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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (12) : 1336-1345     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01336
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Influence of the frequency of fixated words and the number of strokes of parafoveal words on saccadic target selection in Chinese reading
WANG Yongsheng,ZHAO Bingjie,CHEN Mingjing,LI Xin;,YAN Guoli,BAI Xuejun()
Academy of Psychology and Behaviour, Tianjin Normal University,Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300074, China
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Abstract  

In alphabetic languages, such as English, the spaces between words are one kind of cue of visual word segmentation that guides the reader in selecting the word center as the saccadic target. Previous studies have shown that in English reading, such visual word boundaries can be extracted from parafoveal vision. However, no visual word boundary serves as a saccadic target for selection in Chinese reading. Most recently, several researchers have claimed that Chinese readers adjust their saccade length to accommodate lexical processing, rather than moving their eyes to specific saccadic targets. The properties of fixated words affect the subsequent saccadic target selection. For example, the saccade length is longer for high- than for low-frequency words. Moreover, parafoveal processing also has an important influence on the modulation of saccade length. Some researchers have nonetheless found that the load of fixated word processing modulates the processing of parafoveal words, where readers then adjust the selection of the next saccade target, though several studies have failed to find an interaction between the fixated word and foveal and parafoveal processing.

Given the evidence that the frequency of fixated words and the strokes of parafoveal words significantly influence the upcoming saccade length, in the present study, the frequency of fixated words in foveal processing and the strokes of parafoveal words were manipulated to explore the relationship between foveal processing and parafoveal processing on saccade target selection. If the load of processing of fixated words modulates the processing of the word in parafoveal vision, then we predicted that the effect of parafoveal word strokes from adjusting the current saccade length would be more pronounced when the fixated word is processed in high- rather than in low-frequency foveal processing.

The results showed that participants fixated on low-frequency words for a significantly longer time than for high-frequency words; they fixated on parafoveal words with a low number of strokes for a significantly shorter time than those with a high number of strokes; the saccade length of high-frequency words was longer than that of low-frequency words; the upcoming saccade length in parafoveal vision was significantly longer for words with a low than a high number of strokes; and the location of the initial fixation on words with a low number of strokes was closer to the word centre than with words with a high number of strokes. Unfortunately, we failed to observe significant interactions between these two factors for any eye movement measures used in the present study.

The results indicate that the frequency of fixated word and the number of strokes of parafoveal words independently affect the selection of saccadic targeting in Chinese reading.

Keywords Chinese reading      saccade-target selection      foveal processing      parafoveal processing     
ZTFLH:  B842  
Issue Date: 30 October 2018
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WANG Yongsheng
ZHAO Bingjie
CHEN Mingjing
LI Xin
YAN Guoli
BAI Xuejun
Cite this article:   
WANG Yongsheng,ZHAO Bingjie,CHEN Mingjing, et al. Influence of the frequency of fixated words and the number of strokes of parafoveal words on saccadic target selection in Chinese reading[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(12): 1336-1345.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01336     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I12/1336
目标词 实验操纵 词频 首字笔画数 尾字笔画数 首字字频 尾字字频
中央凹词 高频 405.08 (458.04) 7.76 (2.71) 7.47 (2.69) 2208.96 (3995.05) 2866.28 (3561.96)
低频 7.64 (7.19) 8.21 (3.16) 7.29 (2.76) 835.42 (2263.10) 1203.60 (1772.83)
副中央凹词 多笔画数词 21.05 (46.99) 13.38 (1.57) 13.59 (1.77) 380.16 (991.66) 1256.01 (144.07)
少笔画数词 21.23 (46.06) 5.24 (1.16) 5.45 (1.67) 780.85 (2233.47) 1226.78 (140.72)
  
中央凹
注视词
副中央
凹词
句子
高频 多笔画 摄影师总是能记录温馨生活中最动情的瞬间
少笔画 摄影师总是能记录平凡生活中最动情的瞬间
低频 多笔画 摄影师总是能发觉温馨生活中最动情的瞬间
少笔画 摄影师总是能发觉平凡生活中最动情的瞬间
  
分析指标 中央凹注视词高频 中央凹注视词低频
副中央凹词多笔画 副中央凹词少笔画 副中央凹词多笔画 副中央凹词少笔画
起跳位置 0.91 (0.55) 0.91 (0.53) 0.90 (0.54) 0.88 (0.52)
中央凹词到副中央凹词眼跳长度 1.93 (0.53) 2.00 (0.50) 1.89 (0.51) 1.90 (0.55)
中央凹词向前眼跳长度 2.03 (0.61) 2.18 (0.67) 1.98 (0.60) 2.10 (0.75)
平均首次注视位置 0.95 (0.50) 1.02 (0.53) 0.94 (0.51) 0.95 (0.55)
单次注视位置 1.04 (0.45) 1.09 (0.49) 1.02 (0.48) 1.06 (0.50)
多次注视中的首次注视位置 0.63 (0.52) 0.68 (0.55) 0.63 (0.49) 0.54 (0.50)
  
分析指标 截距 词频 笔画数 交互作用
起跳位置 0.907*** -0.018 -0.007 -0.018
中央凹词到副中央凹词眼跳长度 0.650*** -0.037** 0.029* -0.026
中央凹词向前眼跳长度 0.701*** -0.034* 0.055** -0.023
平均首次注视位置 0.991*** -0.035 0.046§ -0.042
单次注视位置 1.064*** -0.014 0.051§ -0.008
多次注视中的首次注视位置 0.677*** -0.078§ -0.044 -0.108
  
目标词 分析指标 中央凹注视词高频 中央凹注视词低频
副中央凹词多笔画 副中央凹词少笔画 副中央凹词多笔画 副中央凹词少笔画
中央凹词注视时间 首次注视时间 229 (73) 239 (81) 246 (83) 249 (82)
凝视时间 268 (119) 268 (120) 291 (132) 306 (146)
单一注视时间 228 (72) 236 (79) 244 (82) 249 (83)
总注视时间 383 (227) 401 (237) 449 (266) 464 (275)
跳读率 0.08 (0.26) 0.09 (0.27) 0.08 (0.27) 0.08 (0.27)
副中央凹词注视时间 首次注视时间 252 (85) 251 (89) 261 (88) 251 (84)
凝视时间 305 (136) 295 (135) 311 (136) 300 (134)
单一注视时间 256 (86) 251 (89) 264 (88) 251 (84)
总注视时间 462 (287) 431 (270) 486 (278) 456 (276)
跳读率 0.05 (0.21) 0.08 (0.26) 0.05 (0.21) 0.09 (0.28)
  
目标词 分析指标 截距 词频 笔画数 交互作用
中央凹词分析 首次注视时间 5.431*** 0.053*** 0.024* -0.02
凝视时间 5.547*** 0.095*** 0.023 0.038
单一注视时间 5.429*** 0.052*** 0.025§ -0.008
总注视时间 5.879*** 0.139*** 0.038§ -0.012
跳读率 -2.842*** 0.059 0.135 -0.143
副中央凹词分析 首次注视时间 5.486*** 0.018 -0.027§ -0.021
凝视时间 5.615*** 0.022 -0.047* 0.001
单一注视时间 5.491*** 0.019 -0.039* -0.022
总注视时间 5.960*** 0.066** -0.077** -0.007
跳读率 -3.128*** 0.132 0.610*** 0.184
  
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