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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (11) : 1282-1291     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01282
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The role of surface and structural similarity in analogical reasoning aging: Based on the problem-solving paradigm
Meijia LI1,Danqi ZHUANG2,1,Huamao PENG1()
1 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2 Qianjin Network Information Technology (Shanghai) Co., LTD. Beijing branch, Beijing 100016, China
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Abstract  

Analogical reasoning is a major form of abstract logical thinking. It refers to the transferring process of knowledge from one situation or field to another. To transfer successfully when facing new problems, it is important for the elderly to retrieve the appropriate sources of knowledge as quickly as possible. Additionally, the elderly rich in life experience are supposed to be the embodiment of wisdom, which is also helpful. Previous research about the elderly’s analogical reasoning mainly focused on the encoding stage, and, in most cases, the task paradigm was rigorous laboratory study. The task paradigm may have generated outcomes against participants’ reactions in natural settings, causing reduced ecological validity and inability to present their real competence. The present study was based on the problem-solving paradigm rather than a laboratory-based experiment. We aimed to figure out whether the elderly retrograde in the retrieval of source problems and whether there exist age differences in the usage of surface information and structural information. The encoding quality between the old and young participants was ensured to be identical.

Twenty-nine young adults (age: M = 21.86, SD = 1.43) and thirty-two old adults (age: M = 69.09, SD = 5.11) participated in the experiment. This study used a mixed design in which age group (old/young) was a between- subjects variable and surface similarity (high/low) and structural similarity (high/low) were within-subjects variables. There were two phases included in the whole procedure. During the learning phase, participants learnt twenty source stories and summarized the higher-order relation of each. Three days later, twenty other target stories were presented in which participants were to figure out how to solve the problems with the hints they recalled from the source stories learnt three days ago. The performance of reasoning (quality of solving the target problem according to the source problem) and retrieving (quantity of surface and structural information retrieved) were the dependent variables.

The results showed that the elderly experienced analogical reasoning aging. To be specific, they relied more on the surface feature similarity than did the younger adults. As for surface and structural information, the more the information was provided, the better was their reasoning. It was beneficial to both age groups in reasoning when the surface and structural similarity increased, which indicated that the reasoning of the elderly and young people could benefit from better retrieval to the source problems. As for interaction effect, for the elderly in lack of surface information, increasing structural similarity would not enhance their reasoning quality. When there was enough surface and structural information, they performed the best. It implied that the elderly could benefit from structural similarity only on the condition that enough surface information was given. When retrieving information from source problems, surface feature exerted an across-information-type promotion effect on retrieval quality. However, the increase in structural information could only help the elderly to improve their retrieval in structural information. As for the younger adults, structural features and surface features were conducive to their retrieval of homogeneous information. With regard to the relation between retrieval quality and reasoning performance, the correlation was significant in both age groups. It enlightened us that people who cannot reason correctly were probably poor in retrieval.

To improve the performance of the elderly in analogical reasoning, we can increase the transmission of surface features, such as designing mobile phone apps with similar interfaces, which can reduce their learning cost. Further studies should focus on designing more realistic contexts as well as delving into the process of how far transfer of learning happens.

Keywords analogical reasoning      transfer      problem solving paradigm      surface similarity      structural similarity     
ZTFLH:  B844  
Corresponding Authors: Huamao PENG     E-mail: penghuamao@bnu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 25 September 2018
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Meijia LI
Danqi ZHUANG
Huamao PENG
Cite this article:   
Meijia LI,Danqi ZHUANG,Huamao PENG. The role of surface and structural similarity in analogical reasoning aging: Based on the problem-solving paradigm[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(11): 1282-1291.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01282     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I11/1282
问题 内容
源问题 李老头是个樵夫, 他正推了一车的柴下山。正好他有些渴了, 就停下来休息, 掏出随身携带的水壶准备喝水。不料这时柴车着火了, 火势凶猛。周围没有水源, 李老头情急之下赶紧把水壶中的水泼在柴车上。但由于水太少了, 火势依旧凶猛。他只能眼看着自己的柴车被大火烧尽了。
靶问题 结构信息相似性
F1 F3
表面
信息相似性
E1
老张是个面朝黄土背朝天的农民, 这天他买了一车的冰糖准备运回家。
老张有些热了, 就停下来休息, 拿出一些冰块。
不料这时围上来一群孩子, 偷偷的拿冰糖吃。
手里也没有其他的东西, 老张情急之下赶紧把手中的冰块倒在孩子身上, 想赶走他们。
________________________。
农民老张只能眼看着车里的冰糖全被孩子吃光了。
老张是个面朝黄土背朝天的农民, 这天他买了一车的冰糖准备运回家。
老张有些热了, 就停下来休息, 拿出一些冰块。
不料天气太热, 老张发现冰糖正在被太阳晒化。
离树荫太远了, 老张情急之下赶紧把手中的冰块倒在冰糖上。
________________________。
老张只能眼看着车里的冰糖全被太阳晒化了。
E3 老张是个面朝黄土背朝天的农民, 这天他摘了一车的草准备运回家喂牲口。
老张有些饿了, 就停下来休息, 拿出一碗汤。
不料这时一群兔子围拢上来, 偷吃他摘的草。
手里也没有其他的东西, 老张情急之下赶紧把手中的汤洒在手上喂兔子。
_______________________。
老张只能眼看着车里的草全被吃光了。
老张是个面朝黄土背朝天的农民, 这天他摘了一车的草准备运回家喂牲口。
老张有些饿了, 就停下来休息, 拿出一碗汤。
不料天气太热, 老张发现草正在被烤焦, 发出刺鼻的味道。
离小溪太远了, 老张情急之下赶紧把手中的汤洒在草上。
________________________。
老张只能眼看着车里的草全被烤干了。
  
相似性情况 类比推理故事
源问题 E3F3 E1F3 E3F1 E1F1
樵夫 农民 农民 农民 农民
表面信息 (冰糖) (冰糖)
(冰块) (冰块)
着火 烤焦 晒化 (偷吃) (偷吃)
结构信息
烧尽 烤干 晒化 (吃光) (吃光)
  
组别 表面信息
相似性
结构信息相似性 总分
F1 F3
E1 0.28 ± 0.46 0.76 ± 0.44 0.52 ± 0.28
年轻组 E3 0.69 ± 0.47 0.76 ± 0.44 0.72 ± 0.39
总分 0.48 ± 0.28 0.76 ± 0.37 0.62 ± 0.28
E1 0.22 ± 0.42 0.31 ± 0.47 0.27 ± 0.28
老年组 E3 0.38 ± 0.49 0.59 ± 0.50 0.48 ± 0.35
总分 0.30 ± 0.31 0.45 ± 0.37 0.38 ± 0.25
  
  
组别 信息
类型
表面信息 结构信息
相似性 F1 F3 F1 F3
年轻组 E1 1.21 ± 1.15 1.21 ± 1.01 0.93 ± 1.10 1.34 ± 1.05
E3 1.69 ± 1.17 1.83 ± 0.89 1.07 ± 1.03 2.17 ± 0.89
老年组 E1 0.09 ± 0.39 0.44 ± 0.91 0.13 ± 0.42 0.44 ± 0.91
E3 0.59 ± 0.98 0.59 ± 0.80 0.53 ± 0.92 0.91 ± 1.09
  
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