N D N
D1 睡眠问题 H H D DA
D2 易激惹 H H D DA
D3 注意力问题 H H D DA
D4 过度警觉 H H H AA
D5 过分的惊跳反应 H H H AA
  
变量 人数(百分比) 变量 人数(百分比) 变量 人数(百分比)
与逝者关系 逝者性别 是否预料孩子去世
父子 161 (34.77%) 332 (71.71%) 74 (15.98%)
母子 299 (64.57%) 130 (28.08%) 382 (82.50%)
缺失 3 (0.65%) 缺失 1 (0.22%) 缺失 7 (1.51%)
家庭所在地 教育程度 家庭人均收入
农村 215 (46.44%) 小学及以下 120 (25.92%) 0~999 134 (28.94%)
城市 243 (52.48%) 中学 293 (63.28%) 1000~1999 97 (20.95%)
缺失 5 (0.11%) 本科/大专及以上 35 (7.59%) 2000~2999 149 (32.18%)
缺失 15 (3.20%) 3000及以上 83 (17.93%)
婚姻关系 是否有宗教信仰 是否有孙辈
有伴侣 317 (68.47%) 401 (86.61%) 117 (25.27%)
离异或丧偶 139 (30.02%) 54 (11.66%) 333 (71.92%)
缺失 7 (1.51%) 缺失 8 (1.73%) 缺失 13 (2.81%)
  
模型 χ2 df χ2/df CFI TLI SRMR RMSEA RMSEA (90% CI) BIC
M1 261.517 99 2.642 0.952 0.934 0.052 0.060 0.051~0.068 20912.782
M2 283.645 99 2.865 0.945 0.925 0.054 0.063 0.055~0.072 20934.910
M3 258.369 98 2.636 0.952 0.934 0.052 0.059 0.051~0.068 20915.772
M4 249.972 94 2.659 0.954 0.933 0.051 0.060 0.051~0.069 20931.926
  
题目 I A N DA AA
B1.反复发生令人不安的记忆、想法或形象 0.62
B2.反复发生令人不安的梦境 0.51
B3.压力性事件仿佛再一次发生 0.62
B4.想起压力性事件, 内心就非常痛苦 0.70
B5.想起压力性事件, 身体有反应(如呼吸困难、出汗) 0.59
C1.回避想起压力性事件的感觉或想法 0.60
C2.回避压力性事件的活动、谈话、地点或人物 0.67
C3.忘记了压力事件的重要部分 0.60
C4.对热衷的活动失去兴趣 0.55
C5.感觉与周围的人疏远或隔离 0.55
C6.感觉情感变得麻木 0.49
C7.对将来没有远大的设想 0.50
D1.难以入睡, 或睡眠很浅 0.34
D2.易被激怒或常发怒 0.62
D3.注意力难以集中 0.53
D4.过度警觉或小心 0.68
D5.容易被吓到 0.69
A 0.59**
N 0.63** 0.52**
DA 0.63** 0.53** 0.59**
AA 0.49** 0.41** 0.56** 0.68**
  
维度 症状 筛查阳性者(333) 筛查非阳性者(130)
症状百分比 维度百分比 症状百分比 维度百分比
闯入 B1.反复发生令人不安的记忆、想法或形象 94.6% 77.1% 61.5% 45.5%
B2.反复发生令人不安的梦境 66.4% 26.2%
B3.压力性事件仿佛再一次发生 82.3% 49.2%
B4.想起压力性事件, 内心就非常痛苦 92.8% 77.7%
B5.想起压力性事件, 身体有反应(如呼吸困难、出汗) 49.5% 13.1%
回避 C1.回避想起压力性事件的感觉或想法 87.1% 88.2% 56.2% 60.0%
C2.回避压力性事件的活动、谈话、地点或人物 89.2% 63.8%
情感麻木 C3.忘记了压力事件的重要部分 67.3% 68.4% 43.8% 32.9%
C4.对热衷的活动失去兴趣 69.7% 35.4%
C5.感觉与周围的人疏远或隔离 70.9% 29.2%
C6.感觉情感变得麻木 71.8% 36.9%
C7.对将来没有远大的设想 62.5% 19.2%
精神痛苦性唤起 D1.难以入睡, 或睡眠很浅 83.8% 72.0% 33.8% 28.7%
D2.易被激怒或常发怒 53.5% 20.8%
D3.注意力难以集中 78.7% 31.5%
焦虑性唤起 D4.过度警觉或小心 58.3% 59.8% 10.8% 10.4%
D5.容易被吓到 61.3% 10.0%
  
变量 β t rpartial
被试年龄 -0.11 -2.41* -0.18
性别 0.23 5.35** 0.25
家庭所在地 -0.21 -4.09** -0.20
孩子离世时长 -0.06 -1.32 -0.10
家庭收入 0.03 0.48 0.10
  
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url: 研究点分析
[1] ZHOU Xiao1; WU Xinchun1; YUAN Xiaojiao2; CHEN Jieling1; CHEN Qiuyan2. The Role of Core Beliefs Challenge, Subjective Fear, and Intrusive Rumination in Association Between Severity of Traumatic Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Adolescent Survivors After the Yaan Earthquake[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(4): 455-465.
[2] Wang-Jianping,Wang Yulong,Xie Wei,Yang Zhihui. Effects of Values on the PTSD Symptoms of Deliberate Truama Victims[J]. , 2007, 39(05): 873-879.
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