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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (12) : 1356-1368     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01356
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Cognitive advantage for self-information: Evidence from the orienting network of attention
GAO Hong1,LI Yangzhuo1,HU Die1,ZHU Min2,3,GAO Xiangping1,HU Tianyi1()
1 Department of Psychology, School of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
2 Department of Social Work and Management, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
3 Institute of Social Innovation and Development, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
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Abstract  

The cognitive advantage of self-related information using various stimuli has been established in several studies. To explore the mechanism for this effect, this study examined the attention functions in the process of self-related information. By adopting the Attention Network Test (ANT), this study compared the process of self-related information to that of friend-related information in alerting, orienting and executive control networks.

In Experiment 1, participants were assigned a classic ANT task in which arrow stimuli were replaced by face stimuli. In each trial, a test array consisted of one central target and four flanker stimuli. Participants were instructed to pay attention to the central target and judge whether the image was a self-face or a friend-face. Each test array was preceded by one of four cues, namely centre, double, spatial and none. Results showed that participants had a stable advantage in processing self-face. Specifically, the efficiency of orienting on self-face was significantly larger than on friend-face.

In Experiment 2, a recently developed self-associated learning approach was employed to exclude the possible confounding of face familiarity. The stimuli used in Experiment 2 were geometric shapes that were temporarily associated with self or friend or had no social meaning. The result was consistent with that in Experiment 1. Self-associated shapes displayed advantages on orienting efficiency compared to friend-associated and non-social-meaning shapes. This finding implied that the improvement of orienting network on self-information processing was due to the important meanings in self-information apart from the simple familiarity of self-face.

In Experiment 3, the processing priority of orienting network on self-face no longer existed when the task was to determine the colour of the face. This condition indicated that the cognitive advantage for self-information in orienting network was influenced by task requirements.

In summary, this study found that among the three attention networks, only orienting network displayed a processing priority of self-related information and, therefore, played a more important role in self-processing advantage. Such advantage occurred only when self-information was task-related. By contrast, no special biases on self-related information processing were found in the alerting and executive control networks.

Keywords self-related information      attention network test      alerting      orienting      executive control.     
ZTFLH:  B842  
Issue Date: 30 October 2018
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GAO Hong
LI Yangzhuo
HU Die
ZHU Min
GAO Xiangping
HU Tianyi
Cite this article:   
GAO Hong,LI Yangzhuo,HU Die, et al. Cognitive advantage for self-information: Evidence from the orienting network of attention[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(12): 1356-1368.
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http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01356     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I12/1356
  
侧翼类型 线索类型 自我面孔 朋友面孔
反应时 正确率 反应时 正确率
侧翼一致 无线索 684 ± 59 97.32 ± 3.96 714 ± 65 97.32 ± 6.02
双重线索 636 ± 60 97.62 ± 4.45 677 ± 63 98.21 ± 4.16
中央线索 640 ± 56 96.13 ± 5.77 683 ± 59 98.51 ± 3.25
空间线索 587 ± 62 97.92 ± 4.32 633 ± 61 97.62 ± 4.45
平均值 636 ± 53 97.25 ± 2.60 676 ± 54 97.92 ± 2.78
侧翼冲突 无线索 698 ± 58 91.13 ± 6.20 723 ± 45 97.02 ± 5.18
双重线索 654 ± 65 97.02 ± 4.66 686 ± 60 97.62 ± 4.45
中央线索 670 ± 63 94.94 ± 7.64 698 ± 65 95.83 ± 6.99
空间线索 596 ± 73 98.21 ± 4.12 653 ± 65 98.21 ± 4.16
平均值 654 ± 56 96.80 ± 3.08 690 ± 51 97.17 ± 3.22
  
  
  
侧翼类型 线索类型 自我图形 朋友图形 无社会意义图形
反应时 正确率 反应时 正确率 反应时 正确率
侧翼一致 无线索 613 ± 64 98.33 ± 3.39 627 ± 58 97.50 ± 4.97 647 ± 80 97.22 ± 5.03
双重线索 553 ± 64 98.06 ± 3.58 562 ± 62 97.22 ± 4.55 581 ± 76 96.39 ± 5.66
中央线索 563 ± 62 96.39 ± 4.20 566 ± 67 96.67 ± 4.69 570 ± 76 97.78 ± 6.16
空间线索 526 ± 62 96.67 ± 6.03 549 ± 62 97.50 ± 4.46 572 ± 81 96.95 ± 4.63
平均值 564 ± 58 97.36 ± 3.32 576 ± 59 97.22 ± 3.30 593 ± 71 97.08 ± 4.53
侧翼冲突 无线索 635 ± 71 96.11 ± 6.09 634 ± 58 98.06 ± 4.20 649 ± 68 98.06 ± 3.58
双重线索 574 ± 62 98.33 ± 3.39 587 ± 68 96.94 ± 5.99 602 ± 68 98.61 ± 3.84
中央线索 587 ± 54 98.06 ± 4.20 584 ± 56 97.22 ± 5.93 608 ± 72 97.78 ± 4.86
空间线索 550 ± 59 97.78 ± 4.86 575 ± 61 98.61 ± 3.84 585 ± 68 97.22 ± 5.05
平均值 586 ± 57 97.57 ± 3.33 595 ± 56 97.71 ± 3.60 611 ± 65 97.92 ± 3.37
  
  
  
侧翼类型 线索类型 红色 绿色
反应时 正确率 反应时 正确率
侧翼一致 无线索 664 ± 114 97.92 ± 3.68 674 ± 116 98.26 ± 5.48
双重线索 683 ± 104 98.61 ± 3.17 693 ± 116 98.61 ± 4.01
中央线索 632 ± 117 96.88 ± 5.39 643 ± 123 98.96 ± 2.81
空间线索 695 ± 114 98.96 ± 2.81 702 ± 110 98.61 ±3.17
平均值 678 ± 111 97.66 ± 2.07 669 ± 105 98.35 ± 2.30
侧翼冲突 无线索 656 ± 119 96.53 ± 6.46 678 ± 117 97.92 ± 4.43
双重线索 614 ± 123 97.57 ± 4.58 628 ± 142 98.61 ± 3.17
中央线索 640 ± 122 96.18 ± 5.48 637 ± 125 97.22 ± 5.31
空间线索 630 ± 116 98.96 ± 2.81 650 ± 133 98.96 ± 2.81
平均值 648 ± 124 97.31 ± 2.34 635 ± 116 97.74 ± 2.67
  
  
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